ADAMS FAMILY

1.    Mary1 Adams, born say 1660, was listed in the inventory of the Honorable William Calvert, Esquire, of St. Mary's County on 13 July 1682:

Mary Adams Marryed to a Negro - 13 pounds

William a Negro about 30 years old - 30 pounds

Adam a Negro about 21 years old - 30 pounds

.....

Jno a Mallato boy 2 years old - 8 pounds [Prerogative Court (Inventories and Accounts) MSA SM 13-11, 1782, 7c:206-14].

The family was living in the household of John Manning when they were listed in the inventory of his St. Mary's County estate in 1716:

1 negro man Called Adam - 14 pounds

1 malato man Called Thos Adam - 30 pounds

1 malato man Called John Adam 30 pounds

[Prerogative Court Inventories and Accounts, MSA SM 13-56, 1715-16, 36c:219-222].

And they were listed in the inventory of the St. Mary's County estate of Mr. Cornelius Manning on 14 October 1721:

Home Plantation

1 Molatto Man called Jack Adams & what is his - 35 pounds

1 Ditto called Jackey Boy & what is his - 35 pounds

1 Old negro man called Adam at 14 pounds

There was also a "Mallatto slave named Richard Adams about 40 years old" on 25 February 1722/3 when he was listed in the Charles County estate of Mr. Richard Lewellin [Inventories and Accounts, SM 11-8, 1722-3, 135]. Mary (and Adam?) were apparently the parents of

i. John1, born about 1680, two years old when he was listed in the estate of William Calvert, valued at 30 pounds when he was listed in John Manning's estate in 1716, valued at 35 pounds in the estate of Mr. Cornelius Manning on 14 October 1721.

ii. Thomas, born say 1683, a "malato" valued at 30 pounds in the inventory of John Manning's estate in 1716.

 

A Maryland law of 1664 made slaves of white women who married slaves, but after the marriage of Eleanor Butler to William Boarman's slave Charles in neighboring Charles County in August 1681, the law was repealed the following month if the marriage was sanctioned by the master. Few of St. Mary's County's colonial court records have survived, so it is not possible to determine how the family bacame free, but Mary Adams (and Adam?) were apparently the ancestors of the following free members of the Adams family:

i. Sarah, born say 1733, presented by the Charles County court in November 1753 for having a "Mollatto" child [Court Record 1753-4, 166].

ii. Jacob1, head of a Washington County household of 10 "other free" in 1790.

iii. Ann1, "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 7 "other free" in 1790.

iv. Ann2, "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 6 "other free" in 1790.

2        v. James1, born say 1760.

vi. Joseph, head of a St. Mary's County household of 8 "other free" in 1790.

3        vii. John2, born say 1760.

4        viii. Hannah, born say 1760.

5        ix. John3, born say 1761.

x. Phoeby, head of a St. Mary's County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 and 5 in 1800 [MD:406].

xi. Jenny1, head of a St. Mary's County household of 3 "other free" in 1790, perhaps the Jenny Adams who was head of a Charles County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:561].

xii. Jane2, head of a Charles County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:541] and 6 in 1810 (called Jane, Jr.) [MD:304].

xiii. Jacob2, head of a Dorchester County household of 4 "other free" and a slave in 1800 [MD:649].

6        xiv. Samuel, born say 1762.

7        xv. Adam, born about 1763

xvi. James2, born about 1769, head of a St. Mary's County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 and 6 in 1800 [MD:402], obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 15 July 1812: aged forty three years or thereabouts ... complexion black - hair Short & Curly ... born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 18].

xvii. Henry, head of a St. Mary's County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [MD:177].

xviii. Joseph, born about 1792, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 1 June 1812: aged twenty years or thereabouts ... Complexion black - hair short and Curley ... born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 17].

xix. William, born about 1783, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 21 June 1815: aged thirty two years or thereabouts ... Dark Complexion ... born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 32].

 

2.    James1 Adams, born say 1760, was head of a St. Mary's County household of 4 "other free" in 1790, 6 in 1800 [MD:412] and 3 in 1810 [MD:176]. He was the father of

i. Charles, born about 1782, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 16 June 1821: son of James Adams ... about twenty nine years, of a yellow complexion ... born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 57].

 

3.    John2 Adams, born say 1760, was a "free Negro" head of a Prince George County household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [MD:268] and 8 in 1810 (called J.B. Adams) [MD:22]. He may have been one of four "Black Persons being Soldiers (of the Maryland Line), VIZT. Thomas Thompson, Leonard Turner, Valentine Murrin, and John Adams," who were arrested by the local authorities in Orange County, North Carolina, in December 1780 for breaking into someone's house. They were forcibly rescued by the Continental Army [Orange County Court Minutes 1777-8, Part I, Dec. 19 and 23, 1780, cited by Crow, The Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 68]. He may have been the father of

i. Maria B., born about 1788, married Nathan D. Hale/ Hall. She obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 26 February 1813: Maria B. Hall, formerly Maria B. Adams, is a bright mulatto woman, about 25 years old, and 4 feet 10 inches tall. She was raised in the town of Piscataway in Prince George's County until she married Nathan D. Hale, her present husband. She was born free.

ii. George Clinton, born about 1796, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 15 October 1827: a dark mulatto man, about 31 years old, and 5 feet 9-1/2 inches tall ... born free in Prince George's County [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 14, 71].

 

4.    Hannah Adams, born say 1760, was head of a Baltimore City household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:125]. She may have been the mother of

i. James3, married Agnes Butler, "both Negroes," by banns on 21 December 1800 [Piet, Catholic Church Records in Baltimore, 126].

 

5.    John3 Adams, born say 1761, was a "free Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:523]. He was a "coloured man" who had a daughter named Elizabeth Ann Adams by Sally Gary, a white woman, according to testimony by Thomas G. Slye for Elizabeth Ann's certificate of freedom in Washington, D.C. on 23 October 1827. Slye also testified that Polly Carter, late Polly Adams, and Eleanor Davis, late Eleanor Adams, were born free and were his father's servants in Charles County for many years [Provine, District of Columbia Free Negro Registers, 99]. John was the father of

i. Elizabeth Ann.

ii. ?Polly Carter.

iii. ?Eleanor Davis.

 

6.    Samuel Adams, born say 1762, was head of a Talbot County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 and 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:522]. He may have been the father of

i. Deborah, born about 1791, obtained a certificate of freedom in Talbot County on 27 May 1819: a dark mulatto woman ... about 28 years of age, 5 feet high ... born free and raised in the County [Certificates of Freedom 1815-28, 121].

 

7.   Adam Adams, born about 1763, a "free black citizen of Charles County," enlisted May 1777 in Captain Henry Gaither's Company of the 1st Maryland Regiment commanded by General William Smallwood. He received his discharge in November 1783. He was head of a Charles County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 and 2 in 1800 [MD:551] and 8 "free colored" in 1830. He made a declaration in the First Judicial District Court in Charles County on 28 March 1818 and 5 June 1820 to obtain a pension. He was living at the time with his wife Ann and six children: Pamelia, Eleanor, John, Robert, Richard, and Lydia. He received a pension and 50 acres of bounty land for his service [National Archives file S34623, http://www.fold3.com]. He was the father of

i. Pamelia.

ii. Eleanor.

iii. John4.

iv. Robert.

v. Richard.

vi. Lydia.

 

Another member of the family was

i. John, head of a Richmond County, Virginia household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:411]. He was probably identical to "John Adams of Maryland a free Negro, by Trade a Ditcher" who sued Richard Sherdock, "a free Mulatto," in Lancaster County, Virginia, on 20 December 1776 for assaulting him [Court Papers 1770-1780, n.p.].

 

ALDRIDGE FAMILY

1.    Jane Eldridge, born say 1733, a white woman, was called "Jane Eldrick" and was the servant of Thomas Marsh of Christ Church Parish in November 1749 when the Queen Anne's County court convicted her of having a "Mulatto" child by a "Negro." The court sold her son Nicholas to Elinor Murphy until the age of thirty-one and called her "Jane Eldridge" when it sold her to Captain Thomas Marsh on 26 March 1754 [Judgments 1749, 260, 263; 1752-4, image 556 of 948]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Thomas Aldridge, head of a Talbot County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 and 5 "other free" and a slave in 1800 [MD:509].

ii. Fredus Aldridge, sued in Queen Anne's County court for assault by James Roberts in March 1770 [Surles, and they Appeared in Court, 1770-1772, 8]. He was head of an Elk Neck, Cecil County household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

iii. John Aldridge, head of a Talbot County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 and 8 in Dorchester County in 1800 [MD:673].

iv. Thomas Aldridge, head of a Talbot County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:529].

 

ALLEN FAMILY

1.    Hannah1 Allen, born say 1730, the "Mollattto" servant of Joshua Clark, confessed in Prince George's County Court to the charge of "Mollatto Bastardy" on four occasions. She was ordered to serve her master an additional seven years for each offense, and her children were bound to her master until the age of thirty-one. Her children were Ignatius (five weeks old on 25 June 1751), Jane (born before 27 November 1753), Frank (six months old on 23 March 1757), and Hannah (three months old on 27 June 1758) [Court Record 1751-4, 71, 512; 1754-8, 411, 412, 636].

Her grandson, Nathaniel Allen, was bound apprentice to Richard Higgins in 1772 until the age of thirty-one. In November 1794 when he had passed the age of twenty-one, he petitioned the Anne Arundel County Court for freedom from his indenture, saying that he was the great-grandson of a white woman who had a child named Hannah Allen by a Negro. Hannah, in turn, had a child named Jane Allen who had Nathaniel by a Negro. Nathaniel was bound to Richard Higgins under a law passed in 1728 which ruled that the children of free Mulatto women and Negro slaves were to be bound until the age of thirty-one. Nathaniel's lawyer argued that Jane Allen should not have been considered a free Mulatto since she was the daughter of Mulatto, not a white woman. Nathaniel lost his case in the General Court and had to serve the full thirty-one years [Cases in the General Court and Court of Appeals of Maryland, 504]. Hannah was the mother of

i. Ignatius, born in May 1751, head of a Prince George's County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 and 5 in 1800 [MD:304].

2        ii. Jane, born in 1753.

3        iii. ?Mima1, born say 1754.

iv. Frank, born about September 1756, a "free negro" head of a Prince George's County, Maryland household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:304].

v. Hannah2, born March 1757.

 

2.    Jane Allen, born in 1753, was living in Prince George's County in August 1772 when the court ordered her to serve an additional seven years of her indenture for having an illegitimate child "by a negro" and bound her son Nathaniel to serve Richard Higgins for thirty-one years [Court Record 1771-3, 186]. Her son was

i. Nathaniel1, born about March 1772, petitioned for his freedom in Anne Arundel County Court in September 1794 [Cases in the General Court and Court of Appeals of Maryland, 504]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County Court on 11 September 1810: a black man about 39 years old ... raised by Richard Higgins of Anne Arundel County and was born free according to the records of that County Court [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 7].

 

3.    Mima1 Allen, born say 1754, "a free mulatto woman" of Prince George's County, was the mother of

4        i. Henny, born about 1774.

ii. Mima2, born about 1789, registered in Prince George's County on 2 December 1812: a dark mulatto, nearly black woman, about 23 years old, and 5 feet tall. She has thick lips, a fleshy face, a flat nose, and short wooly hair. She was raised in Prince George's County in the family of Daniel Clarke near Queen Anne and is a free woman, being the daughter of Mima Allen. Her son Charles Allen registered on 23 June 1818: a Negro boy, tolerably black, who is about 8 years old ... son of Mima Allen.

 

4.    Henny Allen, born about 1774, registered as a "free Negro" in Prince George's County, Maryland, on 4 April 1812: a mulatto woman, about 38 years old, and 4 feet 11 inches tall ... rather flat nose, and thick lips. She was raised in Prince George's County in the family of Daniel Clarke near Queen Anne. She is the daughter of Mima Allen, a free mulatto woman. Henny was the mother of

i. Hannah3, born about 1795, registered in Prince George's County on 4 April 1812: a dark mulatto woman, about 17 years old, and 5 feet 10 inches tall ... flat nose, thick lips and a broad face ... born in Prince George's County in the family of Daniel Clarke near Queen Anne ... daughter of Henny Allen a free mulatto woman who was born free.

ii. Nelly, born about 1797, registered in Prince George's County on 2 October 1812: about 15 years old, 4 feet 6-1/2 inches tall, and has a yellowish complexion ... has woolly hair, a flat nose, full eyes, and good teeth ... daughter of Henny Allen, a free woman [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 10, 13, 25].

 

Other members of the Allen family were

i. John, "free negro" head of a Prince George's County, Maryland household of 9 "other free" in 1800 [MD:299].

ii. James, "free negro" head of a Prince George's County, Maryland household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:302].

iii. Nathan2, born about 1786, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 30 January 1816: aged about thirty years ... brown complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 75].

iv. Rachel, born about 1788, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 6 August 1807: aged nineteen years ... yellowish complexion ... raised in Anne Arundel County [Certificates of Freedom 1806-7, 44].

 

Another Allen family:

i. William, charged by constable Francis Duling in Talbot County court with failing to list his wife Margaret as a taxable person. The court's attorney declined to prosecute [Criminal Record 1755-61, 242-3].

 

ANDERSON FAMILY

1.    Mary Anderson, born say 1716, the "Molatto" servant of Doctor Alexander Adair of Saint Paul's Parish, confessed to the Kent County, Maryland Court on 14 November 1738 that she had two illegitimate children. The court bound her daughter Rachel to her master [Criminal Proceedings 1738-9, 36, 84-6]. She was the ancestor of

i. Rachel1, born about 1738, a "Free Molatto" spinster who confessed to the Kent County Court that she had a child on 28 January 1759 by a "Negroe" man. In March 1759 the court sold her to Joseph Nicholson for seven years [Criminal Proceedings 1748-60, 219]. She was head of a Queen Anne's County household of 6 "other free" in 1790.

ii. ?Joseph, "Negro" head of a Kent County household of 7 "other free" and a slave in 1790 and 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:157].

iii. ?Susannah, head of an Octararo, Cecil County household of 4 "other free" in 1790.

iv. ?George, "Negro" head of a Kent County household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

v. ?James, head of a Cecil County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:575].

2        vi. ?Mary, born say 1750.

vii. ?Hannah, a "free Negroe" living in Kent County on 21 June 1780 when the court ordered her and John Fitzgerald to appear at the next court to testify on behalf of Negro Cesar's petition that he had completed his indenture to Robert Roberts but was still being held as a servant [Court Minutes 1774-1782, n.p.].

3        viii. ?Thomas, born say 1760.

ix. ?Stephen, head of a Cecil County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:247].

4        x. ?Ned, born say 1770.

xi. Mary, a "Free Mulatto" indicted by the Kent County, Delaware court in May 1792 [RG 3805.002, 1787-1803, frame 176].

xii. ?Nathan1, head of a St. Jones Hundred, Kent County, Delaware household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [DE:48].

xiii. ?Nathan2, head of a St. Jones Hundred, Kent County, Delaware household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [DE:46].

xiv. ?Risdon, head of a New Castle County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [DE:68].

xv. ?John1, head of a "Coloured" New Castle County household of 9 "free colored" in 1810 [DE:242].

xvi. ?John2, head of a "Coloured" New Castle County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [DE:242].

 

2.    Mary Anderson, born say 1750, had an illegitimate child named Risdon Anderson in Queen Anne's County by George Dias before March 1770 [Surles, And They Appeared at Court, 1777-2, 5, 40]. She was a "mulatto" who confessed to the Queen Anne's County court in March 1774 that she had an illegitimate child by a Negro slave [Judgments 1771-80, 144-5]. She was head of a Kent County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:157]. She was the mother of

i. Risdon, head of a New Castle County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [DE:68].

ii. ?George, "Negro" head of a Kent County household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

 

3.    Thomas Anderson, born say 1760, was head of a Talbot County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 and 5 in 1800 [MD:522]. He may have been the father of

i. Rachel2, born about 1783, obtained a certificate of freedom in Talbot County on 26 August 1817: a black woman ... about 34 years of age, 5 feet 4 Inches high ... born free & raised in the County [Certificates of Freedom 1814-28, 68].

 

4.    Ned Anderson, born say 1770, and his wife, Lady, were the parents of a "mulatto" girl named "Sale," born in Bohemia, who was baptized by a priest from the Jesuit Mission, Old Bohemia, Warwick, Cecil County, Maryland, on 14 September 1796. He may have been identical to Edward Anderson who was head of a New Castle County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [DE:68]. Ned and Lady were the parents of

i. Sally, born about March 1795, a 16 month old "mulatto" child baptized 14 September 1796 [Wright, Vital Records of the Jesuit Missions, 1760-1800, 43].

 

Another Anderson family:

1.    Christian Anderson, born say 1738, was the indentured servant of Robert Horner of Charles County on 6 January 1756 when she delivered a "Molatto" male child which was begotten "by a Negroe." She denied the charge but was convicted in Charles County Court in March 1757. The court bound her son Hensey Anderson until the age of thirty-one [Court Record 1760-2, 465-6]. She was the mother of

i. Hensey, born about 1757, probably identical to Hendley Anderson, "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

ii. ?Caesar, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 5 "other free" in 1790.

iii. ?Yroek, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 3 "other free" in 1790.

 

ANNIS FAMILY

1.    Eliza Hannis, born say 1692, had a child by "Negro Cesar," the servant of John Menekin, before August 1712 when Menekin was ordered to bring him before the Anne Arundel County Court [Judgment Record 1712-15, 6]. Eliza and Caesar may have been the ancestors of

2        i. "Mulatto Sue," born say 1730.

 

2.    "Mulatto Sue," born say 1730, was the mother of a five-year-old boy named Jonathan Annis who was bound by the Anne Arundel County Court to Charles Frissel on 13 August 1751 until the age of twenty-one [Judgment Record 1751-4, 85]. She was the mother of

i. Jonathan, born March 1746/7. He may have been identical to John Annis who was married to Sarah when their daughter Mary was born on 9 May 1774 and baptized "a few days after" in St. Anne's Parish, Anne Arundel County [Wright, Anne Arundel County Church Records, 105].

ii. ?Peggy, head of a Baltimore County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [MD:452].

 

ANTHONY FAMILY

Members of the Anthony family in Maryland were

i. John, head of a Baltimore City household of 14 "other free" in 1800 [MD:125].

ii. George, a "free Negro" taxable in 4th District, Kent County in 1783 [MSA S1161-7-4, p.4].

iii. Samuel, head of a Baltimore City household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:126].

iv. James, married Magdalen Pindare, "French free Negroes from St. Domingo," 8 February 1796 at St. Peter's Church in Baltimore. Their one month old daughter Mary Joseph was baptized there on 15 December 1799 [Piet, Catholic Church Records in Baltimore, 4, 126].

 

 

ARMSTRONG FAMILY

Members of the Armstrong family in Maryland were

i. Bayham, head of a Worcester County household of 5 "other free" in 1790.

ii. Rachel, head of a Talbot County household of 6 "other free" and a white woman in 1800 [MD:517].

1        iii. Jacob, born say 1760.

iv. Rachel, head of a Talbot County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:517].

v. Nanny, "Negro" head of a Worcester County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:735].

vi. Rhoda, head of a Worcester County household of 10 "other free" in 1800 [MD:832].

vii. Stephen, head of a Worcester County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [MD:589].

viii. George, born before 1776, head of a Worcester County household of 5 "free colored" in 1830.

ix. Peggy, born before 1776, head of a Worcester County household of 3 "free colored" in 1830.

