CAMPBELL FAMILY

1.    Margaret Campbell, born say 1750, was the mother of "Mulatto Bastard children" Hannah and James who were bound out by the Botetourt County court to William Madison on 11 February 1779. And on 11 March 1784 the court ordered her "Mulatto" children Will, Hannah and James bound to Elizabeth Madison [Orders 1776-80, 152; 1780-4, 463]. She was the mother of

i. Hannah, born say 1770, a "Female Mulatto" living near the Roanoke area of Botetourt County in a list of "Free Negroes & Mulattors" in 1802 [Orders 1800-1804, loose papers, nos. 30-36].

ii. James, born say 1772.

iii. Will, born say 1776.

 

CANE FAMILY

1.    Sebastian Cane, born perhaps 1632, was a free resident of Dorchester in New England, who had visited Northampton County, Virginia, in 1652 and 1654 as a seaman when he made a deposition in court about a tobacco cargo [DW 1654-55, 73]. Back in Dorchester in 1656 he entered into bond (with his house and land, including 4-1/2 acres planted in wheat as his security) with Mrs. Ann Keayne to purchase the freedom of (his sister?) Angola, one of the family's African slaves. Angola was freed a week after Sebastian signed the agreement. He lived in Dorchester for at least ten years from 1652 to 1662 when he sold his whole estate to a friend, Francis Vernon. His estate consisted of a one third share in a 10-14 ton vessel, the Hopewell (later sold for 12 pounds), and one barrel each of liquor, sugar, mackerel, and codfish [Suffolk Deeds, Liber II (Boston: Rockwell and Churchill, 1883), 297 by Deal, Race and Class, 374-379].

He moved to Northampton County, Virginia, where he was head of a household with King Tony in 1664, and from 1665 to 1668 he was tithable with his wife Grace-Susanna [Orders 1657-64, fol.198; Orders 1764-74, 15, fol.29, fol.42, fol.54]. She was most likely the twenty-year-old former slave of Stephen Charlton. Charlton sold a three-year-old girl named Grace-Susanna to Richard Vaughan on 19 March 1647, stipulating that she was to be free at the age of thirty years [DW 1645-51, 150, 152].

In 1666 Bastian received ten lashes for harboring a runaway slave of Francis Pigot, and he was imprisoned for a month for trading with another of Pigot's slaves (perhaps Thomas Carter, Peter George, or John Archer) [Orders 1664-74, fol.29, p.44]. His 1670 will, witnessed by his neighbor, John Francisco, mentioned only his wife Grace [Orders 1664-74, fol.89].

 

Endnotes:

1.   See Deal, Race and Class for more details of the life of Grace-Susanna and nearly all the other mid-seventeenth century African American residents of Northampton County, Virginia.

 

CANNADY/ KENNEDY FAMILY

Members of the Cannady family, probably descendants of a white woman, were

1        i. William1, born say 1695.

2        ii. Joseph1, born say 1710.

iii. Ann/ Nanny, born say 1715, presented by the York County court on 15 May 1738 for not listing herself as a tithable [OW 18:414, 434].

3        iv. William2, born say 1716.

 

1.    William1 Cannady, born say 1695, was a "Mallatto Servant man" who was listed with "Mallatto Servant" John Bird in the York County estate of Orlando Jones on 15 December 1719. William was valued at 15 pounds, and John Byrd was valued at 20 pounds, so they probably still had a few years to serve. William was free from his indenture before 19 December 1726 when Robert Laughton sued him in York County court for a debt of 1 pound, thirteen shillings. Matthew Hawkins was William's security [OW 15, pt. 2, 531; 16, pt. 2, 420, 426, 439]. He married Judith Bass sometime before her father John Bass made his 18 January 1732 Bertie County, North Carolina will. Her father left her 100 acres on the south side of Urahaw Swamp which became part of Northampton County in 1741 [SS 876/3:305]. William was living in Edgecombe County on 7 April 1744 when he and Judith sold this land in Northampton County [DB 1:175]. They were living in Guilford County on 27 January 1779 when they sold two parcels of 50 acres each in Northampton County on Urahaw Swamp [DB 6:326, 332]. They may have been the ancestors of

i. Judith, whose son Willie Cannady, born 1786, was bound an apprentice in Edgecombe County court on 21 May 1791.

ii. Jacob, born before 1776, head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 6 "free colored" in 1830 [NC:329]. The 11 October 1832 issue of the Roanoke Advocate advertised that there was a letter for him at the Halifax Post Office. He left a 24 October 1835 Halifax County will, proved February 1836, by which he left all his estate to Jacob H. Simpson Canady and John Felson Simpson Canady after the death of his wife Silley Canady [WB 4:125].

iii. Mary, head of a Halifax County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:3].

 

2.    Joseph1 Cannady/ Kannady, born say 1710, was presented by the York County court on 15 December 1735 for not listing his "Molatto" wife Betty as a tithable. On 24 November 1741 Betty received 10 shillings for Mary Roberts from Francis Hewitt according to the account of his York County estate. Betty was Mary Roberts' daughter, named in Mary's 20 November 1749 York County will. On 19 November 1744 Joseph was again presented for not listing his wife as a tithable, and he was ordered to pay tithes on all his tithables when he appeared in court on 17 December 1744. A suit brought against him by George Jones for trespass, assault and battery was dismissed on 19 May 1746 when neither party appeared. John Rollison (Rawlinson) sued him for debt on 20 November 1752 but the case was discontinued because Rawlinson did not prosecute. Joseph paid 14 shillings to the estate of Ann Keith which was returned to court on 17 June 1754. Elizabeth was paid 1 pound, 4 shillings by the estate of Simon Whitaker on 6 August 1769 [W&I 18:237, 245; 19:250, 314, 332, 432; 20:163-4, 329; 22:8; Judgments & Orders 1752-4, 153, 168]. Joseph and Betty may have been the parents of

4        i. Hugh1, born say 1735.

5        ii. Joseph2, born about 1739.

iii. Jane, living in York County on 17 December 1764 when a grand jury presentment against her was dismissed [Judgments & Orders 1759-63, 320].

 

3.    William2 Cannady, born say 1716, was paid 1 pound, 6 shillings by the York County estate of Pluny Ward. He paid about the same amount to the estate which was settled on 12 September 1738. He was presented by the York County court on 19 November 1744 and 1746 for not listing his wife as a tithable [W&I 18:450-1; 19:314, 332, 472, 486]. He was probably the father of

i. William3, born say 1740, presented for not listing his wife as a tithable in York County on 21 November 1765. On 17 July 1769 he was sued for a 40 shilling debt due by account. He was a soldier in the Revolution on 17 August 1778 and 21 June 1779 when the York County court allowed his wife Frances Kennedy a subsistence payment [Judgments & Orders 1763-5, 90, 126; 1768-70, 299; Orders 1774-84, 170, 219].