 

1.    Jacob Armstrong, born say 1760, made a Worcester County deed of manumission to his daughter Lycia Armstrong, born of his wife Comfort, a slave to William Selby, on 26 April 1787 [DB M:173]. He was head of a Worcester County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:832] and 6 "other free" and 5 slaves in 1810 [MD:636]. He was the father of

i. Lycia.

 

Delaware

1.    Jacob Armstrong, born say, 1750, was taxable in Kent County, from 1773 to 1785: taxable in Murderkill Hundred from 1773 to 1776, called a "F. Nego" in Duck Creek in 1779, listed as a "Free Negro" in Dover Hundred in 1782, a "N." in Duck Creek Hundred in 1783, a "free Negro" in Dover Hundred in 1785 [RG 3535, Kent County Levy List, 1768-84, frames 187, 224, 281, 370, 373, 439, 527, 540, 544, 568, 571, 580, 604; 1785-97, frame 3]. He may have been the father of

i. Joseph, "N." head of a Duck Creek Hundred household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [DE:13].

ii. James, a "Negro" paid a 3 pound fine to the Kent County court in August 1791 for having an illegitimate child by Hannah Danach [RG 3805.002, 1787-1803, frame 157, 159, 164, 173]. James was a "N." head of a Duck Creek Hundred household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [DE:11]. Hannah was head of a Duck Creek Hundred household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:51].

 

ARMWOOD FAMILY

1.    Jemima Armwood, born say 1740, was taxable in John Tull's Pocomoke Hundred, Somerset County household in 1757 [List of Taxables]. She was prosecuted in Somerset County, Maryland Court in 1759 for having an illegitimate child by a "negro slave" [Judicial Records 1757-61, 236]. She (or perhaps a daughter by the same name) was a "Negro" head of a Worcester County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:733]. She was probably the mother of

i. James, head of a Worcester County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:762] and 7 in 1810 [MD:612] and 5 "free colored" in 1830.

2        ii. Daniel, born say 1765.

Waify, born before 1776, head of a Worcester County household of 8 "free colored" in 1830.

 

2.  Daniel Armwood, born say 1765, was head of a Worcester County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:796] and 11 "free colored" in 1830. He was apparently married to a slave as he made a deed of manumission to his children and grandchildren on 4 September 1823. He sold a horse, carriage, harness, cart and six hogs to John Dennis in Worcester County for $100 on 20 April 1832 [DB AP:189-190; AY:61]. His children were

i. Easter, born about 1797, and her children Zeppa, John, Levi, Ann, Patience and Mill.

ii. Nancy, born about 1797.

iii. Patience, born about 1798,

iv. Nelly, born about 1802, and her children Henry and Elisa.

v. Sally, born about 1802.

 

ATKINS FAMILY

1.    Eleanor Atkins, born say 1677, was the servant of James Neale on 9 March 1696/7 when she was presented by the Charles County Court for having a "Molattoe" child. She did not appear for her presentment because she was pregnant with a second child which she delivered before 8 March 1697/8. The court ordered that she receive twenty-four lashes [Court Records 1696-1701, 162, 280, 306, 334, 376]. She was probably the mother of

i. Martha, born say 1697, presented by the Charles County Court on 8 November 1726 for having a "Mallatto" child. She confessed to the charge, and the court sold her for seven years and sold her child to Major Robert Hanson until the age of thirty-one [Court Record 1725-7, 409, 494].

 

They may have been the ancestors of

i. Will, head of Cecil County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:249].

ii. Boah, head of a Sussex County, Delaware household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:389].

iii. Milly, head of an Essex County, Virginia household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:208].

iv. Frank, head of a Free Town, Brunswick County, Virginia household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:770].

 

ATLOW FAMILY

1.    Priscilla Atlow, born say 1750, was head of a Frederick County household of 7 "other free" in 1790. She was probably the mother of

i. George, born about 1770, obtained a certificate in Frederick County on 6 February 1822: aged about fifty two years five feet eight and a half inches high ... dark Mullatto ... free born as appears by the affidavit of Jacob Hoff [Certificates of Freedom 1806-27, 126].

 

BAKER FAMILY

1.    Anthony Baker, born say 1695, was a "Molatto Man" living in Kent County, Maryland, on 10 October 1719 when the court found Josiah Crouch innocent of having a child by his wife Elizabeth Baker [Proceedings, 1718-20, 510-11]. He may have been the ancestor of

i. John, head of a Kent County, Maryland household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:146], head of a Dover Hundred, Kent County, Delaware household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:40].

 

BANKS FAMILY

1.    Katherine Banks, born say 1705, was the servant of William Ellis on 21 June 1726 when she confessed in Kent County, Maryland Court that she had an illegitimate child by Caleb Hews, a "free Negroe" [Criminal Record 1724-8, 183, 222-5]. She was probably the ancestor of

i. Matthew, head of a Baltimore City household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:144]

ii. Ann, head of a Dorchester County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:701].

iii. Elisha, head of a Dorchester County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:726].

2        iv. Henry, born say 1770.

v. William, born before 1776, head of a Dorchester County household of 4 "free colored" in in 1830.

vi. Sinah, born say 1780, mother of Charlotte Banks who obtained a certificate of freedom in Dorchester County on 17 May 1832: light chesnut colour ... born free ... daughter of Sinah also born free, about 31 years of age [Certificates of Freedom for Negroes 1806-64, 83].

 

2.    Henry Banks, born say 1770, and his wife Rachel, "people of color," baptized their daughter Peggy in St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore. Their daughter was

i. Peggy, born about 1793, nine years old when she was baptized on 9 May 1802 [Reamy, Records of St. Paul's Parish, II:13].

 

BANNEKER FAMILY

In 1836 a neighbor of the Banneker family named Martha Ellicott Tyson wrote a twenty-page Sketch of the Life of Benjamin Banneker after interviewing his relatives who included his oldest sister Molly Henden, who "though far advanced in years was still of a sound mind," Molly's son John Henden, and Benjamin's niece Harriet Henderson. They lived near the home where he died, about a mile from Ellicott Mills. J. Saurin Norris read this sketch before the Maryland Historical Society on 5 October 1854. Tyson located the Banneker family bible in the family of George Barton and recorded an entry which read:

I bought this book of Anora Buckanan, the 4th day of January, 1763

Benjamin Banneker was born, November the 9th day, in the year of our lord God, 1731

Robert Banneker departed this life, July ye 10th 1759

And she reported that the family descended from Molly Welsh, a white indentured servant from England, who after the completion of her indenture bought a small farm and two slaves, one of whom was an African prince named Bannaka. She married him and took his name. They had four children, the oldest named Molly: of bright mulatto complexion and slender person, and had an abundant suit of strait black hair, which led persons unacquainted with her origin to suppose she was an Indian. Molly married a slave named Robert who took her name. Robert Banneky bought a farm from Richard Gist and lived on it until his death. Their son Benjamin died about 1804 and left his farm to his sisters Minta Black and Molly Morten [Tyson, Martha Ellicott, A sketch of the life of Benjamin Banneker: from notes taken in 1836: read by J. Saurin Norris before the Maryland Historical Society, October 5th, 1854. Sabin Americana, Print Editions 1500-1926].

Sylvio Bedini of the Smithsonian Institution wrote The Life of Benjamin Banneker in 1972. He repeated Martha Tyson's stories about the origin of the family, found the 22 May 1735 marriage register of Katherine Banneker to James Boston (or Baslon), "Negroes," and Esther Banneker to William Black, "Negro," in St. Paul's Parish of Baltimore and Lower Baltimore County; located the actual deed by which Robert Banneker and his son Benjamin bought the land from Richard Gist on 10 March 1737, an account that Mary and Benjamin Banneker had with the Ellicott & Co. store for the years 1774-1775, and an obituary in the 23 October 1806 issue of the Federal Gazette which stated that Benjamin died on the 9 October that year. One payment for Benjamin's account was made on his behalf by Samuel Morton who was probably the husband of his sister Molly, and Samuel and Molly were apparently the parents of Greenbury Morton who was employed at Ellicott's Lower Mills [Bedini, Life of Benjamin Banneker, 23-24, 27, 46-7, 62, 271].

In December 2006 George Russell published an article in the National Genealogical Society Quarterly based on his research of the original records of adjoining counties. He found the 24 February 1748 Prince George's County will of John Welsh by which he left his estate to "Mary my wife," directed that all his "negroes" were to be freed and bequeathed to his "mulatto Samuel Molton" all his moveable estate after the death of his wife Mary. His widow Mary Welsh made a 7 January 1752 Prince George's County will by which she set free "my molatto Samuel Molton," gave him all her estate and made him executor of the will, appointed trustees to "see that my people have their right of freedom" and set free and discharged "Negroes Benjn and Aleck." On 27 February 1757 Mary Welsh assigned to Mary Banicker her right to "a mealato servant called Samuel Morter" and recorded the assignment in Prince George's County on 31 March 1757. And on 3 December 1773 she made releases of servitude to "negro Ben, born free, age 43; negro Alik, born free, age 45; Moses Adams, age 27; Robert Adams, age 29; Jane Adams, age 21; Henry Adams, age 32, Juday Adams, age 4; and Solemon Adams age 22 months." And she bound herself "for 200 pounds sterling to be paid to Ben." Mary Welsh died before before 25 September 1775 when her executor Samuel Molton entered bond of 500 pounds to administer the estate of Mary Welsh "of Baltimore County." She apparently lived near what was then Prince George's, Anne Arundel and Baltimore counties since "Mary Welsh, Ann Arundel County Prince George's County" was written outside her original will [Russell, George Ely. "Molly Welsh: Alleged Grandmother of Benjamin Banneker." National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 94, No. 4 (December 2006):305-314.

There is additional information not mentioned by Bedini or Russell. In March 1736 the Baltimore County court declared that Robert and Mary Banneker were levy free during the lifetime of their "crippled mulatto" daughter Julian [Barnes, Baltimore County Families, 1659-1759]. Robert was called "Robert Banakey, a Negro free," on 1 November 1743 when the Baltimore County court ordered that his daughters be levy free for the future [Proceedings, 1743-6, 78]. He owed 480 pounds of tobacco to the Baltimore County estate of Charles Christie on 29 June 1762 [Prerogative Court (Inventories) 78:98-9]. An Ursula Banninger was presented by the Prince George's County court in 1768 for having a "Malatto" child on information of the constable of Rock Creek Hundred [Court Records 1766-8, 574; 1768-70, 477]. A Mary Welch, born say 1710, was the servant of Thomas Harwood on 13 November 1728 when she admitted to the Prince George's County court that she had a "Malatto" child. The court bound her for an additional seven years and bound her two-month-old son Henry to her master until the age of thirty-one [Court Records 1728-9, 346-7]. Another servant of Thomas Harwood named Mary Wedge had seven mixed-race children by a slave between 1727 and 1738, so the clerk may have mis-written the name Wedge as Welch.

Mary, widow of Robert Banneker, deposed on 19 April 1774 in Baltimore County that Benjamin was the true and lawful son of Robert Banneker, deceased [Baltimore County Chattel Records, 4:98].

Although it is evident that Mary Welsh was the wife of a white man named John Welsh, it is still quite possible that she was Benjamin Banneker's grandmother and the mother of Robert Banneker's wife. On 27 February 1757 Mary Welsh assigned to (her daughter?) Mary Banicker (wife of Robert Banneker) her right to "a mealato servant called Samuel Morter" and recorded the assignment in Prince George's County [Land Records PP:104]. She called Benjamin and her other servants "my people" when she discharged them from service. And there were other cases of white women having mixed-race children by slaves and then marrying or having children by white men. Mary Vincent of Accomack County, Virginia, had a child by Southy Littleton's "Negro" slave Aminidab Hanser before 1665 and married a white man named John Okey in October 1666 [DW 1663-66, fol. 91; 1664-71, fol. 20; Torrence, Old Somerset, 399-400, 453, 474]. Elizabeth Phillips of Talbot County, Maryland, had a child by a slave in 1725 and another in 1726, and then had a child by a white man in 1731 [Judgment Record, 1725-6, 64-5, 285-6; 1731-3, 463].

The name Bannaker may have had the same origin as the town of Banaka in modern-day Liberia which was part of the slave trade. The earliest recorded Bannekers in Maryland were

1        i. Robert, born say 1710.

ii. Katherine, born say 1714, married James Boston/ Baslon, "Negroes," on 22 May 1735 in St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore [St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore, Maryland, Parish Register, Folio 102, p.153, No. 27, cited by Bedini, Life of Benjamin Banneker, 346; Reamy, Records of St. Paul's Parish, I:32].

iii. Esther, born say 1716, married William Black, "Negro," 22 September 1744 in St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore [St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore, Maryland, Parish Register, Marriages, Folio 111, p. 168, cited by Bedini, Life of Benjamin Banneker, 347; Reamy, Records of St. Paul's Parish, I:36].

iv. Jemima, born say 1720, married Hendon. She had a son named John Hendon who was in charge of the Ellicott & Company Stables and was still living in 1836 when he was interviewed by Martha Tyson, the author of Banneker, the Afric-American Astronomer [Bedini, Life of Benjamin Banneker, 24].

 

1.    Robert Banneker, born say 1710, purchased 100 acres in Patapsco Upper Hundred, Baltimore County, called "Stout," for 7,000 pounds of tobacco, listing his six-year-old son Benjamin as co-owner on 10 March 1737 [Land Records HWS #IA, ff. 58-9]. He had also acquired 25 acres, called "Timber Point," before 1737 when he was taxable on both tracts [Debt Book, Baltimore County, Calvert Papers No. 904, p.69 in the Maryland Historical Society, cited by Bedini, Life of Benjamin Banneker, 29, 347]. Robert was called "Robert Banakey, a Negro free," on 1 November 1743 when the Baltimore County court ordered that his daughters be levy free for the future [Proceedings 1743-6, 78]. He owed 480 pounds of tobacco to the Baltimore County estate of Charles Christie on 29 June 1762 [Prerogative Inventories 78:98-9]. He died on 10 July 1759 according to the entry in his family Bible. He had daughters Molly, who married a member of the Morten family, and Minta who married a member of the Black family [Bedini, Life of Benjamin Banneker, 46-7]. He was taxable in Patapsco Upper Hundred, Baltimore County, in 1773 []. Mary, widow of Robert Bannaker, was still living on 19 April 1774 when she deposed that Benjamin was the true and lawful son of Robert Banneker, deceased [Baltimore Chattel Records 4:98]. Mary and Robert were the parents of

i. Molly, born say 1730, married a member of the Morton family, perhaps identical to Samuel Morton who was listed in the Ledger of Ellicott & Company between September 1774 and July 1775. Samuel Molton was a "molatto" belonging to John Welsh of Prince George's County on 24 February 1748 when Welsh directed that he be free after the death of his wife [Prerogative Court (Wills), Liber 26, folio 40]. Samuel and Molly were the parents of Greenbury Morten who was employed at Ellicott's Lower Mills [Bedini, Life of Benjamin Banneker, 62]. Greenbury was head of a Patapsco Hundred, Baltimore County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [MD:644]. Another member of the Morton family was Deb. Morton, head of a Baltimore City household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [MD:280], perhaps identical to the Deb Morton who was counted in Baltimore City with 8 "other free" in 1810 [MD:300].

ii. Benjamin, born 9 November 1731, listed as the six-year-old son of Robert Banneker and co-owner of 100 acres in Patapsco Upper Hundred, Baltimore County, on 10 March 1737 [Land Records HWS #IA, ff. 58-9]. He was the servant of John Welsh of Prince George's County on 24 February 1748 when Welsh directed in his will that "my negroes are to be free" [Prerogative Court (Wills), Liber 26, folio 40]. He was taxable as a bachelor owning 100-300 pounds in St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore, sometime between 1756 and 1762 [Wright, Inhabitants of Baltimore County 1692-1763, 75]. He signed the Baltimore County, Maryland petition of 27 January 1768 to move the county seat from Joppa to Baltimore [Maryland State Archives, Archives of Maryland On-line, Vol. 61:531]. He sold 20 acres of his land to Greenbury Morten on 20 December 1785, and 10 acres to his neighbor, John Barton on 2 April 1792 [Land Records WQ# Y, ff. 653-4; WG#HH. ff. 341-2]. This was land his father had purchased in 1737. John Barton was head of a Patapsco Upper Hundred, Baltimore County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [MD:639]. Benjamin also sold 2 acres to Edward Shugar on 10 December 1794 [Land Records WG #PP:606-8]. Edward was head of a Patapsco Upper Hundred household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [MD:641].

iii. Julian, born say 1733, the "crippled" daughter of Robert and Mary Banneker.

iv. a daughter, married a member of the Black family.

v. a daughter, perhaps Ursula Banninger who was presented by the Prince George's County court in 1768 for having a "Malatto" child on information of the constable of Rock Creek Hundred [Court Records 1766-8, 574; 1768-70, 477]. She may have been the wife of William Hubbard/ Hubert, head of a Patapsco Upper Hundred, Baltimore County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [MD:639]. William was the father of Henry and Charles Hubbard who obtained certificates of freedom in Loudoun County on 24 December 1795: son of a free woman and grandson of Robert Banneker, whose wife was also a free woman. Robert Banneker lived in Baltimore County about two and a half miles from Ellicott's Mills [Certificates of Freedom in Loudoun County courthouse, cited by Journal of the AAHGS 11:123].

 

BANTUM FAMILY

Members of the Bantum family of Maryland were

1        i. James1, born say 1730.

ii. Gabriel, head of a Caroline County household of 8 "other free" in 1790.

iii. Delia, said to be over 100 years old when she was head of a Talbot County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830.

iv. George, head of a Talbot County household of 3 "other free" in 1790.

v. Sally, head of a Talbot County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:531].

vi. Joe, head of a Talbot County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:527] and 3 "free colored" in 1830.

vii. Nancy Banthum, "Negro" head of a Kent County household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

viii. Diana, born before 1776, head of a Kent County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830.

 

1.    James1 Bantum, born say 1730, was a "Molatto servant man" listed in the inventory of the Talbot County estate of William Brooke on 7 May 1754 [Prerogative Inventories 60:114-8]. He may have been the father of

2        i. James2, born about 1757.

 

2.    James2 Bantum, born about 1757, was head of a Talbot County household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [MD:534]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Talbot County on 24 May 1815: a Black man ... about 58 years of age, 5 feet 10 3/4 inches high, has the top of his head bald ... was manumitted & set free by ... Wm Thomas. He may have been the father of

i. Levin, born about 1783, obtained a certificate of freedom in Talbot County on 27 May 1807: a Mullatto Man about twenty four years of age, five feet seven and a half inches high ... free born of a white woman and bound to Christopher Bruff until he was twenty one years of age.

ii. Edward, born about 1790, obtained a certificate of freedom in Talbot County on 23 July 1810: a black man ... about 20 years of age, 5 feet 7 1/2 inches high ... dark complection ... free born ... raised in this County.

iii. Harry, born about 1793, obtained a certificate of freedom in Talbot County on 20 March 1810: a black man ... about 22 years of age, 5 feet 9 inches & an half high, complection dark Coffee [Certificates of Freedom 1807-15, 30, 43, 46, 174].

iv. Moses, born about 1795, obtained a certificate of freedom in Dorchester County on 12 April 1815: of a light chesnut colour ... born free [Certificates of Freedom for Negroes 1806-64, 24].

 

BARBER FAMILY

1.    Rebecca Barber, born say 1735, was a spinster white servant of Thomas Ozenent in November 1755 when she admitted to the Talbot County court that she had a "Mulatto" child by a "Negroe." The court sold her four-month-old son Amos until the age of thirty-one for 5 shillings [Criminal Record 1751-5, 14-5]. She was the mother of

i. Amos, born about July 1755.

 

Other members of the family were

i. David, born before 1776, head of a Dover Hundred, Kent County, Delaware household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:42].

ii. Simon, born 1776-1794, head of a Dover Hundred, Kent County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:42].

 

BARDLEY FAMILY

Members of the Bardley family in Maryland were

i. Samuel, born say 1770, head of a Kent County household of 3 "other free" and a slave in 1800 [MD:145].

ii. Mary, born say 1772, mother of a "mulatto" child who was buried in St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore on 15 September 1792 [Reamy, Records of St. Paul's Parish, I:68].

 

BARRETT FAMILY

1.    Violet Barrott, born say 1720, wife of Darby Barrott, was living in St. Michael's Parish in August 1744 when she was convicted by the Talbot County court of having a child by a "Mulatto slave." The court sold her as a servant for seven years [Judgment Record 1743-4, 352]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Ann, born say 1743, a "Mulatto" woman who the constable (tax collector) claimed was married to a white man named John Start who did not list her as a taxable in Talbot County. The jury acquitted him in November 1758 [Criminal Record 1755-61, 254].

ii. Susannah, a spinster householder who was charged by the constable (tax collector) in Talbot County in November 1758 for failing to pay tax on her person [Criminal Record 1755-61, 243].

iii. Mary, a "Mulatto" woman who the constable claimed was married to and living with Thomas Condon, a white man, who did not list her as a taxable. The jury found Condon not guilty in June 1759 [Criminal Record 1755-61, 245, 253].

iv. Jacob, head of a Murderkill Hundred, Kent County, Delaware household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [DE:118].

v. Isaac, head of a Murderkill Hundred, Kent County, Delaware household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [DE:124], 4 in 1810 [DE:73] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:17].

vi. Philip, head of a New Castle County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [DE:301].

vii. George, "F.N." head of a Kent County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [DE:3] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:39].

viii. James, "F.N." head of a Kent County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [DE:6] and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:22].

ix. Samuel, born before 1776, head of a Talbot County household of 4 "free colored" in 1830.

 

BARTON FAMILY

1.    William1 Barton, born say 1670, a "free negro," was baptized in All Hallow's Parish, Anne Arundel County on 9 April 1699. His wife Mary, "belongs to Madam Tayler," was baptized on 30 April 1699. They were probably the parents of Elizabeth Burton, "a negro child," who was baptized on 16 April 1699. Mary was buried in All Hallow's Parish on 7 May 1711 [Wright, Anne Arundel County Church Records, 9, 30, 31]. William was called a cooper in 1711 when he purchased two tracts of land in Anne Arundel County, one for 50 acres, called "Essex," and one for 127 acres, called "Kent," for twenty-two pounds. He and his wife Elizabeth made a deed of gift of the 50 acre tract to Anthony Hill in 1739 [Land Records 1709-12, PK, 469-74; 1737-40, RD#3, 221, 224]. He was called "Negro William Barton" on 23 July 1729 when he petitioned the Assembly to pass a bill to confirm the right of his heirs to inherit his land [Archives of Maryland 36:329]. In March 1734/5 he petitioned the Anne Arundel County Court to be levy-free, saying that he was upwards of seventy years old, that his wife was nearly seventy, and that he had paid taxes for himself for nearly thirty years and nearly that long for his wife. The court granted his petition. She was probably identical to Eliza Barton who petitioned the court in June 1734 saying she was aged sixty-six years and unable to labor [Judgment Record 1734-6, 10, 182]. William was the father of

i. ?Elizabeth, baptized 30 April 1699.

ii. William2, "of William and Mary, free negros," buried in All Hallow's Parish on 11 April 1709 [Wright, Anne Arundel County Church Records, 30].

2        iii. ?William3, born say 1710.

3        iv. ?Martha, born say 1728.

 

2.    William3 Barton, born say 1710, married Sarah Savoy in All Hallow's Parish on 25 October 1731 [Wright, Anne Arundel County Church Records, 30, 45]. Sarah was presented by the Anne Arundel County Court in August 1746 for failing to list herself as a taxable [Judgment Record 1746-8, 214, 285, 468]. They may have been the ancestors of

i. James, a "free Negro" taxable in Elkridge Hundred, Anne Arundel County, in 1783 [MSA S 1161-1-3, p.4], head of a Patapsco Upper Hundred, Baltimore County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [MD:639]. He may have been identical to James Barton who was ordered to appear in Anne Arundel County Court to answer Judith Savoy in March 1748/9 [Judgment Record 1748-51, 228].

ii. Henry, born say 1755, living with James Barton in 1810, head of a Baltimore County household of 8 "other free" [MD:493]. He may have been the father of Henry Barton who received a certificate of freedom in Baltimore County on 24 April 1832: about 47 years old, light complexion, born free and raised in Baltimore County [Negroes Manumitted 1830-32].

iii. Kizy, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 5 "other free" in 1790.

iv. Susanah, head of a Baltimore City household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:232] and 9 in 1810 [MD:539].

v. John, head of a Patapsco Upper Hundred, Baltimore County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [MD:639]. He purchased 10 acres about a mile north of Ellicott City from Benjamin Banneker on 2 April 1792 [Land Records, Liber WG #HH, ff. 341-2].

 

3.    Martha Barton, born say 1728, confessed to the Prince George's County Court on 24 March 1746/7 that she had a "Mullatto" child. The court sold her to her master, Thomas Charter, for seven years and sold her son William to Charter until the age of thirty-one. On 26 March 1754 the court bound her four-month-old "Mollatto" child named Thomas to George Hardy for thirty-one years and ordered that she serve another seven years. She was living in Piscataway Hundred on 23 August 1757 when the court bound her two month old "Mulatto" son John to Henry Hardy and ordered her sold for seven years [Court Record 1746-7, 389; 1751-4, 545; 1754-8, 490, 495]. She was the mother of

i. William4, born in January 1746/7, "free Negro" head of a Prince George's County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:285] and 5 in 1810 [MD:34].

ii. Thomas1, born 23 November 1753 [Court Record 1751-4, 545], "free negro" head of a Prince George's County household of 3 "other free" and a slave in 1800 [MD:286] and 8 "other free" in 1810 [MD:33].

4        iii. John, born in June 1757.

 

4.    John Barton, born in June 1757, was a "free Mulatto" head of a Prince George's County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:269] and 5 in 1810 (J. Barton) [MD:26]. He may have been the husband of Nancy Barton, a descendant of Rosamond Bently, who recovered her freedom by a suit against Anthony Addison in Prince George's County Court in August 1781. Nancy Barton, born about 1768, received a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 22 April 1813: a bright mulatto woman, about 45 years old, and 5 feet 6 inches tall ... descendant of a certain Rosamond Bently who recovered her freedom in the Prince George's County Court in a suit against Anthony Addison. She was the mother of

i. Thomas2, born about 1791, received a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 1 September 1818: a bright mulatto man, about 27 years old, and 5 feet 7 inches tall ... descendant of Nancy Barton, a free woman of color.

ii. Elizabeth, born about 1793, received a certificate of freedom on 3 November 1813: a bright mulatto girl, 20 years old, and 5 feet 11 inches tall ... daughter of Nancy Barton.

iii. William5, born about 1794, received a certificate of freedom on 1 September 1818: a bright mulatto man, about 24 years old, and 5 feet tall ... descendant of Nancy Barton, a free woman of color

iv. James Richard, born about 1797, received a certificate of freedom on 1 September 1818: a bright mulatto man, about 21 years old, and 5 feet 9 inches tall ... descendant of Nancy Barton.

v. Charlotte, born about 1800, received a certificate of freedom on 3 November 1819: a bright mulatto girl, about 19 years old, and 5 feet 4 inches tall ... a descendant of Nancy Barton.

vi. Ann Maria, born about 1803, received a certificate of freedom on 3 November 1819: a bright mulatto girl, about 16 years old, and 5 feet 2 inches tall ... descendant of Nancy Barton [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 15, 16, 26, 32, 33].

 

BASS FAMILY

1.    Sarah Bass, born in 1664, was the "Mallatto" daughter of a white woman and a "negro man," the servants of John White of Virginia. Sarah was about eight years old on 13 August 1672 when John White brought her into Somerset County Court to have her bound to him as an apprentice. She agreed to serve him until the age of twenty-one, and he gave her a cow and calf and their increase on the condition that she serve her full term [Archives of Maryland 87:155]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Griffin, head of a St. Jones Hundred, Kent County, Delaware household of 15 "other free" in 1800 [MD:44]. He married Nicey/ Unicy Durham, widow of Daniel Durham before 28 April 1801 when Daniel's Kent County, Delaware will was proved [de Valinger, Probate Records of Kent County].

ii. Phil, head of a Talbot County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:547].

 

BATES FAMILY

1.    Benjamin Bates, born say 1731, was a "Mullatto Bastard Child" who the Charles County, Maryland Court sold to Peter Harrant on 9 November 1731 [Court Record 1731-4, 41]. He may have been the ancestor of the members of the Bates family who were living in nearby Virginia counties in 1810:

i. John, head of a Prince William County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:508]. He may have been the husband of Sophia Bates whose seventeen-year-old daughter registered as a free Negro in Washington, D.C. on 26 July 1827: a mulatto woman ... daughter of Sophia Bates of Dumfries, Virginia, who was born free [Provine, District of Columbia Free Negro Registers, 96-6].

ii. Cyrus, head of a Prince William County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:508].

iii. Fanny, head of a Prince George County, Virginia household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:545].

iv. Hetty, head of a Prince George County, Virginia household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:545].

v. Archibald, head of a Prince George County, Virginia household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:545].

 

BATSON FAMILY

1.    Susannah Batson, born say 1750, certified her freedom in Prince George's County on 25 July 1804: Susannah Badson & her eleven children namely viz. Caleb, Duke, Brice, Daniel, Lloyd, Mary, Betty, Susannah, Orphy, Sally and Arrial ... are born free as they have been living in the neighborhood of Piscataway for upwards of twenty odd years [Land Records JRM #10, 345]. She was a "free Negro" head of a Prince George's County household of 14 "other free" in 1800 [MD:285] and 9 in 1810 [MD:29]. She was the mother of

i. Caleb.

ii. Duke.

iii. Brice.

iv. Daniel.

v. Lloyd.

vi. Mary.

vii. Betty.

viii. Susannah.

ix. Orphy.

x. Sally.

xi. Arrial.

 

Other members of the family were

i. Vachel, born about 1793, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 27 August 1817: a negro man ... aged about twenty four years ... black complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 104].

ii. William Patterson or Batson, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 31 July 1819: a Negro man, 5 feet 6 inches tall, with a very black complexion. He was born of a free woman of color in Prince George's County and was bound by two justices of the peace on 1 July 1808 to Thomas Richardson where he learned the blacksmith business. He became free on 15 August 1814 [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 29].

 

BEAN FAMILY

1.    Jane Bean, born say 1743, was the mother of

i. Jeremiah, born about 1763, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 29 September 1828: son of Jane Bean, aged about sixty five years ... bright complexion ... born and raised in Saint Mary's County.

ii. ?Jacob, a "mulatto" taxable in the Lower District Hundred of Dorchester County in 1783 [MSA S1161-5-4, p.1] and head of a St. Mary's County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:399].

iii. ?Lucy, head of a St. Mary's County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 [MD:395].

 

BEAVIN FAMILY

Members of the Beavin family were

i. James, a "mulatto" taxable in the 3rd District of Charles County in 1783 [MSA S 1161-4-10, p.2].

ii. Paul, "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

iii. Susanna, "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

iv. Nancy Raley, born about 1779, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 1 September 1809: commonly called Nancy Bivans, Complexion very bright - hair long and straight ... born free - being born of a free white woman named Jane Cecil and raised in Saint Mary's County [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 8].

 

BECKETT FAMILY

1.    Peter1 Beckett, born say 1655, was a "Negro" slave who was taxable with Thomas Driggers from 1671 to 1677 in the Northampton County, Virginia household of John Eyres [Orders 1664-74, fol.114; 1674-79, 75, 191]. Sarah Dawson, a white servant, was another member of Eyre's household. She was born about 1661 since her age was adjudged to be sixteen years when Eyre brought her into Northampton County court on 26 November 1677 [OW 1674-79, 203]. Seven years later in 1684 she was given twenty-one lashes and ordered to serve Eyre another six years for having "three bastard Maletto Children by her said Masters Negro slave Peter." On 30 May 1687 and 28 May 1688 she was presented for bastard bearing and the following year on 29 July 1689 was called "Sarah the wife of Peter Beckett slave to Major John Eyre" when the court ordered one of her children released to her, "Shee findinge sufficient security to save the parish harmeless from the said Childe" [OW 1683-89, 59, 280, 292, 358, 442-3]. On 28 July 1702 she consented to the indenture of their daughter Ann, "daughter of Sarah Beckett," to Mrs. Ann Eyre until the age of eighteen [OW 1698-1710, 96]. Peter was free by 30 November 1703 when "Peter Beckett and Sarah his wife" successfully sued John Morrine for debt in Northampton County court. John Robins brought an action upon the case against him, but neither party appeared when it came for trial on 21 January 1717/8 [OW&c 1698-1710, 176; Orders 1710-6, 55]. Peter and Sarah's descendants were

2        i. ?Peter2, born say 1683.

ii. Rebecca1, born say 1692, taxable in the household of John Drighouse in 1726 [Bell, Northampton County Tithables, 77].

3        iii. ?William1, born say 1695.

iv. Ann, born 10 December 1697, had a child by John Driggers in Northampton County in 1716.

v. Jean, born say 1700, common-law wife of Thomas Driggers of Northampton County.

vi. Elizabeth, born say 1705, common-law wife of John Driggers/ Drighouse.

 

2.   Peter2 Beckett, born say 1683, was taxable in Bogerternorton Hundred of Somerset County from 1723 to 1740: listed with Devorix Driggers in 1725, with (his son?) William B____et in 1737, with (his son?) Deverix Becket in 1740 [MdHR C-812, List of Taxables, 1723-1740]. He was fined 2 shillings, 6 pence for uttering an oath in Somerset County in 1727. He was special bail for Devorix Driggers on 17 November 1730 when Devorix admitted in Somerset County court that he owed Christopher Glass 500 pounds of tobacco and 650 pounds of beef which he had contracted for in writing on 10 November 1729 [Judicial Record 1727-30, 147; 1730-3, 43-4]. The inventory of his Worcester County estate, taken by Arcada Okey on 10 May 1751, totalled 129 pounds and listed Bridget Doves and John Nienburgh as nearest of kin. The second inventory taken on 23 January 1754 by Joseph and his wife Arcada Okey included debts from William Cornish, Simon Collock, and Nathaniel Morris. One third of the estate went to Peter's widow Mary Beckett and the remainder to his son Beade Beckett and daughters Arcada Oakey and Hannah Beckett. The estate paid Samuel Handser 7 shillings [Prerogative Inventories 48:98-100; 60:89; Accounts 37:65-6; Balance Book 1751-5, 1:127 (MSA 533-1)]. Peter was the father of

i. ?William2, born say 1716.

ii. Arcada, married Joseph Okey.

iii. Hannah.

iv. ?Deverix, born say 1723, taxable in Somerset county in 1740, probably named for Deverix Driggers.

v. ?Solomon, taxable in Mispillion Hundred, Kent County, Delaware, from 1743 to 1762 [Kent County Assessments, 1743-67, frames 10, 109, 125, 154, 174, 201, 204, 216, 247, 270, 349].

4        vi.  Bede1, born say 1740.

 

3.    William1 Beckett, born say 1695, was taxable in Kent County, Delaware, from 1726 to 1756: listed in Little Creek Hundred, charged with the tax of _____ Drigers in 1727, called William Beckett Sen. from 1749 to 1756 when he was listed in Dover Hundred near Nehemiah Hansor and Samuel Hanson [Kent County Levy List 1743-67]. William was called a yeoman when he purchased two lots of ground within the town of Dover for 12 pounds by Kent County, Delaware deed on 2 April 1754 [DB O:256]. He left a 31 January 1757 Kent County will (signing the letter "B"), proved 7 May 1757, leaving Mary Concelor a bed, furniture and a sorrel mare; his daughter Comfort a horse; his son Nathan a gun; his son William a shilling; his daughters Sarah and Mary each a mare; and his wife Comfort all his lands. Nehemiah Handzor witnessed the will [WB K-1, 162]. William was probably the father of the illegitimate child Mary Concelor had in Kent County in August 1728 [Delaware Archives RG 3815.031, dockets 1722-32, frames 229, 235]. And he was probably related to a "Mulatto" child Abraham Beckitt who was supported by Richard Wells (of Dover Hundred), Esq., from the county levy in November 1757 and Tabitha Beckett, a poor woman, supported by Lydia Wells from Kent County levy in November 1758 [DSA, RG 3200, Levy Court Minutes 1732-, frames 34, 38; RG 3535, Assessments 1743-67, frames 221, 223]. Mary Beckett sold 50 acres in Dover Hundred, Kent County, on the north side of the Dover River on 31 March 1758 [DB P:111]. William was the father of

5        i. William3, born say 1720.

ii. Comfort, born say 1723.

iii. Nathan, born say 1728, taxable in Dover Hundred in 1758 and 1759 [Kent County Levy List, 1743-67, frames 213, 240].

iv. Sarah, born say 1734.

v. Mary, born say 1736, charged Rike Miller in November 1771 with being the father of her illegitimate child [DSA, RG 3805, MS, indictments].

 

4.    Bede1 Beckett, born about 1738, was a twenty-one-year-old, born in Maryland, who was listed in the 11 May 1759 muster of Captain John Wright's Company in the French and Indian War (abstracted as "Bedy Bullett," in the same list with Samuel and Thomas Hanzer of Sussex County, that included mostly men born in Sussex County [Montgomery, Pennsylvania Archives, Fifth Series, 278-9]. He married Ann Butler (no race indicated for either) in Sussex County on 21 April 1763 and their son William was born on 12 July 1768 [Records of the United Presbyterian Churches of Lewes, Indian River and Cool Spring, Delaware 1756-1855, 274]. Bede, a labourer, purchased 118 acres called Good Luck on the east side of the Green Branch in Sussex County on __ May 1764 for 37 pounds [DB K-11:60]. He was a delinquent taxable in Sussex County in 1767, taxable in Broadkiln Hundred in 1774, a Nanticoke Hundred delinquent in 1787 [Delaware Archives, Levy Assessment RG 2535]. He died about 1787 when Peter Beckett was granted administration on his estate [de Valinger, Calendar of Kent County Probate Records 1680-1800, 181]. He was the father of

i. William4, born 12 July 1768, called William Butler Beckett when he was taxable in Sussex County in Nanticoke Hundred near Peter Beckett in 1791 and in Little Creek Hundred in 1796 [Levy Assessment List, RG 2535].

ii. ?Bede2, taxable in Nanticoke Hundred adjoining Peter Beckett in 1795.