6        ii. James1, born say 1750.

 

4.    Hugh1 Cannady, born say 1735, was sued in Sussex County by John Montgomery for a 3 pound, 15 shilling debt on 18 June 1767 [Orders 1766-70, 120]. He and his wife Anne baptized their son Joseph on 3 July 1768 in Albemarle Parish, Sussex and Surry counties. The godparents were Timothy Santee and Samuel and Sarah Blizzard [Richards, Register of Albemarle Parish, 145]. Hugh died before 16 November 1775 when the Sussex County, Virginia court ordered the churchwardens to bind out his unnamed orphan children [Orders 1770-76]. He was the father of

7        i. ?Hugh2, born say 1757.

ii. ?John, born say 1761, taxable in Sussex County in Huriah Cannady/ Kennedy's household in 1782 and 1783, a "free man" whose tax was charged to Stephen Andrew in 1784 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1812, frames 69, 83, 112]. He married Susannah Tann, 27 December 1786 Southampton County, Virginia bond, John Tann surety, 22 January 1787 marriage. The executors of John Lamb sued him and Richard Andrews in Sussex County court in December 1788 [Orders 1786-91, 434]. He was taxable in Nottoway Parish, Southampton County (no race indicated) from 1787 to 1792, taxable on 2 horses in 1792 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-92, 619, 680, 732, 782; 1792-1806, frames 6, 28]. He was taxable in Sussex County from 1794 to 1800 and from 1802 to 1812 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1812, frames 112, 368, 381, 431, 472, 486, 526, 574, 734, 766, 801, 855]. He was a "FN" taxable in Henrico County in 1801 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frame 448]. He married, second, Creesy Chavis, 9 December 1806 Sussex County marriage [Minister's Returns, 283]. He was a "Free Negro" head of a Sussex County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:632] and was over fifty-five years old when he was head of a Sussex County household of 5 "free colored" in 1830.

iii. Joseph3, born 3 July 1768 [Richards, Register of Albemarle Parish, 145], taxable in Sussex County from 1789 to 1792: his tax charged to Mary Andrews in 1791 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1812, frames 241, 274, 296, 320]. He married Tabitha Scott, 23 December 1797 Surry County bond, William Scott surety. He was taxable in Surry County in 1799 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frame 367]. He married, second, Patty Jones, 26 February 1804 Sussex County bond, John Jones surety, 29 February marriage.

 

5.    Joseph2 Canada, born about 1739, registered as a "free Negro" in Southampton County on 11 September 1794: Joseph Canada a free mulattoe 55 years old 5 feet 6-1/2 inches high has resided in Southampton 15 or 20 years .... born of free parents in Jas. City [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 121 (located between nos. 90 and 91)]. He may have been the father of

i. James3, taxable in the St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County household of Molly Chavis in 1805 [Personal Property Tax List 1792-1806, frame 803], a Surry County taxable in 1806, married Elizabeth Scott, 20 February 1808 Sussex County bond, Jordan Cannady surety, 21 February marriage. He was taxable in Sussex County in 1810 and 1812 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1812, frames 766, 855].

 

6.    James1 Cannady, born say 1750, was taxable in James City County from 1782 to 1813: taxable on 4 horses and 18 cattle in 1782, a "Mulatto" taxable on 3 horses and 16 cattle in 1785, 2 slaves and 3 horses in 1788, 2 free tithables from 1794 to 1796, a slave in 1809 and 1810, 2 free tithables in 1811 and 1812, and had five female "Free Persons of Colour" over the age of sixteen in his household in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99; 1800-24]. He was taxable on 45 acres in 1790 and taxable on one tract of 45 acres and another of 78 acres in 1800 [1790 Land Tax List, p.2; 1800 Land Tax List, p.2]. He was living in James City County on 19 December 1811 when he made a Charles County deed of gift of a cow and two calves to his grandson Walker Cumbo, son of Turner Cumbo and his wife Rebecca of Charles City County [DB 5:405-6]. He was the father of

i. ?Sally, born say 1770, taxable in James City County on a slave and a horse in 1792, a "mulatto" over the age of sixteen in James City County in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99; 1800-24].

ii. ?James2, Jr., born say 1773, taxable in James City County from 1797 to 1812, a "mulatto" taxable with two female "Free Persons of Colour" over the age of sixteen in his James City County household in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99; 1800-24].

iii. Rebecca, married Turner Cumbo before 19 December 1811.

 

7.   Hugh2 Cannady, born say 1757, took the oath of allegiance in Sussex County on 9 August 1777 (called Huria Cannady) [Tithables, 1753-1782, frame 839, LVA microfilm no. 90]. He was taxable on his own tithe and a horse in Sussex County from 1782 to 1800: called Uriah Kennedy from 1782 to 1784; charged with John Kennedy's tithe in 1782; taxable on slave Beck in 1784; charged with Joseph Cannady's tithe in 1789; charged with Jones Canada's tithe in 1791; taxable on 2 tithes in 1795 and 1797; and a Hugh Canada was taxable in 1811 without a horse [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 69, 83, 118, 167, 192, 211, 221, 241, 274, 298, 320, 368, 381, 431, 472, 486, 526, 801]. He was a miller on William Birdsong's land in the "List of Free Negroes & Mulattoes" for Sussex County in 1802, 1805, 1811, with Betsy, Susan and Sary Canady, spinsters [List of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1801-1812, frames 7, 30, 51, LVA micrfofilm no. 221]. His children were

8        i. ?Jones, born say 1778.

ii. Silvey, born say 1780, married Major Debrick (Debrix) of Surry County, "consent of Hew Cannady," 7 February 1797 Sussex County bond, Joseph Cannady surety, 9 February marriage.

iii. Mary, born say 1782, "daughter of Hew Cannaday," married Edward Chavers, 21 December 1799 Sussex County bond, John Cannida surety, 22 December marriage.

iv. ?Eady, born say 1788, married John Walden, 9 August 1809 Surry County bond, 10 August marriage.

v. ?Jordan, born about 1789, received one of the "Certificates granted to Free negroes & mulattoes from October 1800" in Sussex County on 10 March 1815: bright complexion, 5'9", 26 years old [Register of Free Negroes, no. 256].