 

5.    William3 Beckett, born say 1720, was taxable in Little Creek Hundred in 1741 and 1742: in the same list as Samuel Hanson; taxable in Dover Hundred from 1748 to 1769: listed in Samuel Hanson's levy in 1748 (called "William Beckitt Jur"), perhaps deceased in 1769 when he was a Dover Hundred delinquent [Kent County Levy List, 1743-67, frames 437, 494, 508; 1768-1784, 26, 32]. In November 1752 he was fined 5 pounds by the Kent County court for keeping a tippling house without a license [RG 3805.002, Court of General Sessions, frame 214]. He was called William Beckett Junr, yeoman, on 13 February 1754 when he purchased 100 acres in the forest of Murderkill Hundred on the north side of Milstons Bridge for 35 pounds [DB O:220]. He may have had a child by one of Samuel Hanson's slaves. On 27 January 1770 Hanson made a deed of manumission by which he freed three slaves named Beckett:

i. Charles, born about December 1740, a "Negro" about 30 years and one month old on 27 January 1770 when Samuel Hanson of Kent County set him free by manumission recorded in May 1775 [Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Duck Creek Monthly Meeting, Deed of Manumission of Slaves, 1774-1792, 21]. He was a "Negro" head of a Dover Hundred household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [DE:97].

ii. Peter2, born about June 1744, a "Negro" about 25 years and seven months old on 27 January 1770 when Samuel Hanson of Kent County set him free [Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Duck Creek Monthly Meeting, Deed of Manumission of Slaves, 1774-1792, 21]. He served in the First Company of the Delaware Regiment in the Revolutionary War and received pay from 1 August 1780 to 4 November 1783 [DHS, MS Delaware Regiment Pay Records, 1778-1783, certificates 54,483; 54,830; 54,938; 55,184; Public Archives Commission, Delaware Archives, 196, 607]. He married Betty Drigas (Driggers) on 27 November 1788 in Sussex County, Delaware [Records of the United Presbyterian Churches of Lewes, Indian River and Cool Spring, Delaware 1756-1855, 302]. He was administrator of the Sussex County estate of Bede Beckett in 1787 [de Valinger, Calendar of Kent County Probate Records 1680-1800, 181]. He was a taxable in Nanticoke Hundred, Sussex County, in 1791 and 1795 and taxable in Little Creek Hundred, Sussex County, on a horse, cow and calf, and a shoat in 1796. He was a "Negro" head of a Delaware household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [DE:342] and 2 in 1810 [DE:161, 364].

iii. Isaac, born about November 1747, twenty-three years and 7 months old on 27 January 1770 when Samuel Hanson of Kent County set him free when he reached the age of twenty-five [Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Duck Creek Monthly Meeting, Deed of Manumission of Slaves, 1774-1792, 21]. He was head of a Dover Hundred household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [DE:41].

 

Other members of the family were

i. John, born after 1775, head of a Worcester County household of 10 "free colored" in 1830.

 

Endnotes:

1.1740 is the last list of tithables for Somerset that included the portion of the county that formed Worcester in 1742.

 

BEDDO FAMILY

1.    Martha Badoe, born say 1693, was the servant of Thomas Coleman of Benedict Hundred on 12 June 1711 when she was presented by the Charles County Court for having a "Mallato" child. She admitted her guilt in court two months later on 14 August when the court ordered that she serve an additional seven years and bound her child to Coleman for thirty-one years. She was presented for the same offense on 9 June 1713, and on 9 August 1713 she bound her four-month-old son James to Coleman. On 9 March 1735/6 the court ordered Coleman to bring her "Mullatto Daughter" Eleanor before the court to have her bound out [Court Record 1710-3, 136, 196-7; 1734-9, 143]. She was the mother of

i. James1, born about April 1713, bound apprentice to Thomas Coleman of Benedict Hundred, Charles County, on 9 August 1713.

2        ii. Eleanor, born say 1715.

 

2.    Eleanor Bedoe, born say 1715, was the "Mullatto Daughter" of Martha Bedoe. On 12 June 1744 the Charles County Court convicted her of having an illegitimate child and ordered that she receive twelve lashes. The court also ordered her son James bound out to Edward Goodrich until the age of twenty-one [Court Record 1744-5, 25]. She was the mother of

i. James2, born about 1744, a thirteen-year-old boy bound to serve until the age of twenty-one when he was listed in the inventory of the Charles County estate of Mr. Edward Goodrich on 17 March 1757 [Prerogative Inventories 63:65-6], head of a Charles County household of 9 "other free" in 1800 [MD:522].

ii. ?William, head of a Charles County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [MD:303].

iii. ?Nancy, head of a Charles County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [MD:321].

iv. ?M., head of a Prince George's County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [MD:17].

v. ?R., head of a Prince George's County household of 3 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [MD:16].

vi. ?E., head of a Prince George's County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [MD:16].

 

BENTLEY FAMILY

1.    Mary Davis, born say 1657, the daughter of Richard Davis of London, England, was a white woman who married a "Negroe man" named Domingo, the slave of Joseph Tilley of Calvert County, Maryland. Mary and Domingo were living with Lord Baltimore when she wrote the details of her marriage and the birth and baptism of her children in a bible. Her daughter Rose produced a transcription of the bible in Anne Arundel County Court in August 1715 in an unsuccessful petition for her freedom [Court Judgments 1715-7, 93, 178, 244-6]. Mary and Domingo were the parents of

i. Thomas, born 14 March 1677 on Lord Baltimore's plantation on Lyon's Creek in Calvert County, baptized by Mr. Wessley(?) in the house of Richard Massoms. James and Ann Thompson were the godparents.

2        ii. Rose, born 11 August 1684.

 

2.    Rose Davis was born 11 August 1684 at the "Top of the Hill" plantation in St. Mary's County. She was baptized at Nottley Hall by a priest named Mr. Richard Hebert with Henry and Rose Wharton as godparents. Rose was thirty-one years old in August 1715 when she brought an unsuccessful suit for her freedom against Henry Darnall in Anne Arundel County Court [Court Judgments 1715-7, 93, 178, 244-6]. Rose was listed in the Anne Arundel County inventory of the estate of Henry Darnall (Sr.) in 1713:

Negroes at the Dwelling House

one Mallata Woman Sue age 33 - 28 pounds

At James Watland's 2 Quarter, Negroes

one Mallata woman Rose age 29 - 28 pounds

At the Woodyard, Negroes

one Mallata David a Carpenter age 45 - 40 pounds

one ditto Frank " age 40 - 40 pounds

one ditto Jack " age 35 - 30 pounds

one ditto Tom a Carpenter age 30 - 45 pounds

one ditto Charles do age 15 - 25 pounds

one Negro Bently age 20 - 30 pounds

one Mallata woman Moll with child a month old age 34 - 29 pounds [Prerogative Court Inventories and Accounts, Vol. 33B, 221-6].

In March 1779 her granddaughter Rosamond Bentley petitioned the Prince George's County court for her freedom, and in August 1781 Rosamond and her brother William and sisters Mary, Eleanor and Margaret Bentley won their cases. In an apparent effort to minimize their African ancestry, Rose's witnesses testified that the family descended from Mary Davis, a white English woman, and an East Indian man - instead of a "Negroe man" as stated in Mary Davis's Bible. And her witnesses described Rose's daughter as "Indian Polly" [Judgment Record 1777-82, 713-5]. Rose was the mother of

3        i. Polly, born say 1710.

 

3.    Polly Bentley, born say 1710, called "Indian Polly," was the mother of Rosamond, William, Mary, Eleanor, and Margaret Bentley. Polly was the slave of Lettice Thompson when she died of smallpox according to testimony in Prince George's County court [Judgment Record 1777-82, 713-5]. Her children were

4        i. Mary, born say 1731.

5        ii. Rosamond, born say 1733.

iii. William1, born say 1736.

6        iv. Eleanor1, born say 1738.

          v. Margaret, born say 1741.

 

4.    Mary Bentley, born say 1731, was the slave of William Digges on 27 November 1781 when she and her three children, Lucy, Sophia, and William, won their freedom in Prince George's County court. The court also freed her children: Sarah (slave of Mr. Knox of Charles County), Isaac, John and Mary (slaves of Mrs. Eleanor Carroll), and Rose and Eleanor (slaves of John Fitzgerald of Virginia) [Judgment Record 1777-82, 764-5]. She was the mother of

i. Isaac2, born say 1753, a slave of Mrs. Eleanor Carroll.

ii. John, born say 1755, a slave of Mrs. Eleanor Carroll.

iii. Mary, born say 1758, a slave of Mrs. Eleanor Carroll.

iv. Rose, born say 1760, a slave of John Fitzgerald of Virginia.

v. Eleanor2, born say 1763, a slave of John Fitzgerald of Virginia.

vi. Lucy, born say 1765.

vii. Sophia, born say 1768.

viii. William3, born say 1770.

 

5.    Rosamond Bently, born say 1733, recovered her freedom on 28 August 1781 by a suit she brought against Anthony Addison in Prince George's County court in which she proved she was the granddaughter of Rose Davis who was the daughter of a white woman [Judgment Record 1777-82, 713-5]. Rosamond was the ancestor of

i. Nancy Barton, born about 1768, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 22 April 1813: a bright mulatto woman, about 45 years old, and 5 feet 6 inches tall ... descendant of a certain Rosamond Bently who recovered her freedom in the Prince George's County Court in a suit against Anthony Addison.

ii. Eleanor3/ Nelly Cooper, born about 1771, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 2 April 1813: Eleanor Cooper, a bright mulatto woman, about 42 years old, and 5 feet 5 inches tall. She is free, being the descendant of a certain Rosamond Bently who recovered her freedom in the Prince George's County Court in a suit against Anthony Addison [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 15, 16].

 

6.    Eleanor1 Bentley, born say 1738, and her five children, Polly, William, John, Sophia and Bett, were the slaves of John Hawkins on 27 November 1781 when they petitioned the Prince George's County court for their freedom [Judgment Record 1777-82, 764]. Eleanor's children were

i. Polly, born say 1760.

ii. William2, born say 1763.

iii. John, born say 1765.

iv. Sophia, born say 1768.

v. Bett, born say 1770.

 

Queen Anne's County:

1.    Sarah Bentley, born say 1710, was declared levy-free for the future by the Queen Anne's County court on 12 December 1770 [Surles, And they Appeared at Court 1770-1772, 33]. She may have been the mother of

i. Isaac, born say 1730, described as a "mulatto fellow... alias Protus" on 14 August 1760 when Richard Tilghman Earle of Queen Anne's County advertised in the Maryland Gazette that he had run away with an English convict servant man named Benjamin Williams [Green, The Maryland Gazette, 1727-61, 251].

ii. Peter, married Elizabeth, widow of James Grinnage of Queen Anne's county, between 29 September 1767 when the inventory of James's Queen Anne's County estate was taken and 24 November 1768 when the account of the estate was recorded [Prerogative Inventories 94:133-4; Queen Anne's County Administration Accounts 1756-69, 347-8 (MSA C1335-2)].

iii. Margaret, presented by the Queen Anne's County court in November 1772 for bastardy [Surles, and they Appeared in Court, 1770-1772, 95].

iv. Debora, married Solomon Haycock, 14 December 1782 banns by the Jesuit Mission in Cordova, Maryland (no race indicated), Peter and Protase witnesses [Wright, Vital Records of the Jesuit Mission, 19].

v. John, a "free negro" charged with assault by the Queen Anne's County court in July 1786 [Surles, and they Appeared in Court, 1779-1787, 73].

 

Another member of the family was

i. Polly, born say 1773, living in Frederick Town, Frederick County, Maryland on 22 April 1811 when her son William Bentley by Edward Younger obtained a certificate of freedom. She may have married Edward Younger, the Polly who was named as his wife when his son obtained a certificate [Certificates of Freedom 1806-27, 28, 71].

 

BERRY FAMILY

Members of the Berry family in Maryland were

i. William, "Negro" head of a Kent County household of 3 "other free" in 1790.

ii. James, head of a Kent County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:157].

iii. Sarah, head of a Kent County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:169].

iv. Henry, head of a Kent County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:158].

v. Catherine, head of a Kent County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:169].

vi. Polly, born about 1779, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County court on 24 August 1819: Ann Proctor, a white woman, swears that Polly Berry was born free, as was Polly's mother. Polly is a bright mulatto woman who is about 40 years old. Copy of a registration from the District of Columbia [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 115].

 

BISHOP FAMILY

1.    Thomas Bishop, born say 1700, was an Indian who was credited with one wolf's head by the Talbot County court in November 1723 [Judgment Record 1723-4, 228]. He may have been identical to Thomas Bishop, a Choptank Indian, who sold land in Dorchester County in 1726 and 1727 [Land Records 1720-32, Liber old 8, 141-2, 153]. He, Abram Bishop, Peter Monk, and William Corhonk were Indians who owed the Dorchester County estate of William Pitts about a shilling each on 16 February 1762 [Prerogative Inventories 77:7-8]. He may have been the ancestor of

i. Abraham1, an "Indon" who owed the estate of William Pitts 1 shilling, 6 pence on 16 February 1762, head of a Dorchester County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:740].

ii. Abraham2, head of a Dorchester County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:664].

iii. Abraham3 Buship, head of a Dorchester County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 [MD:726].

iv. Jacob, head of a Little Creek Hundred, Sussex County, Delaware household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:735].

v. London, head of a Kent County, Maryland household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:158] and 3 "free colored" in Little Creek Hundred, Kent County, Delaware in 1820 [DE:25].

vi. Samuel, "F.N." head of a Kent County, Delaware household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [DE:52].

 

BLACK FAMILY

Members of the Black family in Maryland were

1        i. William, born say 1720.

ii. Charles, "Negro" head of a Kent County, Maryland household of 3 "other free" in 1790 and 4 in Cecil County in 1800 [MD:215]. He may have been identical to Charles Black, head of a Gunpowder Hundred, Baltimore County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [MD:670].

iii. James, head of a Cecil County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:262].

iv. Lewis, head of a Dorchester County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:657].

v. Joe, "free negro" head of a Prince George's County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:303] and 4 in 1810 [MD:58].

 

1.    William Black, born say 1720, married Esther Banneker on 22 September 1744 in St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore [Reamy, Records of St. Paul's Parish, I:32, 36]. They may have been the ancestors of

i. Esther, head of a Back River Upper Hundred, Baltimore County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [MD:697].

ii. Caleb, head of a Back River Upper Hundred, Baltimore County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [MD:701].

iii. Charles, head of a Back River Upper Hundred household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [MD:693].

iv. Fanny, head of an Annapolis household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [MD:117].

v. Hannah, head of a Baltimore City household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [MD:309].

vi. Elizabeth, head of a Pipe Creek and North Hundred, Baltimore County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [MD:629].

vii. Reed, head of a Pipe Creek and North Hundred, Baltimore County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [MD:671].

 

BLAKE FAMILY

Members of the Blake family of Maryland were listed in the inventory of the Somerset County estate of Mr. Thomas Robins on 14 November 1732 [Prerogative Court Inventories 1730-2, 16:717]:

i. Hannah1, valued at 3 pounds in 1732. She was a spinster charged in Somerset County court with having an illegitimate child in All Hallows Parish on 10 January 1732 but excused because she was a "black woman" and thus not subject to punishment for fornication [Judicial Record 1733-5, 244; 1735-7, 18-19].

ii. Comfort1, valued at 5 pounds, 10 shillings in 1732.

1        iii. George1, valued at 10 pounds in 1732.

iv. Samuel, valued at 10 pounds in 1732. He purchased 54 acres in Worcester County called Partnership and the house where he was then living from George Blake on 2 March 1763, and on 15 May 1772 he and his wife Mary Blake sold the land to Daniel Mifflin [DB E:463-4; I:93-4].

v. Sarah, valued at 1 pound, 10 shillings in 1732.

vi. Charles1, valued at 3 pounds in 1732.

 

1.    George1 Blake, born say 1725, was valued at 10 pounds in the estate of Thomas Robins in 1732. He surveyed 1,357 acres between the Pocomoke River and the seaside, near Gibbs Ferry and Littleton Creek, on 29 September 1759 and was called a "Negro," "Malatto," "Negro or Molatter" when he and his wife Esther sold the land, called Partnership, in parcels of about 50 acres each. He sold to Samuel Blake 54 acres and the house where Samuel was then living on 2 March 1763. And he sold the last 100 acres, called Elbon Ridge and Blakes Lott to Bowdoin Robins for 40 pounds on 14 September 1764 [DB E:294-5, 302, 463-4, 471; F:236-8, 265]. He may have been the George Blake, Senr, "free Molatto," who bound himself as a servant for one year to Mr. John Rock by Worcester County deed of 7 December 1797 for 15 pounds [S:107]. He was head of a Worcester County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 and 4 in 1800 [MD:732]. He may have been the father of

i. George2, taxable in Mattopony Hundred Worcester County in 1783, "Capt. John Selby surety" [MSA S1161-11-8, p.2]. He was a "free Mulatto" who bound himself as a servant to Joseph Delastatius in Worcester County for eighteen months for 20 pounds on 3 September 1797 [DB S:14-5].

ii. Charles2, head of a Worcester County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:767]. He purchased a "negro man" named Vebo from Affry D. Johnson for $1 by Worcester County deed of 21 April 1832 [DB AY:71-2].

 

Other members of the Blake family were

2        i. Betty, born say 1750.

ii. Jacob, born about 1756, applied for a pension in Worcester County court on 20 June 1818 and 28 February 1821 for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted at Snowhill in 1780 and was discharged at Annapolis. His household consisted of his wife who was seventy years old, a son who was sixteen, a nineteen-year-old daughter, another daughter who was blind, and four grandchildren. His property was valued at $40 [National Archives file S34654, http://www.fold3.com].

iii. Edward1, a "molatto" who enlisted in the Revolutionary War [Archives of Maryland 47:460].

iv. William, head of a Baltimore Town household of 2 "other free" in 1790, perhaps the William Blake who was a "Negro" head of a Worcester County household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [MD:732].

v. Henry, "Negro" head of a Worcester County household of 9 "other free" in 1800 [MD:731].

vi. Harman, "Negro" head of a Worcester County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:736], probably named for the free African American Harman family of Worcester County. He owed 6 pounds to the Worcester County estate of Thomas Robins on 22 December 1770 [Prerogative Inventories 104:56]. He was head of an Accomack County household of 2 "free colored" in 1830.

vii. James2, Senior, "Negro" head of a Kent County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:169].

viii. James3, head of a Dorchester County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:729].

ix. James4, born before 1776, head of a Worcester County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:740] and 4 in 1810 [MD:578] and 5 "free colored" in 1830.

x. James5, taxable in Mattopony Hundred, Worcester County in 1783, John Redding his surety [MSA S1161-11-8, p.1]. He was head of a Worcester County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:731] and 8 in 1810 [MD:629].

xi. James6, Junior, head of a Kent County household of 4 "other free" and a slave in 1800 [MD:169] and 2 "other free" in 1810 [MD:910].

xii. David, head of a Baltimore City household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:152] and 8 in 1810 [MD:251].

xiii. Peter, born before 1776, head of a Worcester County household of 8 "free colored" in 1830.

xiv. Henry, born before 1776, head of a Worcester County household of 3 "free colored" in 1830.

xv. Sally, born before 1776, head of a Worcester County household of 3 "free colored" in 1830.

xvi. Esther, born before 1776, head of a Worcester County household of 8 "free colored" in 1830.

xvii. Benjamin, born about 1782, obtained a certificate of freedom in Talbot County on 9 September 1822: a negro man ... about 40 years of age, 5 feet 10 1/2 Inch high ... born Free and raised in Talbot County [Certificates of Freedom 1815-28, 168].

xviii. Standley, born about 1770, head of a Dorchester County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:728], obtained a certificate of freedom in Dorchester County on 5 August 1806: Copper colour ... born free, raised in Dorchester County, aged about 36 years [Certificates of Freedom for Negroes 1806-64, 1]. He was probably related to the Standley family of Dorchester County.

xix. Hannah2, born April 1771, set free by Daniel Miflin in Worcester County on 16 June 1776 [Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Duck Creek Monthly Meeting, Deed of Manumission of Slaves, 1774-1792, 61], head of a Worcester County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:744].

xx. Rachel, "Negro" head of a Worcester County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:731].

xxi. Levin, sold lot number 60 in the town of Snow Hill by Worcester County deed of 6 September 1782 [DB K:468-9]. He was head of a Worcester County household of 2 "other free" and a slave in 1800 [MD:790] and 11 "other free" in 1810 [MD:614]. He purchased 20 acres called Amity and Amity's Addition in Worcester County for 60 pounds on 5 April 1802 [DB U:650-1].