 

8.    Jones Cannady, born say 1778, was taxable in Sussex County in 1790, 1791, and 1799 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1812, frames 274, 298, 486]. He married Fanny Scott, 20 February 1799 Surry County bond, William Scott surety. He was surety for the 17 August 1799 Sussex County marriage bond of David Charity ("of Surry County") and Nancy Debberick (Debrix). He was taxable in Surry County from 1801 to 1816: listed with 2 "free Negroes & Mulattoes above the age of 16" in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frames 445, 521, 590, 629, 667, 706, 733, 852]. His Surry County will was proved in 1833 [WB 6:563-5]. Jones and Fanny's children were

i. William4, born about 1801, registered in Surry County on 25 November 1822: son of Fanny Canada, a free woman of colour, aged 21 years is 5'11-1/4" high of bright complexion has long hair and grey eyes.

ii. Nancy Ann, born say 1803, registered in Surry County on 26 April 1824: daughter of Jones and Frances Canady, free Mulatto persons of Surry County she is bright Mulatto ... she has pretty straight hair, small Eyes, her features are rather handsome than otherways, & is 5'5" high [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 75, 79].

 

King George, Hampshire and Monongalia counties

The Kennedy family of St. Paul's Parish, King George County, was probably related to Hugh Canaday, apparently a white man, who successfully sued in King George County court to be discharged from his indenture on 4 May 1733 on evidence of William and Mary Edwards [Orders 1721-34, part 3, 638]. Behethland Kennedy, born say 1758, married Luke Hughes, on 10 July 1779 in St. Paul's Parish [St. Paul's Parish Register (microfilm), 223]. Luke was a "Mulatto" taxable in Culpeper County from 1798 to 1802 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 687, 781, 820, 865] who was born in King George County according to his "free Negro" registration in King George County on 27 October 1800 [Register of Free Persons, no. 16]. And a Thomas Canady, born before 1776, was a taxable "Mulatto" in Culpeper County from 1799 to 1801 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 736, 778, 817], a "man of Color" taxable in Monongalia County in 1816 in the same list as "man of Color" Hugh Kanedy [PPTL 1783-1821, frame 791] and head of a Monongalia County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830 [VA:354].

 

1.   Thomas Kennedy, born say 1742, married Frances Lucas in St. Paul's Parish on 9 October 1763 [Nicklin, St. Paul's Parish Register, 36]. He was head of a Hampshire County household of 7 "whites" (free people) in 1782 and 7 in 1784 with no dwellings and 2 other buildings [VA:25, 71]. He sold 207 acres in Hampshire County on 11 April 1797, and he and his wife Elizabeth sold property to John Kidwell of Hampshire County on 8 September 1800 [Sage & Jones, Early Records, Hampshire County, 31]. He was taxable in the lower district of Hampshire County, Virginia, from 1782 to 1800: taxable on 1 tithe, 2 horses, and 3 cattle in 1782, 2 tithes from 1789 to 1798, and on 1 tithe in 1800 [PPTL 1782-9, frames 7, 29, 47, 66, 84, 165, 241, 254, 325, 341, 406, 424, 498, 517; 1800-14, frame 38]. He may have been the father of

i. Hugh, born say 1772, taxable in the lower district of Hampshire County, Virginia, from 1793 to 1809 in the same district as (his father?) Thomas Cannady [PPTL 1782-99, frames 325, 341, 406, 424, 498, 577, 593; 1800-14, frame 38, 109, 197, 218, 306, 335, 409, 437]. He was head of a Monongalia County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [VA:514] and a "man of Color" taxable on a horse in Monongalia County from 1811 to 1820: taxable on 2 "FPC" tithes in 1814, 1818 and 1819, listed as a farmer in 1820, taxable on 1 tithe in 1816 when Thomas Kenedy was listed as a tithable "man of Color" in the same district [PPTL 1783-1821, frames 582, 615, 683, 791, 812, 855, 898, 916]. He was probably the Hugh C who was listed in the 1820 Monongalia Census at the end of the Eastern District in the "free colored" section between Hezekiah Kook/ Cook and Thomas Kook/ Cook with a blank entry [VA:169].

ii. Isaac, born before 1776, taxable in the lower district of Hampshire County from 1799 to 1806 [PPTL 1782-99, frame 593; 1800-14, frames 38, 57, 109, 196, 218, 335], a "man of colour" taxable in Harrison County in 1813 [PPTL 1809-1818], head of an Eastern District, Harrison County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:84] and 15 "free colored" in 1830: in the same district as "free colored" Samuel Kennedy (born after 1795), Isaac Newman and Jesse Male.

iii.Jacob, taxable in the upper district of Hampshire County from 1804 to 1811: called a "F.M." in 1811 [PPTL 1800-14, frames 365, 385, 465, 489, 564], head of a Hampshire County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:822], a "man of colour" taxable in Harrison County in 1813 [PPTL 1809-18], and head of a Randolph County household of 5 "free colored" in in 1840 [VA:272].

iv. Thomas, born about 1803, head of a Randolph County household of 5 "free colored" in 1840 [VA:272], a "Mulatto" counted in the 1850 census for Decatur, Washington County, Ohio, with "Mulatto" wife Sarah and $250 real estate [family no. 81].

 

Endnotes:

1.    Others free African American families from York County who later lived in or near Northampton County, North Carolina, were the Allen, Banks, Brooks, Byrd, and Roberts families.

2. The Lucas family were "Mulatto" taxables in King George and nearby counties. Philip Lucas was a "free negro" taxable in Fauquier County in 1786 and 1789 [PPTL 1782-96, frames 97, 278] and a "free black" taxable in the upper district of Hampshire County in 1790 [PPTL 1782-99, frame 198].

3. Elizabeth Tissot in Cannady and Allied Families (1988) suggests that Hugh Cannady of Sussex County, Virginia, may have been a son of Hugh Cannady of King George County.

 

CARPENTER FAMILY

1.    Sarah Carpenter, born say 1740, was head of a Northumberland County household of 5 "Blacks" in 1782 [VA:37]. She left a 29 May 1782 Northumberland County will, proved 9 August 1784 by the administrator James Carpender. She gave a bed, furniture, and other household items, her oldest yoke of oxen, and a cow and calf to her son William Carpender; the remainder of her estate to her son James Carpender; a heifer to her grandson James Credick (Credit) and divided her clothes and pewter plates among her daughters Sarah, Leannah, Elizabeth and Ellender [RB 12:256]. She was the mother of

i. William, born day 1760, taxable in Northumberland County from 1784 to 1794, a "Blk" taxable from 1809 to 1811 [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 265, 327, 392, 417, 634, 668].

2        ii. James, born say 1762.

iii. Sarah.

iv. Leannah.

v. Elizabeth.

vi. Ellender.

 

2.    James Carpenter, born say 1762, was taxable in Northumberland County from 1784 to 1813: charged with 2 tithes in 1807 and 1809, listed as a "Blk" tithe from 1809 to 1813 [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 265, 327, 348, 378, 436, 444, 505, 514, 535, 564, 572, 621, 634, 653, 682]. He was probably identical to James Cavender, a "mulatto man" residing in Northumberland County on 9 May 1796 when the court certified that he was born free [Orders 1796-7, 26]. He was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:974]. He may have been the father of

i. Hannah, born say 1785, married George Credit, 9 November 1807 Northumberland County bond, Spencer Thomas security.

ii. Hancock, taxable in Northumberland County from 1810 to 1813 [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 653, 667, 682]. He married Peggy Boyd, 12 December 1811 Northumberland County bond, Presly Coleman security.

 

CARTER FAMILY

1.    Paul1 Carter, born say 1620, was imported as a slave by Nathaniel Littleton of Northampton County, Virginia, in 1640 [Orders 1640-45, 42]. He was mentioned without a surname in the 1656 will of Littleton's wife Anne who left him to her son Edward [VMHB 75:17-21]. Edward Littleton mentioned Paul, his wife Hannah and their children by their surnames in his 1663 will to his wife Frances who later married Francis Pigot [DW 1657-66, 168]. Paul Carter and his wife were taxable in 1664 in Frances Littleton's household in Northampton County, Virginia:

Mr. Littletons Family

Wm Clements

peter George Negro

Paull Carter & wife

Ould Jack Negro 5 [Orders 1657-64, fol.198].

He probably died shortly afterwards since he was not mentioned again in the lists of tithables. His wife Hannah was freed by their then master, Francis Pigot, in May 1665. Francis Paine and Emmanuel Driggus promised Pigot that they would support her if necessary [DW 1665-68, pt.2, 15]. Hannah lived in the household of Bashaw Fernando and his wife where she was a taxable in 1668, 1671, 1675 and 1677 [Orders 1664-74, 55, fol.114; 1674-79, 75, 191]. Francis Pigot gave "Negroes" James Carter, Paul Carter and Anthony George to his son Ralph Pigot and gave "Negroes" Peter George and Edward Carter to his son Thomas Pigot by his 27 March 1684 will [OW 1683-9, 119-20]. Some of Paul and Hannah's children were freed and were the ancestors of the Carter family of Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia. Others remained slaves. Their children mentioned in the wills of their masters were

i. Elizabeth, born about 1640, a taxable "Nigro" in John Robins' household in 1665 [Orders 1664-74, 15].

2        ii. Edward1, born say 1642.

iii. Paul2, born say 1643.

iv. Mary, born say 1645.

3        v. Thomas1, born about 1647.

vi. James1, born about 1649, taxable in Francis Pigot's household in 1677 [OW 1674-1679, 191], probably remained a slave, a fifty-six-year-old man listed in Ralph Pigot's 1705 estate inventory [DW 1692-1707, 417].

 

2.    Edward1 Carter, born say 1642, was first taxable in Francis Pigot's Northampton County household in 1677 [Orders 1674-79, 191]. Pigot bequeathed him to his son Thomas Pigot in 1684 [OW 1683-9, 119-123]. He was called the "Negro slave to Mr. Thomas Pigot" on 29 September 1687 when he received thirty lashes for insolently abusing and striking a white woman named Elizabeth Sterling [OW 1683-89, 299-300, 309]. In 1714 he and William Whitehead posted bond for the maintenance of his grandchild, the child of his "mulatto" daughter Hannah [Orders 1711-16, 149]. The inventory of his Northampton County estate was recorded on 13 February 1727/8 [Wills, Deeds 1725-33, 104-5]. His children were

4        i. ?Edward2, born say 1680.

5        ii. Hannah1, born say 1690.

 

3.    Thomas1 Carter, born about 1647, was a sixteen-year-old slave in 1663 [DW 1657-66, 168]. In 1665 and 1666 he and Peter George were taxed in Pigott's Northampton County household as "Negroes" Peter and Thomas, and in 1666 Captain Pigott charged free "Negro" Bastian Cane with harboring, concealing, and trading with them [Orders 1664-74, 15, fol.29]. He was a taxable "Negro" in Francis Pigot's household in 1667-1677 [Orders 1664-74, fol.42, p.55, fol.114; 1674-79, 75, 191]. In 1684 he, his wife Ellenor, and their two daughters Elizabeth and Mary were freed by the will of their master, Francis Pigot, with the proviso that they pay his heirs 1,000 pounds of tobacco a year for ten years [OW 1683-89, 119-123]. Two years later in 1686, Pigot's heirs released them from these payments [OW 1683-89, 119-123]. On 28 September 1692 he was called "Thomas Carter Negro" when he successfully sued John Wescott for a 1 pound 6 shilling debt in Northampton County court [OW&c 1689-98, 194]. In 1693 he apprenticed his children Elizabeth, Thomas, and Margaret to "his loving friend" William Gelding from the time of his own death until they reached the age of nineteen years. Gelding agreed to teach them to read and provide them with freedom dues [OW&c 1689-98, 250]. He died before 1699 when his wife Eleanor was called a widow [OW&c 1698-1710, 8]. Their children were

6        i. Elizabeth, born about 1678.

7        ii. Mary, born say 1681.

8        iii. Thomas2, born say 1686.

iv. Margaret1, born say 1688, apprenticed in 1693. She may have been the Margaret Carter who was living with John Crew when he gave her all his estate by his nuncupative Northampton County will. On 28 February 1709/10 Jean Grimes and James Sanders testified that Crew had changed his mind before his death, but the court ruled against them [OW&c 1698-1710, 517].

9        v. ?Edward3, born say 1690.

 

4.    Edward2 Carter (Edward1), born say 1680, was tithable on himself and a slave in the 1712 tax list for Beaufort Precinct, North Carolina. In 1716 he was taxed in Beaufort Precinct on 301 acres which he held by patent granted that same year [Haun, Old Albemarle County Records, 264]. By his 23 March 1735/6 New Hanover County will, proved 10 May 1736, he set his slave, Peter, free for sixty years and left land on the east side of the Northeast Branch of Cape Fear River to his grandchildren: William, Edward, Solomon, and Thomasin Carter [SS 877/142]. His children were not named in his will, but one of them was

10      i. the unnamed parent of Edward2's grandchildren, born say 1695.