3        xxii. Mary, born in April 1769.

xxiii. Archibald, head of a Kent County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 [MD:169].

xxiv. James7, born about 1768, obtained a certificate of freedom in Dorchester County on 6 June 1807: blackish Colour, long hair ... born free ... aged about thirty nine [Certificates of Freedom for Negroes 1806-64, 3].

xxv. Lucinda, born before 1776, head of a Talbot County household of 10 "free colored" in 1830.

 

2.    Betty Blake, born say 1750, was set free with her children Susey, John and Comfort Blake by Daniel Miflin in Worcester County on 16 June 1776 [DB I:640 and Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Duck Creek Monthly Meeting, Deed of Manumission of Slaves, 1774-1792, 61]. She was the mother of

i. Susey.

ii. John, testified in a Somerset County case against free Negro Jacob, alias Jacob Purnell, who was charged with stealing five hogs belonging to Thomas Martin. On 4 March 1806 John testified that he was living at Jacob's house for about a month and saw Jacob and Robert J. H. Handy's slave Moses kill the hogs in Jacob's stables, salt them and bury part of them in a barrel in the garden [DB Y:45, 47]. Jacob, a "free Negrow," bound himself as a servant to Benjamin Purnell, Jr., by Worcester County deed of 2 July 1779 [DB K:187]. Jacob Purnell was head of a Worcester County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [MD:604].

iii. Comfort2, born in December 1776 [Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Duck Creek Monthly Meeting, Deed of Manumission of Slaves, 1774-1792, 61].

 

3.    Mary Blake, born in April 1769, was set free by Daniel Miflin in Worcester County on 16 June 1776 [Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Duck Creek Monthly Meeting, Deed of Manumission of Slaves, 1774-1792, 61], a "Negro" head of a Worcester County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:724]. She made a Worcester County bond, with John Gunn as surety, to keep the state of Maryland harmless from the illegitimate child named Levin which she bore on 10 Jaunary 1783 [DB O:326]. She had a child named Peggy by Levin Cambridge in November 1790 [DB P:301]. She was the mother of

i. Levin2, born 10 January 1783.

ii. Peggy, born in November 1790.

 

Members of the Blake family in Delaware were

i. James1 "& Son," head of a New Castle County household of 10 "other free" in 1800 [DE:271].

ii. Abram, perhaps the unnamed son counted in James Blake's New Castle County household in 1800, head of a New Castle County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [DE:231] and 6 "free colored" in Mill Creek Hundred, New Castle County, in 1820 [DE:127].

iii. Edward2, born 1776-1794, head of a New Castle County, Delaware household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [DE:301] and 8 "free colored" in Appoquinimink Hundred in 1820 [MD:149].

iv. John, head of a Little Creek Hundred, Kent County, Delaware household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [DE:35] and 5 "free colored" in Wilmington Borough, New Castle County in 1820 [DE:185].

v. Rosanna, born before 1776, head of a Wilmington, New Castle County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:202].

 

BOARMAN FAMILY

1.    James Boarman, born say 1670, was the Indian servant of John Dent of St. Mary's County on 11 August 1691 when the Charles County court ordered that the constable for Port Tobacco Hundred return him to his master [Court Record 1690-2, 237]. He may have been the father of

i. Samuel, born say 1695, ran away from his master, Captain Abraham Ewens of Kent County, Delaware, and was brought before the Kent County, Delaware Court in November 1718. Samuel was ordered to serve Ewens four years for the expenses in taking him up, and Ewens was ordered to pay seven pounds to the sheriff of New Castle County for his expenses and five pounds to John Cowgil for curing him of divers very bad wounds [General Court Records 1718-22, 12-13].

 

They may have been the ancestors of

2        i. Hannah, born say 1775.

 

2.    Hannah Boarman, born say 1775, was the mother of

i. Susannah, born about 1800, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 24 April 1816: a bright mulatto girl ... about 16 years old ... a free woman being the reputed daughter of Hannah Boarman, a free woman of color.

ii. John, born about 1803, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 27 September 1819: a bright mulatto boy, about 16 years old ... is free being the reputed son of Hannah Boarman a free woman of color [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 20, 31].

 

BOND FAMILY

Baltimore County

1.    "Mulatto" Bess, born say 1692, was the servant of the widow Day in August 1711 when she appeared in Baltimore County court and named William Bond as the father of her illegitimate child [Liber IS#B, 247, cited by Barnes, Baltimore County Families, 1659-1759, 40]. She may have been the mother of

i. Richard, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 6 "other free" in 1790, perhaps the father of Edward Bond who obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 16 January 1818: aged about twenty one years ... Yellowish Complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 108].

ii. Harry Bonds, a "free negro" taxable in Spesutia Upper Hundred, Harford County in 1783 [MSA S1161-6-11, p.54].

 

Talbot County

1.    Martha Bond, born say 1725, the servant of Francis Pickering of St. Michael's Parish, confessed to the Talbot County court in November 1745 that she had an illegitimate "Mulatto" child [Judgment Record 1745-6, 245]. She may have been the mother of

i. John, a "free mulatto" living on Talbot Island, Tuckahoe & Kings Creek, Talbot Island, Talbot County in 1783 [MSA S1161-10-3, p.11].

ii. Rachel, head of a Caroline County household of 3 "other free" in 1790.

 

BONE FAMILY

1.   Elizabeth Bone, born say 1740, a white woman servant of Thomas Allender of Baltimore County confessed to the court in March 1758 that she had a son named Nathan by a "Negro." The court sold her son to Mary Allender, Thomas's daughter, for 20 shillings and sold Elizabeth to her master for seven years in August 1758 for 20 pounds [Criminal Record, 1757-9, 100, 135]. She was the mother of

i. Nathan, born before March 1758.

ii. ?David, head of a St. Mary's County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:436].

iii. Sarah Bones, born before 1776, head of a Frederick County household of 4 "free colored" in 1830.

 

BOON FAMILY

1.    Susanna Middleton, born say 1770, was a white woman who had mixed-race children named Boon in Frederick County. She was the mother of

i. Thomas Boon, born about 1794, obtained a certificate in Frederick County on 4 June 1816: a dark Mulatto Man about Twenty two years, about five feet eight and three quarter Inches high ... free born and a Child of Susanna Middleton a white woman as appears by the affidavit of Barbara Ney.

ii. Susanna Boon, born about 1795, obtained a certificate of freedom in Frederick County on 4 June 1816: a bright Mulatto, aged about twenty one years, five feet four Inches and three quarters of an Inch high ... child of Susanna Middleton.

iii. John Boon, born about 1796, obtained a certificate in Frederick County on 4 June 1816: a Dark Mulatto aged about twenty years, five feet three inches high ... free Born child of Susanna Middleton a white woman as appears by the affidavit of Barbara Ney.

iv. Nancy Boon, born about 1801, obtained a certificate of freedom in Frederick County 4 June 1816: a Dark Mulatto aged about 15 years, five feet two inches and an half high ... free born child of Susanna Middleton [Certificates of Freedom 1806-27, 59-60].

 

BOOTH FAMILY

The Booth family won their petition for their freedom from David Weems in the Maryland Court of Appeals. And members of the family won a suit for their freedom from Joseph Mudd in Charles County court in August 1803. Their cases were probably based on descent from a white woman. Members of the family were

i. Richard, brother of Edward Booth, obtained his freedom from David Weems, perhaps identical to R. Boothe, head of a Prince George's County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [MD:24].

1        ii. Hannah, born say 1765.

iii. Edward, born about 1767, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 2 May 1807: about the age of forty years ... his complexion of a nutmeg Colour is the Identical person who petitioned for his freedom in the General Court against David Weems and who as it appears obtained his freedom by the decision of the Court of Appeals in the case on the appeal of Richard Booth who is the Brother of the said Edward Booth, against the said David Weems. The said Edward Booth was born on Herring Bay in Anne Arundel County [Certificates of Freedom 1806-7, 12]. He was head of a Baltimore City household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [MD:28].

iv. Solomon, head of a Baltimore City household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [MD:309].

v. James, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [MD:85].

vi. David, head of a Washington County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [MD:534].

vii. Peter, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [MD:90].

 

1.    Hannah Booth, born say 1765, was freed by Alexander McPherson by deed recorded in Prince George's County on 1 November 1803: my Negro woman Hannah ... descended from the family that calls themselves Booths ... and her six children: Margaret, Rachel, Henny, James, Henry and John. Hannah recorded the manumission in Charles County on 29 March 1804: Whereas a Family of Negroes claimed by Joseph Mudd of Charles County, calling themselves Boothes, Sued for and obtained their freedom in Charles County Court at August Term 1803 and whereas the Negroes herein after named are of the same family [Prince George County Land Records JRM #10, 192; Charles County Land Records IB #6, 83]. Hannah was the mother of

i. Margaret.

ii. Rachel, born say 1788, head of a Washington County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [MD:549].

iii. Henny.

iv. James.

v. Henry.

vi. John.

 

BOSTON FAMILY

Members of the Boston family were

i. James, born say 1714, married Katherine Banneker, "negroes," on 22 May 1735 in St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore [Reamy, Records of St. Paul's Parish, I:32].

1        ii. Catherine, born say 1740.

2        ii. Wy, born about 1760.

3        iii. William, born say 1763.

4        iv. Philip, born about 1772.

v. Charles, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:101].

vi. John, head of a Dorchester County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 [MD:669].

vii. Clarissa, born about 1784, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 5 February 1819: aged about thirty five years ... yellowish complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 127].

 

1.    Catherine Boston, born say 1740, was described as a yellow woman, being a Portuguese, in a suit brought by her son, Anthony Boston, a slave who was granted his freedom in Anne Arundel County about 1793. The court ruled that the family descended from a Spanish woman named Maria, to her daughter Linah, to Linah's daughter Violet. Linah was described as being of yellow complexion with long black hair [Catterall, Judicial Cases Concerning Slavery, IV:51 (Rawlings v. Boston, 3 Har. and McH. 139, May 1793)]. Catherine was the mother of

i. Anthony, won his freedom about 1793, head of a Prince George's County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:301].

5        ii. ?Sarah, born say 1785.

 

2.    Wy Boston, born about 1760, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 20 August 1818: aged about fifty eight years ... black Complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 120]. She may have been the mother of

i. Peter, born about 1783, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 22 August 1818: aged about thirty five years ... black Complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 120].

ii. Darky, born about 1786, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 26 October 1818: aged about thirty two years ... Dark Complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 124].

iii. Robert, born about 1786, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 10 September 1812: aged about twenty six years ... dark brown complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 25].

iv. Sarah, born about 1788, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 20 August 1818: aged about thirty years ... black Complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 119].

 

3.    William1 Boston, born say 1763, was head of a Talbot County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 and 5 in 1800 [MD:518]. He may have been the father of

i. William2, born about 1788, obtained a certificate of freedom in Talbot County on 27 July 1816: a dark mulatto man ... about 28 years of age, 5 feet 6 1/2 inches high ... born free & raised in the County [Certificates of Freedom 1815-28, 39].

 

4.    Philip Boston, born about 1772, was head of an Anne Arundel County household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [MD:109]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 27 March 1812: a negro ... dark complexion, about forty years of age ... obtained his freedom by petition in the late General Court against Richard Sprigg [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 19]. He may have been the father of

i. Peter, born about 1791, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 20 April 1814: aged about twenty three years dark complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 41].

ii. David, born about 1793, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 3 October 1815: about twenty two years of age ... dark complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 65].

iii. Caesar, born about 1795, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 7 June 1817: aged about twenty two years ... dark complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 100].

 

5.    Sarah Boston, born say 1785, a "free woman of colour," was living in Prince George's County when her children obtained certificates of freedom. She was the mother of

i. Charles Boston Dulaney, born about 1804, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 13 August 1825: bright complexion ... about 21 years old ... son of Sarah Boston, a free woman of colour.

ii. Peter, born about 1806, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 13 September 1826: a mulatto boy, about 20 years of age ... son of Sarah Boston.

iii. Betsy, born about 1810, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 13 September 1826: a mulatto woman, about 16 years old ... daughter of Sarah Boston.

iv. Mary, born about 1812, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 13 September 1826: a mulatto girl, about 14 years old ... daughter of Sarah Boston [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 53, 59, 60].

 

Notes:

1.A "Negro Man named Boston," a white woman named Nancy who still had 3 years to serve, and a "Mulatto Girl aged 8 years free at the age of 31 years" were listed in the inventory of the Anne Arundel County estate of James Barnes on 16 May 1749 [Prerogative Inventories & Accounts 1749, 176].

 

BOSWELL FAMILY

Members of the Boswell family were

i. Terry, head of a Charles County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:557].

1        ii. Trecy, born say 1775.

 

1.    Trecy Boswell, born say 1775, was a "free woman of colour" and the mother of

i. Maria, born about 1795, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 12 January 1818: a black woman about 23 years old, 5 feet 7 or 8 inches tall, and has a brown complexion ... a descendant of Trecy Boswell, a free woman.

ii. Letty, born about 1799, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 12 January 1818: a black woman about 19 years old, 5 feet 7 inches tall, and has a brown complexion ... the descendant of Trecy Boswell.

iii. Henry, born about 1802, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 9 January 1823: about 21 years old and 6 feet 1-1/2 inches tall ... son of Trecy Boswell.

iv. Elizabeth, born about 1805, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 9 January 1823: light complexion, is about 18 years old, and 5 feet 4-1/2 inches tall ... daughter of Trecy Boswell, a free woman of colour [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 24, 44].

 

BOTELER FAMILY

Members of the Boteler family in Maryland were

i. Black Charles, head of a Prince George's County household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [MD:257].

ii. Mary, "free Negro" head of a Prince George's County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:257].

iii. Letty, "free Negro" head of a Prince George's County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:279].

iv. Betty, head of a Washington County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:555].

v. Catherine, born about 1801, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 13 August 1822: a mulatto woman, about 21 years old, and 5 feet 1 inch tall ... born free in Prince George's County.

vi. John, born about 1807, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 8 July 1828: a bright mulatto man, about 21 years old, and 5 feet 8 1/2 inches tall ... son of Negro Betsey, a free woman of color [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 42, 74].

 

BOWEN FAMILY

1.    Alley Bowen, born say 1755, was indicted for "Mollatto Bastardy" by the Kent County court in November 1774 [Criminal Dockets, appearances to November 1774, no.17]. She was probably related to

i. Nathan, head of a Kent County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [MD:837], perhaps identical to the Nathan Bowen who was head of a Kent County household of 5 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [MD:834].

 

BOWSER/ BOWZER FAMILY

1.    Richard Bowser, born say 1720, was a "free Negroe," who was buried near the ferry to Kent Island on 24 July 1769. His wife may have been Rachel Bowser who was presented by the Queen Anne's County court in March 1770 for failing to list herself as a taxable. She was buried near the ferry to Kent Island on 29 July 1771 [Wright, Vital Records of the Jesuit Mission, Cordova, 8, 11; Surles, And they Appeared at Court 1770-1772, 10]]. They may have been related to the Bowser family of Virginia and North Carolina. Their descendants may have been

i. Elizabeth, born say 1745, presented by the Queen Anne's County court in March 1770 for failing to list herself as a taxable [Surles, And they Appeared at Court 1770-1772, 10].

ii.. Thomas, born about 1758, a twelve-year-old orphan child bound David Evans by the Queen Anne's County court in March 1770 [Judgment Records 1771-80, 1], head of a Kent County, Maryland household of 3 "other free" and 4 slaves in 1810 [MD:878].

iii. Elias, kept and clothed by John Carcy from 23 December 1770 to November 1771 in Queen Anne's County [Surles, And they Appeared at Court 1770-1772, 63].

2        iv. Ruth, born say 1760.

v. Percy, head of a Dorchester County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:691].

vi. Simon, head of a Kent County, Maryland household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:145].

vii. Nancy, married Joseph Wilson, "free blacks," 8 September 1810 in St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore [Reamy, Records of St. Paul's Parish, I:67].

viii. William, who was married to Sylina, "Neg. (of) Mrs. Mary Jonhns" on 15 September 1805 when their daughter Eliza was baptized at St. George's Parish, Harford County [St. John's and St. George's Parish Registers, p. 192].

ix. Phil, "Negro" head of a Harford County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [MD:755].

x. Robert, head of a Baltimore City household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [MD:221].

xi. Lewis, head of a Baltimore City household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [MD:228].

xii. Rachel, head of a Kent County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [MD:853].

 

2.    Ruth Bowser, born say 1760, had an illegitimate child named Ann by Thomas Jackson in Queen Anne's County in 1779 [Judgment Record 1771-80, images 176, 221; Surles, And they Appeared at Court 1779, 1782, 1785, 1786, 1787, 15-16]. She was head of a Queen Anne's County household of 6 "other free" in 1790. She was the mother of

i. Ann, born about 1779.

 

BRADY FAMILY

Members of the Brady family were

i. Charles, born about 1769, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 6 March 1809: aged forty years or thereabouts, complexion very bright, hair long and middling strait ... was born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 4].

ii. James, head of a Kent County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:145].

iii. Nancy, "free negro" head of a Prince George's County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 [MD:275].

iv. Mary, a "Mulatto" married John, the slave of Mrs. Hoxton, on 20 March 1793 in St. Mary's Mattawoman Parish, Charles County [Colonial Dames of America, Records of St. Mary's Parish, 1793-1861, 161].

 

BRENNING/ BROWNING FAMILY

1.    Sarah Brenning, born say 1743, the white spinster servant of William Spencer, was convicted in March 1763 by the Kent County, Maryland Court for having a child by a "Negroe man" [Criminal Record 1761-72, 29]. She may have been the mother of

i. Charles Browning, head of a Kent County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [MD:907].

 

BROWN FAMILY

Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties

1.    Eleanor1 Brown, born say 1689, the servant of Thomas Ricketts, confessed to the Anne Arundel County court in November 1709 that she had a child by her master's "Negroe Will." Her son, born October 1709, was bound to Henry Mereday until the age of thirty-one. In March 1718/9 she confessed to having a child by "Negroe Sam belonging to Col. Mahall." The court ordered her to serve her master, Thomas Ricketts, twelve months for the trouble of his house and bound the child to Henry Merryday until the age of thirty-one [Judgment Record 1708-12, 98, 201; 1717-9, 307]. She was the mother of

i. John1, born about 1713, a ten-year-old "Mallato" with twenty-one years to serve when he was valued at 15 pounds in the 31 May 1723 inventory of the Anne Arundel County estate of Thomas Ricketts, deceased [Prerogative Court Inventories and Accounts, MSA SM 11, SR 4330-1, 8:196-9].