 

5.    Hannah1 Carter (Edward1), born say 1690, was called the daughter of Edward Carter in Northampton County court in 1714 when he and William Whitehead paid her fine for bearing her illegitimate child [Orders 1710-16, 149]. She was presented by the Northampton County court for bearing a total of six illegitimate children. William Brumfield, a white resident of Northampton County, swore in court in December 1721 that he was never "concerned carnally" with her [Orders 1719-22, 150]. She was a tithable "mulatto" in Ralph Pigot's household in 1724 and 1725, in William Waterson's household from 1726 to 1730, in Ralph Pigot's household in 1731, in Muns Bishop's household from 1737 to 1739, and in her own household in 1740 and 1741. She petitioned the court to release her son Thomas from his indenture to Thomas Costin because he was not teaching him a trade or giving him schooling and was planning to remove him from the county [L.P. #14 (1728 II)]. She died in 1741 [Orders 1732-42, 461, 467]. Her children were

11      i. Thomas3, born 7 December 1711.

ii. Luke, born in 1715, bound to Absolem Satchell in 1716 [Orders 1710-16, 252].

iii. William2, born about 1721, an illegitimate child for whom Hannah was fined 500 pounds of tobacco in December 1721. William Harmon, "Negro," paid the fine and indemnified the parish of any charges [Orders 1719-22, 144, 146]. On 8 April 1740 John Wilson complained to the court that he had maintained "William Carter a "Mulatto" from the age of two only to have him taken away by his mother Hannah when he was "upwards of sixteen." The court ordered William bound to John Wilson [Orders 1732-42, 395].

iv. a "Mulatto" son of Hannah, born about 1724 [Orders 1732-42, 396].

v. Southy, perhaps her illegitimate child, born before 11 May 1725, "Molatto" son of Hannah Carter [Orders 1722-29, 181].

vi. an illegitimate child, born about 1729, for whose birth Hannah was presented in May 1729 [Orders 1722-29, 382].

 

6.    Elizabeth Carter (Thomas1), born about 1678, was a twenty-seven-year-old woman listed in the Northampton County inventory of Ralph Pigot's slaves in 1705. She and her children apparently remained slaves since they were listed with her in the inventory. They were

i. Edward4 (Ned), born about 1695, a ten-year-old in 1705. He was taxable with his sister Sarah in Culpepper Pigot's household from 1720 to 1722, and in Jacob Stringer's household in 1723.

ii. Hannah2, born about 1698, a seven-year-old in 1705.

iii. Sarah, born about 1701, a four-year-old in 1705.

iv. Dinah, born about 1703, a two-year-old in 1705, perhaps the "Dinah Negro," taxable in John Pigot's household in 1720.

 

7.    Mary Carter (Thomas1), born say 1681, "Daughter of Ellenor Carter widow," was free in Northampton County by 30 May 1699 when she was presented for having an unnamed illegitimate child by Daniel, a slave belonging to Daniel Benthall. She was again presented for bastardy in 1703 [OW&c 1698-1710, 8, 18, 165]. Her illegitimate children may have been

i. Jacob, probably born about 1699, tithable in Jacob Waterfield's Northampton County household in the list of Thomas Harmanson in 1720, tithable in Azaricum Drighouse's household in 1727, tithable with his wife Tabitha Copes in Azaricum's household in 1727, and tithable in his own household from 1728 to 1731 in James Forse's list.

ii. Lydia, probably born about 1703, presented by the grand jury of Northampton County on 11 May 1725 for having a bastard child [Orders 1722-29, 181]. She was a "Malatto" taxable in Thomas Costin's household in 1725 and taxable in her own household in Ralph Pigot's list for the lower precinct of Northampton County. She married John Driggers by 1728 when she was a taxable in his household. He died in 1729, and she was called Lydia Drighouse on 11 May 1731 she was presented for having a bastard child [Orders 1729-32, 84].

 

8.    Thomas2 Carter (Thomas1), born say 1686, was bound by his father as an apprentice to William Gelding of Magotha Bay, Northampton County, in 1693 [OW 1689-98, 250]. On 20 June 1716 he was sued in Northampton County court by Daniel Jacobs who was granted an attachment against his estate for 1,100 pounds of tobacco [Orders 1711-16, 255]. He was a taxable in Daniel Jacob's household in 1720 in Hillary Stringer's list for Northampton County and was called "Tom Carter Negro" in Jacob Stringer's list for 1723. He was taxable in the Northampton County list of tithables from 1722 to 1729, with his wife Elizabeth from 1724 to 1733, and with their son Moses in 1727. He was called a "Mulatto man" on 8 October 1724 when he and Alice Cormack (a white woman) were whipped for harboring a slave named Caesar, belonging to John Armistead of Gloucester County, who was hanged for stealing goods from the store of John Robins [Orders 1722-29, 145-6]. He may have been the Thomas Carter "Mullattoe" who petitioned the Cumberland County, North Carolina court on 19 January 1758 to remove his grandchildren: Abraham, Penney, Moses, Samuel, and Elizabeth Carter from the possession of James Wright who was illegally detaining them. The court bound Abraham as an apprentice to Plunkett Ballard, and then the 18 April 1758 Cumberland court returned them all to the care of their mother Mary Carter. The 18 January 1759 court reversed the earlier court decision and returned them to James Wright [Minutes 1755-59, 32, 34, 45]. Thomas' children were

12      i. John2, born say 1714.

ii. Moses1, born about 1717, a 12-16 year old tithable in his father's household in 1729.

iii. ?Isaac1, born say 1720, sold 149 acres on the north side of Eagle Swamp in Craven County, North Carolina, by an undated deed, 30 October ____, about 1745-49 [DB 2:82]. He was number 61 in the 25 October 1754 Muster Roll of Lewis Bryan's Craven County Company (not identified by race) [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 703]. He received a patent for 164 acres in Craven on the south side of the Great Contentnea in October 1755 [Hoffman, Land Patents, I:61].

13      iv. ?Mary, born say 1730

14      v. ?Margaret3, born say 1732.

15      vi. ?James2, born say 1734.