2        ii. Margaret, born about 1716.

iii. Philemon, born about 1718, about four or five years of age on 31 May 1723 when he was listed in Thomas Ricketts' estate [Prerogative Court Inventories & Accounts 8:196-9].

 

2.    Margaret Brown, born about 1716, was a seven-year-old "Mallato" with twenty-four years to serve when she was valued at 11 pounds in the 31 May 1723 inventory of Thomas Ricketts [Prerogative Court Inventories and Accounts, MSA SM 11, SR 4330-1, 8:196-9]. She was called "Mallatto Margaret at Meredith Davis'" on 27 November 1739 when she confessed to the Prince George's County court that she had an illegitimate child. The court ordered that she receive ten lashes. She was called Margaret Brown (no race indicated), the servant of Meredith Davis, on 28 August 1742 when the court ordered that she receive ten lashes and bound her illegitimate child named John to her master until the age of twenty-one. She had another child named Charity before 16 March 1744/5 (for which she received 10 lashes) and another child before 23 August 1748 [Court Record 1738-40, 435, 515-6; 1742-3, 127; 1744-6, 26; 1747-8, 354]. She was called a "Molatto woman Pegg" and had eighteen months to serve when she was listed in the inventory of the Prince George's County estate of Meredith Davis which was recorded on 23 February 1754 [Prerogative Inventories 58:7-9]. She was the mother of

i. ?Ann, born say 1739.

ii. John2, born about 1742, perhaps the unnamed "Molatto" boy who still had eleven years to serve when he was listed in the inventory of the Prince George's County estate of Meredith Davis which was recorded on 23 February 1754 [Prerogative Inventories 55:7-9]. He may have been the John Brown, "Free Mulatto," who bound himself to Reverend Mr. Thomas Bacon in Frederick County. Bacon petitioned the court in March 1765 saying that John had runaway twice since binding himself as an apprentice. The court ordered that he serve Bacon another year as restitution [Judgments 1763-6, 377]. He may have been the John Brown who was head of a Montgomery County household of 4 "other free" in 1790.

iii. Charity, born about 1745.

iv. ? ___ge (George?), head of an Anne Arundel County household of 7 "other free" in 1790.

 

3.    Ann Brown, born say 1739, confessed to Prince George's County court on 27 November 1753 that she had a five-week-old "Mollatto" child named Eleanor. The court sold the child to Mary Edelen until the age of thirty-one [Court Record 1751-4, 512]. She may have been identical to Nanny Brown who was head of an Anne Arundel County household of 7 "other free" in 1790. She was the mother of

i. Eleanor2, born in October 1753.

 

Other members of the Brown family on the Western Shore were

i. Henrietta, head of a Charles County household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [MD:523].

ii. Hannah, head of a Baltimore City household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:148].

iii. Thomas, head of a Baltimore City household of 5 "other free" and a slave in 1790 and 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:137].

iv. Joshua, head of a Baltimore City household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:139].

v. Benjamin, head of a Baltimore Town household of 7 "other free" in 1790.

vi. John, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 5 "other free" in 1790.

vii. Mary, head of a Baltimore Town household of 3 "other free" in 1790.

viii. John, "F.M." head of a Back River, Baltimore County household of 4 "other free" in 1790.

ix. Samuel, head of a Frederick County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:804].

x. Catherine, head of a Frederick County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:987].

xi. Jane, head of a Frederick County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:979].

xii. Mary, born about 1789, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 21 August 1819: aged about thirty years ... dark Complexion ... free born [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 141].

 

Kent County

1.    Elizabeth Browne, born say 1690, was the servant of John Carville of Kent County, Maryland on 24 March 1707/8 when she admitted in court that she had a child by William Jenkins, one of her master's slaves. The court ordered that she receive twenty lashes, that her child serve her master according to law, and that her master deliver her to the court at the expiration of her term of service [Proceedings 1707-9, fol. 49]. She may have been the ancestor of some of the following members of the Brown family:

i. Margarite, "Negro" head of a Kent County, Maryland household of 6 "other free" in 1790.

ii. Darky, "Negro" head of a Kent County household of 3 "other free" in 1790.

iii. Harry, head of a Kent County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:145].

iv. John, head of a Kent County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:145].

v. Thomas, head of a Kent County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:145].

vi. Dark, head of a Talbot County household of 7 "other free" in 1790.

vii. Nicholas, a "mulatto" fined 10 shillings by the Queen Anne's County court in March 1774 [Surles, and they Appeared in Court, 1774-7, 12], head of a Queen Anne's County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:325].

viii. Abraham, born say 1752, discharged from the service of William Newnam by the Queen Anne's County court in March 1774 [Surles, and they Appeared in Court, 1770-1777, 17].

viii. Anthony, head of a Queen Anne's County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:323].

ix. Thomas, head of a Talbot County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 and 5 in 1800 [MD:533].

x. Benjamin, a "free negro" taxable in Gunpowder Hundred, Harford County in 1783 [MSA 1161-6-7, p.58], "Negro" head of a Harford County household of 4 "other free" in 1790.

xi. James, head of a North Millford, Cecil County household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

xii. John, head of a Cecil County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:236].

xiii. Daniel, head of a Cecil County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:223].

xiv. Perry, born about 1790, obtained a certificate of freedom in Talbot County on 19 August 1815: a Bright Mulatto man ... about 25 years of age, 5 feet 8 inches high ... born free & raised in the County [Certificates of Freedom 1807-15, 12].

 

BRUMEJUM/ BRUMAGEN FAMILY

1.     Eliza Brumejum, born say 1692, was presented by the court in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, in August 1712 for having a "Mallato" bastard child. She confessed that "a Negroe man called James belonging to Stephen Warman" was the father of the child, and the court ordered that she be sold for seven years and bound her unnamed son to her master for thirty-one years [Judgment Records 1712-15, Liber TB, no. 3, p.5]. She was probably the ancestor of

2        i. James, born say 1712.

ii. R. Brumager, head of a Baltimore City household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [MD:75].

 

2.    James Brumigem, born say 1712, was tried by the Frederick County, Virginia court on 24 January 1746/7 for breaking into the house of Captain John Hite and taking some gunpowder. He was found not guilty of felony but found guilty of petty larceny and given thirty-one lashes, made to stand in the pillory and ordered to post bond of 40 pounds currency for his good behavior. He was called a "Mulatto" on 5 March 1746/7 when the court ordered that he receive twenty-five lashes for abusing Lawrence Stevens in a very ill manner. On 6 March 1746/7 the court ordered that the sheriff sell James' goods: a horse, saddle, bridle, coat jacket, leather jacket, rifle, gun powder horn, silver buckles, silver clasps, three axes, a cross-cut saw, and a hand saw for a debt of about 8 pounds he owed Jost Hite, John Hite and Lewis Stephens. His estate was attached for debt again on 7 August 1747, 7 June 1748 and 3 August 1748. He died before 6 September 1748 when the court granted administration of his estate to Peter Tostee, his greatest creditor [Orders 1745-8, 201, 213, 224, 301-2, 435, 462, 488]. He may have been the ancestor of

3        i. Thomas Brumagen, born say 1740.

 

3.    Thomas Brumagen, born say 1740, was indicted with Jane Clark for fornication by the Frederick County, Virginia court on 7 September 1762. Jane was discharged but Thomas was ordered to pay a fine of 500 pounds of tobacco. Richard Pearis, Gent., undertook to pay his fine. He was sued by William and Jane Phillips on 5 November 1762, but the case was agreed before coming to trial. He was convicted of stealing a steer belonging to John Shearer on 2 September 1766 and chose to receive 39 lashes corporal punishment rather than be tried at the General court. Seth Dungen sued him for 3 pounds, 10 shillings on 8 October 1766 [Orders 1762-3, 156, 393; 1765-7, 172, 224]. He may have been the father of

i. George Brumagam, born say 1760, taxable in Frederick County, Virginia, in 1787 and 1788 [PPTL 1782-1802]. He enlisted as a soldier in the Revolution from Virginia: George Brumma, yellow complexioned, born in Australia [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 148].

 

BRYAN(T) FAMILY

1.    Alice Bryan, born say 1681, confessed in Kent County, Delaware Court in September 1699 that she had a "bastard Molattoe Child" by "William Trippits Negro man, Called Jack" and admitted that it was due to "her owne wicked inclinations." She received thirty-nine lashes and was ordered to serve her master, Daniel Rutty, an additional two years. The court bound her "molattoe" son, Peter, to Rutty for thirty-one years. Later that year in December she came into court and bound her four- year-old illegitimate daughter Elizabeth (no race indicated) to Rutty, for eighteen years [Court Records 1699-1703, 4b, 10b]. Her Children were

i. Elizabeth, born April 1696.

ii. Peter, born in 1699.

iii. ?Sarah, born say 1701, "a mulatto woman begotten on a white woman, convicted on by the Westmoreland County, Virginia Court on 26 January 1708/9 of "haveing a Mulatto bastard Child by a white man" while serving her indenture to a Mr. Westcomb [Orders 1705-21, 108a].

2        iv. ?Mary, born say 1703.

 

2.    Mary Bryant, born say 1703, was the "Molattoe" daughter of a free white woman according to testimony by her daughter Daphne in Prince George's County court on 23 November 1756 [Court Record 1754-8, 356]. She was the mother of

3        i. Daphne, born say 1720.

4        ii. ?Abigail, born say 1735.

 

3.    Daphne Bryant, born say 1723, petitioned the Prince George's County court on 23 November 1756 saying that she and her children: Sarah, Dick, and Hannah, were free but held in slavery by Henry Watson [Court Record 1754-8, 356, 360]. She was the mother of

i. Sarah, born say 1744.

ii. Dick, born say 1746.

iii. Hannah, born say 1748, head of an Octararo, Cecil County household of 11 "other free" in 1790.

 

4.    Abigail Brian, born say 1735, was head of a St. Mary's County, Maryland household of 3 "other free" in 1790. She was the mother of

i. Jeremiah, born about 1755, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 30 April 1822: son of Abigail ... aged sixty seven years, Dark Complexion ... born free & raised in Saint Mary's County [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 60].

 

Another Bryan family:

1.    Ann1 Bryan, born say 1700, was the servant of the Reverend Mr. Alexander Williamson on 18 June 1718 when the Kent County, Maryland court adjudged her child to be "begot by a negro man," ordered her sold for seven years and bound her child to her master [Proceedings 1718-20, 87-8]. She may have been the mother of

i. Ann2, born say 1730.

 

1.    Ann2 Bryan, born say 1730, was called "a spinster white servant" on 20 November 1750 when she confessed to the Kent County, Maryland Court that she had a "Mulatto" child by a "Negro." She and her child were sold to her master, John Hix, she for seven years and her child until the age of thirty-one [Criminal Proceedings 1748-60, 68]. Perhaps her children were

i. John, head of a North Sassafras, Cecil County household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

ii. Nathaniel, head of a Kent County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:157].

iii. Charles, head of a Kent County household of 3 "other free" and 2 slaves in 1800 [MD:157].

 

Other members of the Bryan family were

i. David, born about 1757, a six-year-old "Mulatto" boy to be free at twenty-one, listed in the inventory of the Baltimore County estate of Christopher Sutton on 18 September 1763 [Prerogative Inventories 82:191].

ii. William, "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 1 "other free" in 1790 and 4 in St. Mary's County in 1800 [MD:393].

iii. Abraham, head of a Baltimore City household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [MD:138].

iv. James, head of an Anne Arundel household of 1 "other free" in 1800 [MD:101].

v. Ama, head of a Dorchester County household of 3 "other free" and a slave in 1800 [MD:732].

 

BUCKLEY FAMILY

1.    Elizabeth Buckley, born say 1732, was a spinster white woman living in Talbot County in June 1752 when the court convicted her of having a "Mulatter" child. The court sold her for seven years and her child for thirty-one [Judgment Record 1751-5, n.p.]. She may have been the mother of

i. William, head of a Talbot County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [MD:514].

 

BUCKWELL/ BUCKELL FAMILY

1.   Susanna Buckwell, born say 1750, a white spinster, confessed to the Kent County court in March 1770 that she had a "Mulatto" child by a "Negroe." The court ordered her sold for seven years and sold her daughter Frances or Fanny to Marmaduke Tilden until the age of thirty-one [Criminal Record 1761-72, 117a; Criminal Dockets 1766-71]. She was the mother of

i. Francis, born about 1770.

ii. ?Michael Buckell, head of a Dorchester County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:717].

 

BULEY FAMILY

Members of the Buley/ Beuley family were

1        i. Eve, born say 1743.

2        ii. Fortune, born say 1747.

 

1.    Eve Buley, born say 1743, was prosecuted in Somerset County, Maryland in 1764 for having a child by a "negro slave." On 17 March 1767 she confessed to having another illegitimate child by a free person, for which she paid a double fine of three pounds because she refused to identify the father [Judicial Records 1763-65, 117; 1766-7, 106-7]. She may have been the mother of

i. George, a "Mulatto" soldier who enlisted in the Revolution in Dorchester County [National Archives pension file W27576 cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 127].

ii. Stephen, head of a Dorchester County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:682].

iii. Henry, head of a Dorchester County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:663].

 

2.    Fortune Beuley, born say 1747, was the mother of

i. Jesse, born about 1766, head of a Dorchester County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:691]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Dorchester County on 25 September 1816: of a chesnut colour ... raised in Dorchester County and was born free and is the son of Fortune Beuley who was also born free, aged about 50 years [Certificates of Freedom for Negroes 1806-64, 34].

 

BURGESS FAMILY

1.     Margery Burgis, born say 1778, was the servant of John Smith of Prince George's County on 26 January 1796/7 when she confessed to the court that she had a "Malatta" child by her master's "negroe Cezar." The court ordered that she receive twenty six lashes, serve her master a year for the trouble of his house and ordered her master to deliver her up to the vestry of St. Paul's Parish at Charles Town when she completed her service to him [Court Records 1696-9, Archives of Maryland Online vol. 202:130-1]. She was probably the ancestor of

i. Edward, a "Molatto" who owed 3 pounds, 7 shillings to the Frederick County estate of Lawrence Owen about 1762 [Prerogative Inventories 77:337-8], perhaps the husband of Ann Perle Burgis who was named in  the Frederick County will of her father Daniel Perle [Prerogative Court Wills 33:351].

ii. John, a "Molatto" who owed 8 shillings to the Frederick County estate of Lawrence Owen about 1762 [Prerogative Inventories 77:337-8].

iii. Mary, born before 1776, head of a Frederick County household of 3 "free colored" in 1830.

 

BURKE FAMILY

1.    Ann Burk, born say 1685, admitted in Kent County, Delaware Court in May 1707 that she had a "Mollatoe Bastard Female Child" by a "Certain Negroe Man" on John Walker's plantation. She was given twenty-nine lashes, made to stand two hours in the pillory and ordered to serve her master another six and one-half years. Her daughter was bound to Walker until the age of thirty-one. A year later in May 1708 her "Mulatto" child, Archibald, born in Walker's house on 1 February 1704 was bound until the age of twenty-one years to Walker's children and executors, John and Daniel Walker [Court Records 1703-17, 56b, 72b]. Her children were

i. Archibald, born 1 February 1704.

ii. a daughter, born about 1707.

 

Another unrelated Burke family in Maryland was

i. John, born about 1686, a "Mollatto" servant of Mrs. Elizabeth Hawkins, who was twenty-one years old on 10 June 1707 when the Charles County court ordered that he be set free. Mary Elliott, wife of William Elliott, testified that he had been sold to Henry Hawkins by her former husband Henry Brawner [Court Record 1704-10, 326].

 

Their descendants may have been

i. Henry, head of a Queen Anne's County, Maryland household of 1 "other free" in 1790 [MD:102].

ii. Charles, head of a Baltimore City household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:148].

 

BURTON FAMILY

1.    Ann Barton, born say 1708, was living at the house of James Lindow in Manokin Hundred of Somerset Parish on 11 June 1725 when she had a "molatto" child. The court sold her child to Lindow for 510 pounds of tobacco, and Lindow posted bond of 20 pounds sterling to return her to the parish to be sold for seven years. She had a child by a (white?) man named John Rogers in October 1729. The court sold her child to Edward Rownd [Judicial Record 1725-7, 50-1; 1727-30, 225; 1733-5, 78, 80]. She may have been the ancestor of

2        i. Luke, born say 1745.

 

2.    Luke Burton, born say 1745, and his wife, Patience, registered the 10 May 1769 birth of their "mulatto" son, James, at St. George's Protestant Episcopal Church, Indian River Hundred, Sussex County, Delaware [Wright, Vital Records of Kent and Sussex Counties, 98]. They were the parents of

i. James, born 10 May 1769.

ii. ?Joseph, head of a New Castle County, Delaware household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [DE:161].

iii. ?Peter, head of a Lewis and Rehoboth Hundred, Sussex County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [DE:414].

iv. ?William, "Coloured" head of a New Castle County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [DE:231].

 

BUTCHER FAMILY

1.    Robert1 Butcher, born say 1670, was called "Robert Buchery negroe" of Great Choptank Hundred on 2 September 1690 when the Dorchester County, Maryland court ordered him to pay a fine of 500 pounds of tobacco for begetting an illegitimate child by Elizabeth Cobham, an indentured servant of Andrew Gray. The court also ordered him to pay Gray 800 pounds of tobacco for the nursing of the child. Andrew Gray, Jr., and Philip Pitt were his securities to pay for the tuition and bringing up of the child. Elizabeth Cobham received 25 lashes. In Febrary 1691/2 he was accused of stealing nine deer skins, three new match coats and other items valued at 900 pounds of tobacco from Thomas Wells but was found not guilty. He admitted in February 1792/3 that he owed John Tyley of Talbot County for eight well-dressed deer skins [Judgment Record 1690-2, 176, 157, 156, 93, 87]. He recorded his earmark in adjoining Kent County, Delaware, on 13 February 1692/3 [de Valinger, Court Records of Kent County, Delaware, 1680-1705, 89]. He was sued in Kent County by Hugh Durborow on 11 August 1713. In August 1714 he testified that James Dean had counselled him to kill Timothy Hanson and burn his house. In November 1718 he confessed to the charge of battery and was ordered to be flayed and pay a fifteen shilling fine. He was sued by Griffin Jones about 1723 and by John Bland in August 1723 [General Court Records 1712-6, n.p.; 1718-22, 20; 1722-3, n.p.; 1722-5, 35]. He was taxable in Duck Creek Hundred, Kent County, in 1726, and his name was crossed off the Little Creek Hundred list in 1727 when he was listed with Robert Whud (Wood), Julius Caesar, Thomas Consellor, William Beckett, Winslow Driggers, Jacob Miller, Richard Poolin, and Daniel Francisco [RG 3535, Levy Assessment List, 1726-43, frames 341, 346]. He called himself a "yeoman" in his 26 July 1722 Kent County will which was proved 14 February 1731. He left his son Robert a shilling, left Phillis Asco (no relationship stated) a cow, calf, pewter plates, furniture and one of his three gold rings, and divided the remainder of his estate between his wife Susannah and son-in-law Richard Pulling [DB H-1, fol. 23-24]. His children were

2         i. ?Hannah, born say 1693.

3         ii. Robert2, born say 1695.

iii. the unnamed wife of Richard Pulling.