 

9.    Edward3 Carter (Thomas1), born say 1690, chose Daniel Jacobs "Negrow" as his guardian in Northampton County, Virginia, in 1707 [OW&c 1698-1710, 320]. He was taxable in his own household in Hillary Stringer's 1720 list for Northampton County, called "Edward Carter Negro" in the 1721-23 lists. He was taxable with his wife Margaret and his two boys, John and Edward, in 1724 and 1725 in John Robins' list, but was not tithable again in Northampton County. He purchased 300 acres in Bertie County, North Carolina, on the Potecasi Branch and the Indian Path in August 1730 [DB C:291]. This land was on the east side of Potecasi Creek in what was then Society Parish, Bertie County, and became Hertford County in 1759. On 10 May 1750 he and his wife Margaret made deeds of gift of 200 acres to two of their children, Margaret and Mary, who were taxed as "free Mulattos" in the 1751 Bertie tax list filed with the central government [CCR 190]. In 1757 he was taxed in the list of John Brickell adjacent to his daughter Margaret and her husband James Nicken [C.R. 010.702.1, Box 1]. Administration of his estate was granted John Carter for 400 pounds surety on 22 January 1760 [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes II:502]. Edward and Margaret's children were:

16       i. John1, born say 1712.

ii. Edward5, born say 1714, a taxable 10-16 year old in Northampton County, Virginia, in 1724 and 1725.

iii. Mary, born say 1728, married Henry Best. On 10 May 1750 she was called wife of Henry Best in her parents' deed of gift of 200 acres on the east side of Potecasi Creek in what was then Society Parish, Bertie County [DB G:354]. She and Henry were taxed as "free Mulatoes" in the 1751 Bertie County tax list filed with the central government [CCR 190], and they were taxed in the 1757 list of John Brickell with their slave, "Negro Santey." Perhaps he was the Henry Best who sold land by four deeds proved in the part of Johnston County which later became Dobbs County between November 1746 and April 1754 [DB 1:34, 1:287, 2:235, 2:422]. He may have been living near Edward6 Carter of Dobbs County. In 1757 Henry and Mary were taxed in the list of John Brickell with a slave, "Negro Santey," and in 1758 they were taxed in the list of John Brown [CR 10.702.1, box 1]. There are few surviving colonial Hertford County records, so there is no further record of them. However, a Mary Best was head of a Hertford County household of 3 white females and 3 slaves in 1790 [NC:26].

iv. Margaret2, born say 1730, married James Nicken. On 10 May 1750 she was called wife of James Nicken in her parents' deed of gift to her for 200 acres in Society Parish, Bertie County [DB G:356]. James and Margaret were taxed as "fr. Muls." in the 1750 Bertie County tax summary filed with the central government [CCR 190], and they were taxable in the 1757 list of John Brickell [CR 10.702.1 Box 1].

 

10.    The unnamed child of Edward2 Carter (Edward2, Edward1), born say 1695, was the parent of Edward1 Carter's grandchildren who were mentioned in his 23 March 1735/6 New Hanover County will. They were

i. William1, born say 1715. He was to receive his share of his grandfather's estate immediately since he was the oldest grandson. He and William Gray, executor of his father's estate, were granted 640 acres in Onslow County "in trust for the Grand Child of Edwd Carter deced" on 19 June 1736 [Saunders, Colonial Records of North Carolina IV:221]. He may have been the William Carter who was number 11 in the 27 November 1752 New Hanover County Muster Roll of the Wilmington Company commanded by Captain George Merrick [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 683].

17      ii. Edward6, born say 1720.

18      iii. Solomon, born say 1725.

iv. Thomasin.

11.    Thomas3 Carter (Hannah1, Edward1), born 7 December 1712, a "Malato," was four years old on 20 August 1717 when his mother Hannah Carter, a "Mallatto," bound him to Thomas Costin in Northampton County, Virginia [Hannah Carter's Petition, Packet #14; Orders 1716-18, 34]. He was a "malotto" taxable in William Satchell's household in 1731. On 10 July 1733 his mother petitioned the court, complaining that his then-master William Satchell was not educating him. He had completed his indenture by 12 March 1733/4 when Satchell was ordered to pay him his freedom dues [Orders 1732-42, 68, 71, 95-6]. On 11 July 1738 he, called a "Mulatto planter," sued Francis Stokely for trespass, assault and battery and was awarded 15 shillings damages ("the Battery being proved"), and he was awarded 20 shillings on 14 November 1738 in his suit against Stephen Odeer for trespass, assault and battery ("the Battery being proved") [Orders 1732-42, 325, 326, 330, 334, 338]. He was a witness for Sarah Carter in her suit against John Hall, Jr., for 50 bushels of corn on 10 March 1741/2 [Orders 1732-42, 472]. He may have been the Thomas Carter who was a witness for Humphrey Jones in his 19 March 1753 York County, Virginia suit against John Rollison (Rawlinson). The parties by their counsel agreed that they were "Mulattos" [Judgments & Orders 1752-4, 196]. Thomas was fined 500 pounds of tobacco in Charles City County on 6 September 1758 for failing to list his wife as a tithable [Orders 1758-62, 57]. He may have been the ancestor of

i. Sally, a "free" head of a Williamsburg City household of 1 "black" person in 1782 [VA:45].

ii. Ishmael, married Elvey Martin, 20 June 1809 Charles City County bond [Wm & Mary Quarterly Historical Papers Vol. 8, No.3, p.193]. On 3 December 1811 Freeman Brown sold him 1 acre in Charles City County on the cross road leading from the courthouse road to Swineyard's Road for $1 "to have and to hold provided he leaves lawful issue" [DB 5:560]. He was taxable on a horse in Charles City County in 1811 and was a "Mulattoe" taxable there in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List 1807-23].

iii. Littleton, taxable in York County from 1813 to 1820: taxable on a male and a female in a "list of free Negroes & Mulattoes over the age of 16" in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1841, frames 386, 404, 468, 480].

iv. Harrison, a "Mulatto Boy" bound by the Pittsylvania County court on 25 April 1776 to to Ayres Hodnett and bound to John Hunt Hendrick on 4 May 1777 [Orders 1776-91, 9; 1777-83, 5].

v. Rebecca, a "Mulattoe girl" bound by the Pittsylvania County court to William Lynch on 4 May 1777 [Orders 1777-83, 6]. She and her unnamed daughter were listed as "free negroes" in the 1813 tax list for Pittsylvania County [PPTL 1813-23].

 

12.    John2 Carter (Thomas2, Thomas1), born say 1714, was tithable in Azaricum Drighouse's Northampton County, Virginia household in 1730. He was a "free Negro," listed in the 4 October 1754 and 4 October 1755 Muster Roll of Craven County, North Carolina, for the district between the head of Slocumb's Creek and the head of Turnagain Bay. This is near the Craven - Carteret County line. Listed in this same muster roll were "free Negro" Peter George, and Jacob Copes who were also from Northampton County, Virginia. John may have been the same John Carter who two years earlier was in New Hanover County in the 27 November 1752 Muster Roll of the Wilmington Company commanded by Captain George Merrick (no race mentioned) [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 708, 683]. Perhaps his children were

19       i. Abel, born say 1732.

ii. Tabitha1, born say 1750, whose daughter Jane, born 1766, was ordered bound apprentice to Thomas Shine by the 11 March 1772 Craven County court [Minutes 1766-75, 191a]. Jenny was head of a Craven County household of 1 "other free" in 1790 [NC:134].

 

13.    Mary Carter (Thomas2, Thomas1), born say 1732, was the mother of five "Mullatoe" children mentioned in her father's 19 January 1758 Cumberland County petition [Minutes 1755-59, 32]. They were

i. Abraham, born about 1750.

ii. Penney, born about 1752.

iii. Moses2, born about 1754, about three years old on 18 April 1758 when the Cumberland County court ordered him bound to James Wright. He was a "man of color" who enlisted as a private in Captain Joseph Rhodes' 1st Regiment on 19 July 1782 until 1 July 1783. He made a declaration to obtain a pension in Sampson County on 25 October 1820 [M805-167, frame 0077]. He purchased 100 acres on the west side of Six Runs and Rowan Swamp in Sampson County on 13 May 1788 [DB 9:175]. He was head of a Sampson County household of 9 "other free" in 1790 [NC:52], 8 in 1800 [NC:515], counted as white in 1810 along with several other Sampson County free African Americans, head of a household of 4 males and 5 females [NC:485], and head of a household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:278]. His wife may have been Susanna Carter, the executrix of the 1807 Sampson County will of her father Abraham Jacobs, who also owned land near Rowan Swamp.

iv. Samuel, born about 1755.

v. Elizabeth, born about 1757.

 

14.    Margaret3 Carter (Thomas2, Thomas1), born say 1732, was a "free Mustee Woman" living in Cumberland County, North Carolina, on 22 June 1759 when the court bound her two-year-old child Henry Carter an apprentice to James Wright [Minutes 1755-59, 50]. Her son was

i. Henry, born about 1757, two years old when he was bound an apprentice to James Wright on 22 June 1759 in Cumberland County. He was head of a Sampson County household of 8 "other free" in 1790 [NC:52], 8 in 1800 [NC:515], counted as white in 1810, head of a Sampson County household of four males and three females [NC:485], and 10 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:278].

 

15.    James2 Carter, born say 1734, was a taxable "Mulato" in Bladen County, North Carolina, with his son Isaac in 1768. He was head of a Bladen County household of one white male 21 to 60, four white males under 21 or over 60, and six white females in 1786 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:5, 34, 81, 94, 103, 134; II:68, 76, 182, 183, 184]. He purchased 200 acres in Bladen County on Hogg Swamp east of Tadpole from his son Isaac on 7 March 1783 [DB 1:32]. He was the father of

i. Isaac2, born say 1754, a "Molato" taxable in his father's Bladen County household from 1768 to 1776, head of a Bladen County household of one white male 21 to 60, two under 21 or over 60 and three white females in 1786. He was granted 200 acres in Bladen County on Hogg Swamp east of Tadpole on 11 March 1775 and sold this land to his father on 7 March 1783 [DB 1:32].

ii. James4, a "Molato" taxable in the Bladen County household of his father James Carter, Sr., in 1770, taxable head of his own Bladen County household in 1776, head of a household of one white male 21 to 60, one under 21 or over 60 and five white females in 1786.

iii. ?Mark, a "Molato" taxable in the Bladen County household of (his father?) James Carter in 1776, head of a Bladen County household of one white male from 21 to 60 and two white females in 1786. He was taxable on 200 acres in Bladen County in Captain Regan's District in 1784 and head of a Robeson County household of 4 "other free" in 1800. He sold land in Robeson County by deed proved on 9 July 1800 and purchased land by deed proved on 6 October 1801 [Minutes 1797-1806, 120, 171].

iv. ?Emmanuel, born perhaps 1765, entered 100 acres in Robeson County on Poplar Bay near Jacobs Swamp on 22 September 1789 [Pruitt, Land Entries: Robeson County, I:28]. He purchased 50 acres in Robeson on Ashpole Swamp from James Lowery by deed proved in 1797 [DB G:142] and sold land in Robeson County by deed proved on 7 April 1800 [Minutes 1797-1806, 99]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:50]. His wife may have been Nancy Carter who was mentioned in the 20 October 1787 Robeson County will of her father David Braveboy [WB 1:10].

 

16.    John1 Carter (Edward3, Thomas1), born say 1712, was a 10 to 16 year old taxable in his father's Northampton County, Virginia household in 1724 and 1725. He was granted administration of Edward Carter's Bertie County estate on 22 January 1760 [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, II:502]. He bought 360 acres on the east side of Potecasi Creek in Bertie County on 11 February 1746, and he and his wife Ann, "late of Society Parish," sold this land four years later on 25 February 1750 [DB G:370]. He was taxed on himself, his wife Ann, and two slaves, Dick and Pat, from 1757 to 1759 in the Bertie County Tax List of John Brickell [CR 010.702.1, Box 1]. He bought 230 acres on the north side of Ahoskie Swamp near Jackson's Ferry on the Chowan River and Bonner Bridge in what was then Bertie County but became Hertford County after 1759 [DB H:405]. His children may have been

i. "Winifred Carter orphan of John Carter," (no race indicated) born about 1756, bound apprentice to Miles Mason Shehan and his wife in Bertie court on 30 August 1764 [NCGSJ XIV:29].

20      ii. Charles, born say 1758.