 

2.    Hannah Butcher, born say 1693, was convicted of felony by the Kent County Court of Quarter Sessions on 10 August 1714. She was publicly whipped, made to wear a Roman T, and ordered to pay the owner Timothy Hanson fourfold the 10 shillings value of the goods [Dockets 1680-1725, General Court Records 1712-16, n.p.]. She may have been the mother of

4        i. Susannah, born say 1722.

ii. Elizabeth, born say 1725, indicted by the Kent County court in May 1743 for having an illegitimate female child which she charged to William Gonselah (Consellor). In November 1748 she charged George Hilton of Duck Creek Hundred, labourer, with being the father of another illegitimate child. Sarah Butcher was a witness. Perhaps this or a second case against Hilton was the one he submitted to in November 1752 [DSA, RG 3805, MS case papers, May 1743 indictments, November 1748 indictments; Dockets, 1739-79, frames 172, 214, 224].

 

3.    Robert2 Butcher, born say 1695, was called "Robert Butcher, Junr." in Kent County, Delaware Court on 11 August 1713 when he and Thomas Gonsoaly (Consellor) were fined 15 shillings for being "Deficients on the Highways." He was called "Robert Butcher ye younger" on 15 May 1716 when the Kent County court of Quarter Sessions convicted him of having an illegitimate child by Susanna Stephens [General Court Records 1712-6, n.p.]. His suit against John Harding was dismissed in May 1727 [DSA, RG 3815.031, 1722-1732, frame 154]. He was called "Robert Bucher Junr." when he was taxable in Little Creek Hundred, Kent County in 1729. He was called the administrator of Robert Butcher in May 1732 when Coffey Hilton and Richard Pullin brought separate sutis against him in Kent County court. Julius Caesar sued him in court as the administrator of Robert Butcher claiming that he had paid Robert 10 pounds for two steers which had not been delivered. Julius withdrew the case in May 1733, and Robert sued Julius in August 1733 but the case was agreed in November that year [DSA, RG 3515.031, 1722-32, frame 604; 1733-40, frames 3, 60; MS Case papers, May 1733]. His 14 November 1733 Kent County will, proved 6 December 1733, named his wife Sarah (daughter of Thomas Conselah), and left 190 acres of land to his sons, Moses, Benjamin, Robert, Conselah, and Thomas [WB H-1:77]. Sarah was head of a taxable household in Little Creek Hundred, Kent County, from 1740 to 1754. William Rees sued Sarah, Moses, Robert and Consella Butcher for a debt of 65 pounds which they confessed judgment to in March 1747 [RG 3815.031, Common Pleas, Dockets 1744-1750, p.29]. His children were

i. Moses1, born say 1715, taxable in Little Creek Hundred from 1740 to 1748, sued by Hugh Durburow for debt in Kent County in May 1742 and in December 1743 he admitted he owed Cornelius Empson 8 pounds [Delaware Archives RG 3815.031, Dockets 1740-4, frames 255, 319, 507]. He died before 12 September 1749 when his brother Robert was appointed administrator of his Kent County estate [WB K-1:2-3].

ii. Benjamin, born say 1718.

iii. Robert3, born say 1720, taxable in Little Creek Hundred from 1745 to 1748, sued Moses Butcher in Kent County court in November 1748 [RG 3815.031, Common Pleas, Dockets 1744-1750, frame 499, 549]. He was appointed administrator of the estate of his brother Moses on 12 September 1749.

5        iv. Conselah, born say 1722.

v. Thomas1, born say 1723, sued James Maxwell for debt in Kent County court in May 1744 [Docket Volume 1736-85, 43]. He was taxable in Little Creek Hundred from 1754 to 1756.

 

4. Susannah Butcher, born say 1722, was a "Molatto free & single woman" who declared in Kent County court on 26 April 1743 that the base born "Molatto" female child which was begotten on her body was by "Negro Jack," who had been the slave of Mrs. Rachel Collins and was then the slave of Mr. James Tybout [DSA, RG 3805, MS case files, April 1743 indictments]. In 1743 Joseph Clayton was allowed 13 shillings for her maintenance [RG 3200, Levy Court minutes]. She may have been the mother of

i. Martha, born say 1743, a "free Mulatto," indicted by the Kent County court in August 1771 for having an illegitimate child [DSA, RG 3805, MS case files, August 1771 indictments].

 

5.    Conselah Butcher, born say 1720, called "Selah" Butcher, was taxable in Little Creek Hundred, Kent County from 1752 to 1780 [RG 3535, Kent County Levy List, 1743-67, frames 87, 143, 520, 566; 1768-84, frames 26, 103, 334, 366, 368]. Administration on his Kent County estate was granted to Thomas Butcher, his "next of kin," in 1795 with Jesse Dean surety [WB N-1:117]. He may have been the father of

i. Thomas2, born say 1750, taxable in Little Creek Hundred from 1773 to 1776, in Duck Creek Hundred from 1777 to 1782, also in Dover Hundred in 1782, a "Negro" taxable in Little Creek Hundred from 1782 to 1785, taxable in Dover Hundred in 1785, a "Mulatto" taxable in Little Creek Hundred in 1797, taxable on an acre and a log house in 1798 [DSA, RG 3535, 1768-84, frames 184, 222, 262, 299, 336, 370, 491, 522, 533, 539, 541, 570, 582, 619; 1785-97, frames 8, 24, 71, 74, 106, 136, 176, 190, 226, 267, 337; 1797-8, frame 14, 53, 473, 480]. On 14 April 1771 he admitted in Kent County court that he owed Archibald Duglass 129 pounds [DSA, RG 3815.031, 1769-71, frame 423]. He witnessed the 11 May 1776 Little Creek Hundred, Kent County will of Samuel Whitman [de Valinger, Kent County Probate Records, 347]. In November 1792 Mary, Cynthia and Elizabeth Ridgeway charged him in Kent County court with assaulting them. Jesse Dean was his surety [DSA, RG 3805.002, Court of General Sessions, 1787-1803, frame 226; MS case papers, November 1792 indictments]. He was head of a Little Creek Hundred household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [DE:33] and 6 "free colored" in 1820 (called Thomas B. Butcher [DE:20].

 

Other members of the family were

i. Richard Butcherly, born say 1712, held as a servant by John Stevens of Dorchester County contrary to law in August 1733. The court ordered him set free [Judgment Record 1733-4, 48].

ii. Peter Butcherly, born say 1714, servant of Bartholomew Ennalls in November 1733 when the Dorchester County court required Ennalls to pay security of 10 pounds not to transport him outside the province [Judgment Record 1733-4, 178].

iii. John, born say 1720, taxable in the upper part of Duck Creek Hundred from 1741 to 1743. His inventory dated 19 February 1762 named his wife Sarah.

iv. Caesar, born say 1740, taxable in Little Creek Hundred in 1761.

v. Robert3, say 1750, taxable in Little Creek Hundred from 1772 to 1781, in Duck Creek Hundred in 1785, and a delinquent Murderkill taxable in 1787, perhaps the Robert Bucher who was a "free" head of a Queen Anne's County, Maryland household of 4 "other free" in 1790 and a Kent County, Maryland household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:157].

vi. Jacob, born say 1752, taxable in Little Creek Hundred from 1776 to 1780, died before 23 March 1792 when George Frazer was granted administration on his Kent County estate. He was apparently the father of Susannah Butcher since Frazer wrote a letter saying he was too sick to take the inventory on the appointed day and that "her father owes me nothing" [RG 3545, Probate Records, reel 28, frames 174-177; WB N-1, fol. 15].

vii. James, a "Negro" taxable in Little Creek Hundred from 1786 to 1789, also listed as a "Free Negro" in Dover Hundred from 1789 to 1794 [DSA, RG 3535, Assessments 1785-97, frames 48, 74, 106, 153, 224, 265, 310]. He was called a "Negro" when Robert Hall and Caleb Sipple were granted administration of on his estate on 11 August 1808 on $500 bond [DSA, RG 3545, Probate Records, frame 179].

viii. Rachel, a "free Negro" taxable on a cow in Dover Hundred but struck off the list in 1797 [RG 3535, Kent County Levy List, 1785-97, frame 410].

ix. Moses2, born say 1758, taxable in Little Creek Hundred from 1779 to 1787, listed as a "free Negro" starting in 1781, head of a Montgomery County, Pennsylvania household of 5 "other free" in 1790.

x. Moses3, born before 1776, a "free Negro" taxable in Dover Hundred, Kent County, on 4 acres of land in 1797 [RG 3535, Kent County Levy List, 1785-97, frame 411], head of a household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:37].

xi. William, Sr., born say 1760, a "Mulattoe taxable on 2 horses in Kent County in 1797.

xii. Peter, head of a Little Creek Hundred, Kent County household of 10 "other free" in 1800 [DE:10].

xiii. James, born 1776-1794, head of a Duck Creek Hundred household of 5 "free colored" with one woman over 45 years old in 1820 [DE:48].

xiv. Henry, head of a New Castle County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:199].

xv. John, head of a New Castle County household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:108].

xvi. Whittington, head of a New Castle County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:199].

xvii. Eli, head of a Little Creek Hundred, Kent County household of one "free colored" in 1820 [DE:28].

 

Another unrelated Butcher family:

1.   Susanna Butcher, born say 1734, the servant of Thomas Sellman, was ordered by the Anne Arundel County court in June 1754 to serve seven years for having a "Mulatto" child. The court ordered her child sold to Sellman until the age of thirty-one for five hundred pounds of tobacco [Judgment Record 1751-4, 874]. She was identical to Susannah Boucher, the white servant of Thomas Sellman, who had an illegitimate "Mulatto" child named Rachel by a "negro" in Baltimore County before March 1759 [Baltimore County Criminal Record 1757-9, 186-7]. She was the mother of

i. Rachel, born about 1759.

ii. ?Fanny, head of a Baltimore City household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [MD:310].

 

BUTLER FAMILY

1.    Eleanor1 Butler, born say 1660, was a white woman imported to Maryland by Lord Baltimore. She was the servant of Major William Boarman of St. Mary's County in August 1681 when she married "Negro Charles," one of Boarman's slaves. William Boarman left a St. Mary's County will on 16 May 1708, proved 17 June 1709. He gave his wife "Slaves Robert, Charles & Elliner," his son John Baptiste slave Catherine, his son Francis Ignatius slaves Ann and Margaret, his daughter Mary slaves Sarah and Henry, and his daughter Clare slaves Jane and Susannah [Hodes, White Women, Black Men, 33; Baldwin, Calendar of Maryland Wills, III:140]. The inventory of his estate on 11 July 1709 included an "Elderly Negroe man named Charles," an "old Irish woman," a "Mallattoe" slave named Kate, a "Mallattoe" slave Jane, two "Mallattoe girl" slaves, and two "Mullattoe children" slaves. In 1730 members of the family were listed in the inventory of the estate of John Sanders: Charles "very old & lame," Kate, Jenny, Nan and Betty "Negro women," and seven children [Prerogative Court Inventories 1729-30, 634].

In August 1749 one of their descendants, Edward Butler, petitioned the Charles County court for his freedom from William Neale. The outcome of the case was not recorded. He may have been identical to Edward Butler who was sentenced to death for robbing Trinity Parish Church but pardoned by the Governor on 13 May 1754 [Archives of Maryland 31:32]. He apparently had a free "Molatto" wife named Susannah (Proctor?) and several children.

On 27 September 1763 two of Charles and Nell's descendants, William and Mary Butler, sued Richard Boarman of St. Mary's County for their freedom in the Provincial Court, and between 1765 and 1767 the court took depositions from sixteen of their elderly white neighbors. Most testified as to what they remembered from their early youth, but a few (Edward Edelen, Benjamin Jamerson, James Jameson, Nathaniel Suit and Thomas Bowling) told what they had heard from their parents. Edward Edelen was probably the son of Richard Edelen, a deponent in Edward Butler's suit for freedom in 1749, and Benjamin Jamerson was probably the son of Mary Jameson, another deponent in the 1749 suit. The deponents told conflicting versions of the Butler family genealogy, but they generally agreed that Nell Butler and Charles were married in a ceremony which was conducted by a Catholic priest on the Boarman plantation. Some reported that Lord Baltimore warned Nell on the morning of the wedding that the marriage would make her and her descendants slaves for life and that Nell replied that she would rather marry Charles than Lord Baltimore himself. The law then in existence enslaved white women who married slaves for the lifetime of their husbands and made slaves of their children. About a month after the wedding Lord Baltimore was apparently influential in passing a law which released such white women and their children from slavery if their marriage was permitted or encouraged by their master. Since the law was passed after Charles and Nell's marriage, the children of Charles and Nell were kept as slaves by Boarman and his descendants [Provincial Court Judgments 1770-1, 233-44].

The Provincial Court decided the case in William and Mary Butler's favor in September 1770, but the decision was reversed by the Court of Appeals in May 1771. In October 1787 their daughter Mary Butler sued in the General Court of the Western Shore and won her case [Cases in the Provincial Court, 371-7; Cases in the General Court, 214-36]. In The Heritage Within Us, The Butler Family of Pamunkey Neck a Butler descendant, James Frank Williams, traces a great many Butler descendants through the more than forty court cases which were brought by members of the Butler family following Mary Butler's successful suit as well as estate accounts and wills of the slave owners of the Butler family. Charles and Eleanor's children were

2        i. Catherine1/ Kate, born say 1683.

ii. Jane1, born say 1685, a "mallatoe woman slave" listed in the inventory of the Charles County estate of William Boarman in 1709 and a "Negro woman" listed in the inventory of the estate of John Sanders in 1730.

iii. Ann1, born say 1687, a "Negro woman" listed in the inventory of the estate of John Sanders in 1730.

3        iv. Elizabeth1, born say 1693.

 

2.    Catherine1/ Kate Butler, born say 1683, was probably the unnamed "Mallatto Servant" of William Boarman who was mentioned in the Charles County court records on 10 August 1703. Boarman accused John Brayfield of dealing and bartering with his servant [Charles County court Record 1701-4, 249, 264]. She was bequeathed by William Boarman to his son John Baptiste Boarman in 1709 and was a "mallatoe woman slave" listed in William's Charles County estate in 1709. She was called a "Negro woman named Kate" in the inventory of John Sanders in 1730. Several deponents in the William and Mary Butler vs. Richard Boarman suit testified that she was Charles and Nell's daughter [Provincial Court Judgments 1770-1, 235, 236, 239, 241, 243]. She was the mother of

4        i. Edward1, born say 1702.

ii. ?John1, born say 1705, a "Negro man Jack" listed in the 1730 inventory of John Sanders. Some deponents in the Butler vs. Boarman suit said that John Butler was Charles and Nell's oldest son, but Mary Crosen, a 74 year old woman, said that Jack was one of Catherine's children [Provincial Court Judgments 1770-1, 235, 236, 241, 243].

5        iii. Margaret1, born about 1727.

 

3.    Elizabeth1 Butler, born say 1693, was not named among the slaves in Major Boarman's 1709 will but was listed as a "Negro woman" in the inventory of the estate of John Sanders in 1730. She was identified as Eleanor's daughter by seventy-six-year-old Ann Whitehorn in her 27 May 1767 deposition in the Provincial Court. Ann also deposed that Elizabeth was somewhat younger than her, that Elizabeth had been dead about 30 years, and that Elizabeth's son William was about 44 years old at the time of the deposition [Provincial Court Judgments 1770-1, 236-7]. Elizabeth was the mother of

6        i. William1, born about 1721.

 

4.    Edward1 Butler, born say 1702, was identified as being the son of Kate Butler by William Simson in his deposition at the Provincial Court on 27 May 1767. The 69 year old Simson said that he and Ned Butler, one of William Neale's slaves, had played together as children and were about the same age [Provincial Court Judgments 1770-1, 241-2]. Edward was a slave who belonged to Francis Hamersley on 13 June 1738 when he was convicted by the Charles County court of stealing a large quantity of cloth valued at 2,080 pounds of tobacco from the storehouse of Richard Gildart. The court ordered that he sit in the pillory for one hour and receive 39 lashes. (Since this was a capital offense, he could have received the death penalty). In August 1749 he petitioned the Charles County court for his freedom from William Neale. The court ordered that Richard Edelen, Mary Ruthorn, Mary Jameson, and Thomas Osborn be deposed for the next session of the court in November 1749, but the outcome of the case was not recorded [Court Record 1734-9, 474; 1748-50, 414]. (Perhaps the case was held in adjoining St. Mary's County whose colonial court records have not survived.) Edward was sentenced to death for robbing Trinity Parish Church but was pardoned by the Governor on 13 May 1754 [Archives of Maryland 31:32]. He may have been the husband of Susannah (Proctor?) Butler, a free woman, who was sued by William Neale (Edward Butler's master) for a debt of 1,631 pounds of tobacco in November 1753. She was also sued for a debt of 1,662 pounds of tobacco by William Parker in Charles County court on 9 March 1756. Most of the debt was for 1,500 pounds of tobacco which Parker paid for her to Thomas Clark, Esquire. She was identified as a "Molatto" in Parker's accounts, called a spinster in the court document, and called a widow on 14 March 1758 when she had a counter suit against Parker. He sold her security which consisted of 3 cows and 2 calves, 2 steers, 7 shoats, a bed, dishes, and other household items for 3,113 pounds of tobacco [Court Record 1753-4, 186; 1755-6, 423-4; 1756-7, 161, 404; 1757-8, 149]. Edward and Susannah may have been the parents of

7        i. John, born say 1720.

ii. Joseph, born say 1722, sued William Parker for his freedom (no race indicated) [Court Record 1753-4, 369].

iii. Edward2, born say 1732, called "Edward Butler, Junior, Planter" and "Labourer" in August 1753 when William Parker was security for his appearance in Charles County court to answer a presentment for stealing an ax from Benjamin Fendall and Robert Gates. He was found guilty, made to stand in the pillory for one hour and given thirty-nine lashes [Court Record 1753-4, 75, 82, 84-5]. He may have been identical to Edward Butler who was counted with Henry Gray in the 1800 census [MD:568].

iv. Matthew, born say 1740, a "Mulatto," who owed 396 pounds of tobacco to the St. Mary's County estate of Philip Key on 2 March 1765 [Prerogative Inventories 102:101].

 

5.    Margaret1 Butler, born about 1727, was a "Negro Girle about 3 years old" who was listed in the estate of John Sanders in 1730. William McPherson (aged sixty years) and Joseph Jameson (aged fifty-two) deposed on 27 May 1767 that Margaret was the daughter of Kate Butler and the mother of Mary Butler, the petitioner in the Butler vs. Richard Boarman suit [Provincial Court Judgments 1770-1, 239, 243]. Margaret's daughter was

i. Mary, married William Butler. They sued for their freedom from Richard Boarman of St. Mary's County in 1763.

 

6.    William1 Butler, born about 1721, was a nine-year-old boy listed in the 1730 inventory of John Sanders' estate. He married his second cousin Mary Butler, the granddaughter of Catherine Butler. They brought suit for their freedom from Richard Boarman of St. Mary's County in 1763. They were the parents of

i. Mary, brought a successful suit for her freedom from Adam Craig in the General Court for the Western Shore in October 1787 [Cases in the General Court, 214-36].

8        ii. ?Prudence, born say 1768.

 

7.    John2 Butler, born say 1720, (no race indicated) won a suit for his freedom against William Parker in Charles County court on 13 August 1754. He may have been identical to John Butler, "Molato," who was presented by the Charles County court on 13 August 1768 for concealing a tithable (perhaps his wife) on information of Constable Daniel McPherson. In November 1770 he accused William Gray, a "Mulatto," of killing one of his unmarked hogs [Court Record 1753-4, 368-9, 1767-70, 246; 1770-2, 130]. He may have been the father or grandfather of

9        i. John3, born say 1770.

ii. Elizabeth, born say 1772, married Isaac Proctor at St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church 29 September 1794. The couple required a dispensation because they were related within the second degree of consanguinity which was equivalent to being first cousins [Colonial Dames of America, Records of St. Mary's Parish, 1793-1861, 162].

iii. Henry1, head of a Charles County household of 8 "other free" and 4 slaves in 1800 [MD:530] and 9 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [MD:342]. He was one of the drafts and substitutes from Charles County who were discharged from service in the Revolutionary War on 3 December 1781 [Archives of Maryland 48:10].

 

8.    Prudence1 Butler, born say 1748, was freed by the estate of Wilfree Neale of St. Mary's County. She was in Washington, D.C., on 24 December 1817 when she testified that Lydia Butler, aged about fifty-eight, was free. She was the mother of Monica Butler according to the Washington, D.C., certificate of freedom granted to her granddaughter Letitia [Provine, District of Columbia Free Negro Registers, 66, 67]. Prudence was the mother of

10        i. Monica, born about 1767.

 

9.    John3 Butler, born say 1770, married Elizabeth Proctor at St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church in Charles County on 10 February 1793. The couple required a dispensation because they were related within the third degree of consanguinity which was equivalent to being second cousins. Their children were baptized in St. Mary's Parish:

i. Joseph, born 2 January, baptized 7 June 1793, "Mulatto" son of John and Elizabeth, sponsors: Charles Boarman and Elizabeth Butler.

ii. Mary, born 2 February 1795, daughter of John and Elizabeth Butler.

iii. John, born 18 September, baptized 7 December 1806 [Colonial Dames of America, Records of St. Mary's Parish, 1793-1861, 6, 9, 15, 161].

 

10.    Monica Butler, born about 1767, was head of a St. Mary's County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [MD:189]. She was a "Negro woman" about sixty years old on 23 October 1827 when she obtained a certificate of freedom in Washington, D.C., with her children: Letty, Joe, Thomas, Ellen, Catherine, and Robert. Henry C. Neale swore that Monica had once been the property of his father and that she obtained her freedom "by law in Maryland" [Provine, District of Columbia Free Negro Registers, 66, 100]. She was the mother of

11       i. Letitia, born say 1785.

ii. Joe.

iii. Thomas.

iv. Ellen.

v. Catherine.

vi. Robert.

 

11.    Letitia Butler, born say 1785, registered in Washington, D.C., with her daughters Mary and Prudence on 11 September 1826 [Provine, District of Columbia Free Negro Registers, 67]. She was the mother of

i. Henry, called "son of Letty Butler" when he obtained a certificate of freedom on 28 April 1826 [Provine, District of Columbia Free Negro Registers, 62].

ii. Mary, born about 1805, about twenty-one when she obtained a certificate of freedom in Washington, D.C., on 11 September 1826.

iii. Prudence2, born about 1808, about eighteen years old when she obtained a certificate of freedom in Washington, D.C., on 11 September 1826.

 

Other members of the Butler family were:

i. Charles2, born say 1730, called "Mulatto Charles, late of Prince George's County Labourer, the Slave of a certain James Campbell, otherwise called Charles Butler" when he was sentenced to death by the Court for the Western Shore for stealing a mare from William Elson. On 28 April 1756 the Council of Maryland recommended him to the Governor for a pardon. He was called "Charles Butler Junr. ... the Slave of James Campbell" on 13 June 1758 in Charles County court when he was convicted of breaking into the storehouse of Andrew Buchanan & Company and stealing a large quantity of cloth worth over nine pounds currency. He was found guilty and sentenced to be hung. On 7 August 1758 the Council again recommended him for a pardon, but he had escaped from Charles County Jail before 10 August 1758 when the sheriff advertised his escape in the Maryland Gazette [Archives of Maryland 31:119, 291-2; Charles County Court Record 1757-8, 407-8; Green, The Maryland Gazette, 1727-61, 213].

ii. Stephen2, born about 1734, a fifty year old "mulatto slave" who ran away from Leonard Boarman of Charles County according to the 8 December 1784 issue of the Virginia Journal and Alexandria Advertiser [Headley, 18th Century Newspapers, 51].

iii. Will Ferrall, aka Will Butler and Will Curtis, a "yellow slave," a house carpenter who ran away from Edward Mattingly of St. Mary's County, Maryland, and was seen in Virginia according to the 22 September 1768 issue of the Virginia Gazette (Rind) [Headley, 18th Century Newspapers, 121].

iv. Josias, "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 and 5 in Baltimore City in 1800 [MD:137].

v. Charles3, "F.N." head of a Charles County household of 1 "other free" in 1790 and 7 in 1800 [MD:560].

vi. Rhody, "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

vii. Mary, head of a Charles County household of 10 "other free" in 1800 [MD:505].

viii. Sarah, head of Charles County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:561].

ix. Phillis, head of a Charles County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:518] and 4 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [MD:321].

x. Lewis, freed by John Landler in 1792, perhaps the Lewis Butler who was head of a Charles County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:563].

xi. Betsy, head of a Charles County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:563].

xii. Eleanor, head of a Charles County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:505].

xiii. Henry2, head of a Charles County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:559].

xiv. Milly, head of a Charles County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:528]. Her son Perry Butler, born about 1788, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 10 November 1829: son of Milly Butler, aged about 41 years of age ... bright complexion ... born and raised in St. Mary's County [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 82].

xv. Catherine, head of a Charles County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:551].

xvi. Charles3, born say 1745, freed by William Bond of St. Mary's County, head of a St. Mary's County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:421].

xvii. Anthony, freed by Clement Gardiner. He was head of a St. Mary's County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:402]. He and his wife Charity were the parents of Nelly Jackson who obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 28 October 1823: daughter of Charity & Anthony Butler, aged about twenty four years ... bright complexion ... her hair long & bushy ... genteel appearance, was born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 64].

xviii. Ignatius, born about 1763, ran away from Nat Ewing of St. Mary's County on 1 February 1785 according to an ad Ewing placed in the Maryland Gazette: Ran away on the first instant, from the subscriber, living near the Queen-tree, in St. Mary's County, a dark mulatto man named Nace, who calls himself Nace Butler, about 22, combs his hair back, which is pretty long for one of his complexion, 5'8" ... an artful designing rogue; he lately petitioned the general court for his freedom, which petition still remains undetermined. His father lives with Mrs. Bradford, at Bladensburg, where he has been since he ran away. He went last October to Annapolis, where he passed as a freeman [Windley, Runaway Slave Advertisements, II:150-1]. He was head of a St. Mary's County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:421]. He was a "Black man" taken up as a runaway slave in Culpeper County, Virginia, on 20 October 1800 but released on 16 December after examining his papers and hearing the testimony of William Howe [Minutes 1798-1802, 279]. He was called a "free man of colour" on 8 March 1804 when he made a Charles County deed of manussion by which he freed his wife "a Mulatto woman called Nanny (late the property of Edward Sanders of Charles County of whom I purchased her)" and their four children: Ignatius (seventeen), James (seven), Alexius (four) and Martena (two) [Land Records IB #6, 53].

xix. Leonard, freed by Jerome Jordon. He was head of a St. Mary's County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:421] and 7 in 1810 [MD:168].

xx. Abigail, freed with her seven children by Henrietta Plowman of St. Mary's County in 1792. Abigail was head of a St. Mary's County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:407]. She was the mother of Hopey Butler, perhaps the Hopewell2 Butler who was head of a St. Mary's County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 [MD:417].

xxi. Clement, freed by Henry Pyke in 1792, perhaps the Clem Butler who was head of a St. Mary's County household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [MD:419].

xxii. Hopewell1, head of a St. Mary's County household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [MD:427] and 5 in 1810 [MD:189].

xxiii. Robert, head of a Washington, D.C., household of 3 "other free" in 1800.

xxiv. Jacob, freed by Elizabeth Taney. He was a "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 1 "other free" in 1790, perhaps the Jacob Butler who was head of a St. Mary's County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:433].

xxv. Giles, freed by John Somerville. He was head of a St. Mary's County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:420].

xxvi. Edward3, head of a St. Mary's County household of 9 "other free" in 1800 [MD:417], head of a Charles County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830.

xxvii. Henry5, head of a St. Mary's County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:411].

xxviii. John, head of a St. Mary's County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:402].

xxix. George, ran away from Edmund Plowden before 31 July 1789 when Plowden advertised for his return in the Maryland Gazette: Ran away from the subscriber on Saturday last, a negro man calls himself George Butler, and is one of those who has petitioned the general court for freedom, whence he has but lately returned, and said the court set him free, and that Mr. J.T. Chase, his attorney, told him he might go work where he pleased. As soon as I was informed the Butler cause did not come on at the last term, I ordered him into my service, and on a complaint being made against him by my overseer, I had him corrected for his ill behavior. He has an order of the court with him signed by Mr. Gwinn, which I have no doubt he will produce [Windley, Runaway Slave Advertisements, II:183-4]. He was head of a St. Mary's County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:406].

xxx. Nat, head of a Baltimore City household of 9 "other free" in 1800 [MD:136].

xxxi. Abraham, head of a Baltimore City household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:137].

xxxii. Nancy1, head of a Baltimore City household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:156].

xxxiii. Luke, head of a Baltimore City household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:137].

xxxiv. Peggy, head of a Baltimore City household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:143].

12      xxxv. Benjamin, born say 1755.

xxxvi. Prudence2, born about 1764, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 16 June 1807: aged above forty years ... Complexion yellow ... raised in Saint Mary's County [Certificates of Freedom 1806-7, 39].

xxxvii. Thomas, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:101].

xxxviii. Tobias, head of a Frederick County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [MD:843].

xxxix. Mary, head of a Frederick County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:917].

xl. James, taxable in the 4th District of Kent County in 1783 [MSA S1161-7-4, p.3], head of a Kent County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:153].

xli. Henry4, "free negro" head of a Prince George's County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [MD:286].

xlii. Menehy, head of a Washington, D.C., household of 6 "other free" in 1800.

xliii. Nelly, head of a Washington, D.C. household of 5 "other free" and 2 slaves in 1800.

xliv. Sarah, head of a Washington, D.C. household of 5 "other free" in 1800.

13      xlv. Henny, born say 1770.

14      xlvi. Nell, born say 1770.

15      vlvii. Jane, born say 1770.

xlviii. Rebecca, born about 1770, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 14 June 1819: forty nine years of age, of a dark complexion ... obtained her freedom in the late General Court of Maryland for the Western Shore [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 51].

xlix. Phillis, born about 1771, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 15 March 1810: aged thirty nine years or thereabouts ... Complexion dark, hair short and nappy ... and was on the 14 day of March 1810 manumitted by a certain John Lothoron by a deed of manumission [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 9].

l. Lucy, head of a Washington, D.C. household of 3 "other free" in 1800.

li. Nathan, head of a Washington, D.C. household of 2 "other free" in 1800.

lii. John, born about 1774, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 19 October 1824: aged about fifty years ... of a dark complexion, short hair ... got his freedom by a suit instituted in the General Court by his mother Sarah Butler of Henry Gardiner [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 68].

16      liii. Anna, born about 1774.

17      liv. Joanna, born say 1775.

18      lv. Susannah, born about 1776.

19      lvi. Nancy2, born say 1778.

20      lvii. Charles4, born about 1778.

lviii. Elizabeth, born about February 1779, a sixteen year old "Negro" who was jailed as a runaway in Dumfries, Virginia, according to the 12 June 1795 issue of the Republican Journal and Dumfries Advertiser. She said she was raised on the Eastern Branch in Maryland near the Federal City [Headley, 18th Century Newspapers, 51].

21      lix. Fanny, born say 1780.

lx. Anthony, a "free Negro," married Ruth Middleton, a "free Mulatto," on 16 April 1797 at St. Peter's Church in Baltimore [Piet, Catholic Church Records in Baltimore, 128].

lxi. John, a "free mulatto," died 21 November 1800 and buried the same day at St. Peter's Church, Baltimore [Piet, Catholic Church Records in Baltimore, 164].

lxii. Francis, born about 1780, a twenty year old "free negro" who died on 26 July 1800 and was buried the next day at St. Peter's Church in Baltimore [Piet, Catholic Church Records in Baltimore, 164].

lxiii. Thomas, born about 1781, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 13 September 1821: son of Eleanor Butler .. aged about forty years, of a dark complexion ... born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 57].

lxiv. Joseph, born about 1785, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 30 December 1807: about twenty two years of age, dark complexion, was born free & raised in the County [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 2].

lxv. Peter, born about 1788, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 13 March 1810: aged twenty two or thereabouts ... Complexion dark, hair short ... aquiline nose, thick lips ... obtained his freedom in Saint Mary's County Court at March Term 1809 against John Lothoron & others [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 9].

lxvi. Clement, born abut 1798, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 14 June 1819: son of Sally Butler ... about twenty one years of age, of a dark complexion ... born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 51].

lxvii. George, born about 1803, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 22 March 1819: son of Sally Butler ... aged about sixteen years, Dark complexion ... born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 45].

 

12.    Benjamin Butler, born say 1755, was head of a Baltimore City household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:157]. He and his wife Ann were the parents of

i. Henry, born about 1780, a 20 year old "free Negro" who died on 29 October 1800 and was buried the next day at St. Peter's Church, Baltimore [Piet, Catholic Church Records in Baltimore, 164].

 

13.    Henny Butler, born say 1770, recovered her freedom at the General Court of Maryland in a suit against Thomas Clagett in May 1792. She was the mother of

i. Mariah, born about 1791, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 18 September 1821: a colored woman, about 30 years old, and 5 feet 5 inches tall ... dark complexion ... daughter of Henny Butler who recovered her freedom from the General Court of Maryland in a suit against Thomas Clagett at May Term 1792.

ii. Elizabeth, born about 1794, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 18 September 1821: a black woman, about 27 years old, and 5 feet 7 inches tall ... daughter of Henny Butler.

iii. Mary, born about 1796, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 18 September 1821: a black woman, about 25 years old, and 5 feet 2-1/2 inches tall ... daughter of Henny Butler.

iv. Augustus2, born about 1796, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County between November and December 1819: a black man about 23 years old, and about 5 feet 6 inches tall ... son of Henny Butler.

v. Nancy3, born about 1798, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 18 September 1821: a black woman, about 23 years old, and 5 feet 3 inches tall ... daughter of Henny Butler.

vi. Francis, born about 1801, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 11 December 1819: about 18 years old and 5 feet 3 inches tall ... son of Henny Butler.

vii. Lucy, born about 1804, obtained a certificate of freedom in Prince George's County on 18 September 1821: a black woman about 17 years old and 5 feet 4 inches tall ... daughter of Henny Butler [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 33, 40].

 

14.    Nell Butler, born say 1770, was head of a Baltimore City household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [MD:157]. She was the "free Negro" mother of

i. Eleanor, born 28 July 1798, baptized 5 August 1798 at St. Peter's Church in Baltimore.

ii. Henry, a five-week-old baptized on 9 June 1799 and buried on 3 August 1799 at St. Peter's Church in Baltimore [Piet, Catholic Church Records in Baltimore, 19, 164].

 

15.    Jane Butler, born say 1770, obtained her freedom from Robert Lawson of Charles County. She was the mother of

i. Eleanor, born about 1791, a dark complexioned woman who obtained a certificate of freedom in Washington, D.C., on 1 November 1831.

ii. George, born about 1810, "yellow complexioned" son of Jane who obtained a certificate of freedom in Washington, D.C., on 1 November 1831 [Provine, District of Columbia Free Negro Registers, 210, 211].

 

16.    Anna Butler, born about 1774, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 29 March 1819: about forty five years of age, Dark Complexion ... obtained her freedom in the late General Court at May Term 1792 of Jno. DeButts [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 46]. She was the mother of

i. Susanna, born about 1801, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 29 March 1819: daughter of Ann Butler ... about Eighteen of age, Dark Complexion ... born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 46].

ii. Nancy4, born about 1804, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 29 March 1819: daughter of Anna Butler ... about sixteen years of age, Dark Complexion ... born free [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 46].

 

17.    Joanna Butler, born say 1775, was a "free Mulatto" who had children by Henry, a slave of Robert Walsh. She was the mother of

i. George, born about February 1795, a 19 month old child who died 5 September 1796 and was buried the next day at St. Peter's Church in Baltimore.

ii. William, born 6 August 1797, baptized 15 August 1797 at St. Peter's Church [Piet, Catholic Church Records in Baltimore, 19, 164].

 

18.    Susannah Butler, born about 1776, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 14 March 1809: aged thirty years or thereabouts, complexion rather bright, hair short & woolly ... obtained her freedom in Saint Mary's County Court at March Term 1809. She was the mother of

i. Elizabeth, born about 1798, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 8 August 1820: daughter of Susanna ... about twenty two years of age, of a bright complexion.

ii. Sarah, born about 1804, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 8 August 1820: Daughter of Susanna ... about sixteen years of age, bright complexion [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 4, 55].

 

19.    Nancy2 Butler, born say 1778, was head of a Baltimore City household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [MD:142]. She was the "free Mulatto" mother of

i. David, born in March 1797, one month old when he was baptized on 13 April 1797 at St. Peter's Church in Baltimore [Piet, Catholic Church Records in Baltimore, 19].

 

20.    Charles4 Butler, born about 1778, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 7 May 1807: about twenty nine years of age, black complexion, was freed in Saint Mary's County Court August Term 1793 & raised in the County aforesaid. He was apparently married to a slave since he freed his children. He was a "blk." head of a St. Mary's County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [MD:164]. He was the father of

i. Harriot, born about 1796, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 29 March 1819: daughter of Charles, aged about twenty three years ... light Complexion ... was on the 26 January 1807 manumitted by a certain Charles Butler.

ii. Catherine, born about 1798, obtained a certificate of freedom in St. Mary's County on 9 August 1820: daughter of Charles, aged about twenty two years ... very bright complexion ... was on the 17 April 1819 manumitted by a certain Charles Butler by deed of manumission [Certificates of Freedom 1806-64, 1, 46, 55].

 

21.    Fanny Butler, born say 1780, was a "free woman of colour," and mother of

i. Elizabeth, born about 1798, registered in Prince George's County on 25 May 1821: a colored woman, about 23 years old, and about 5 feet 2 inches tall ... dark complexion ... daughter of Fanny Butler, a free woman of colour [Provine, Registrations of Free Negroes, 37].

 

Other unrelated Butler families in Maryland

Ann Butler, born say 1670, was the white servant of Samuel Hersey on 15 January 1690 when she admitted in Somerset County court that she had a "Molatta" child by "Emanuel Negro" a slave of William Coulborne. She promised to pay Hersey 1,200 pounds of tobacco for his expenses in raising the child. Emanuel was given 39 lashes on 10 June 1690 when he was convicted of stealing a hog [Judicial Records 1689-90, 36, 57, 60a, 106, 200]. She may have been the ancestor of the members of the Butler family who were taxable in North Carolina by 1751.

 

1.    Lydia Butler, born say 1735, the servant of John Mercer, confessed to the Anne Arundel County court in November 1755 that she had a "Mulatto" child. The court ordered that she serve seven years and that her master deliver her "to the Court for which she was transported into the Province of Maryland in order to be sold" [Judgment Record 1754-6, 260]. She may have been the mother of

i. Thomas, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:101] and 2 in 1810 [MD:79].

ii. Patrick, head of an Anne Arundel County household of 1 "other free" and 4 slaves in 1800 [MD:101].

 

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