 

17.    Edward6 Carter (_____, Edward2, Edward1), born say 1720, was not yet twenty-one years old when his grandfather Edward2 Carter made his 23 March 1735/6 New Hanover County will. He patented 330 acres on the south side of the Neuse River and west side of Panther Creek on 12 April 1745 [Hoffman, Land Patents, I:253]. He was residing in New Hanover County on 31 August that same year when he purchased 170 acres adjoining this land in what was then Craven County but later became Dobbs County [Craven DB 2:554]. On 5 September 1764 he successfully sued James Farr for a little over 8 pounds in New Hanover County court [Minutes 1738-69, 221]. He acquired land in Dobbs, Duplin, and Craven counties, holding a total of 1,870 acres by 11 December 1770. In addition to these 1,870 acres there were twenty-two grantee deeds registered to him in Dobbs County between 1750 and 1799. Only the deed index to these deeds has survived. Most other Dobbs County records were lost in a courthouse fire. Edward was taxable in 1769 in Dobbs County with (his wife?) Elizabeth and eight slaves:

Edward Carter, Elizabeth, John Clemmons, "Couzuns" Bib and Bush; Negroes Jack, Frank, Cudjo, Dinah, Cate, Violet, Pat and Dinah 5 white polls and 8 black polls [SS 837, p.7, by NCGSJ XV:75].

Edward was number 55 (and his brother Solomon, number 56) in an undated colonial muster roll of a company of foot soldiers in the Dobbs County militia of Captain William Whitfield [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 641-2]. He was one of the inhabitants of Dobbs County whose firelock was pressed into service during the 1771 expedition against the insurgents [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, XXII:413]. While residing in Dobbs County on 12 October 1772 he sold 100 acres on the northeast side of Cape Fear and east side of Cypress Swamp in what was then Duplin County to his brother Solomon Carter [DB 3:437]. This was land Edward purchased on 22 April 1763 and was part of New Hanover County when their grandfather made his will [DB 15:506]. A month later on 27 November 1772 while still a resident of Dobbs County he sold 85 acres of his Craven County land on the north side of Trent River [DB 20:164].

In a most extraordinary move, on 13 February 1773 the Dobbs County court recommended to the General Assembly that Edward's daughters be exempted from the discriminatory tax against female children of African Americans. The court named his daughters: Tamer Deaver, Margaret, Rachel, Ann, Sally, Patience, and Elizabeth Carter [Saunders, Colonial Records of North Carolina, IX:495]. In 1778 he entered a total of 958 acres in Dobbs County [Entries 139-40, 337-39, 362]. He was the fourth largest Dobbs County landowner with 23,292 acres in 1780 in the district south of the Neuse River near Kinston [L.P. 46.1 in Journal of N.C. Genealogy XII:1664]. On 8 October 1784 he was called "Edward Carter of Dobbs" when he bought 300 acres in Duplin County on the north side of the Northeast Cape Fear River and in the fork of Buck Marsh and Poley Bridge Branch with Solomon Carter as witness [DB 1A:133]. He was head of a Dobbs County household of 8 "other free," one white woman who may have been his wife, and 20 slaves in 1790 [NC:137]. His children were

i. ?George1, born say 1745, sold land by deed registered in Dobbs County between April 1765 and April 1769 [DB 7:77].

ii. Tamer Deaver, perhaps the wife of John Dever, a Dobbs County taxable in 1769 [SS 837, p.7, by NCGSJ XV:75].

iii. Margaret4, who was granted land by her father by deed registered in Dobbs between April 1789 and April 1792 [DB 14:212]. She was head of a Lenoir household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:31] and 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:305].

iv. Rachel Bush, born say 1750, perhaps the wife of Bibby Bush, taxable in Dobbs County in 1769 [SS 837, p.5, by NCGSJ XV:74], and taxed on 2,138 acres in 1780 [L.P.46.1]. Fourteen Dobbs County grantee deeds to him were registered between 1784 and 1803 [DB 8:106, 145, 11:315 (from Edward Carter), 13:114 (from Edward Carter), 14:547, 17:324, 18:116, 18:223 (from Edward Carter); 19:123, 151, 173 (from Chelly Carter); 20:71 (from Henry Carter), 97 (from John Carter), 72]. Rachel sold land to Barnabas McKinnie by deed registered in Dobbs County between 1805 and August 1810 [DB 23:104]. She was head of a Lenoir County household of 7 "other free" and four slaves in 1810 [NC:297].

v. ?James3, born say 1752, taxable in Dobbs County in 1769 (in the household of Robert Crawford) [SS 837]. He was head of a Lenoir County household of 2 "other free" and one white woman in 1800 [NC:31] and 5 "other free" in 1810 [NC:305]. He purchased land from Margaret Carter by deed registered in Dobbs County between 1796 and 1798 [DB 17:278], purchased land by deed registered between 1799 and 1801 [DB 19:156], and by five deeds registered between 1810 and 1819 [DB 24:169, 211, 323, 338, and 352].

vi. Ann.

vii. Sally.

viii. Patience, who was granted land by her father by deed registered in Dobbs County between April 1789 and April 1792 [DB 14:159].

ix. Elizabeth.

x. ?John4, married Elizabeth Johnston, 5 __ 1780 Duplin County bond, (his brother-in-law?) Bebe Bush witness. John was taxable on 1,942 acres in 1780 [L.P. 46.1]. (His father?) Edward Carter conveyed land to him by deed registered in Dobbs County between April 1789 and April 1792 [DB 14:377]. John was head of a Lenoir County household of 4 "other free" and one white woman in 1800 [NC:30].

xi. ?Henry, head of a Lenoir County household of 3 "other free," one white woman, and one slave in 1800 [NC:30] and 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:286]. He sold land by deeds registered in Dobbs from 1799-1801 [DB 19:283], 1802 to 1803 [DB 20:71], and 1823-28 [DB 26:57].

xii. ?Nancy, granted land by (her father?) Edward Carter by deed registered in Dobbs between April 1789 and April 1792 [DB 14:337].

 

18.    Solomon Carter (_____, Edward2, Edward1), born say 1725, was not yet twenty-one years old when his grandfather Edward Carter made his 23 March 1735/6 New Hanover County will. He was a resident of Duplin County on 6 May 1758 when he purchased 300 acres in Craven County near the Duplin County line on the north side of Tuckahoe Creek known by the name of Springs [DB 2:208]. He sold this land on 12 September 1763 while a resident of Duplin County [DB 11:283]. He received patents for 300 acres in Dobbs County on the north side of Tuckahoe Creek on 27 April 1767 and 360 acres in Duplin County on the Northeast Branch of Cape Fear River on both sides of Matthew's Branch on 29 April 1768 [Hoffman, Land Patents, II:347, 437]. He was in Dobbs County with his brother Edward, listed in the undated Muster Roll of foot soldiers in Captain William Whitfield's Company [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 642] and bought land from Edward in Duplin County on 12 October 1772 [DB 3:437]. He sold land by a deed registered in Dobbs County between April 1771 and April 1773 [DB 9:132] and purchased land by deeds proved in Dobbs from 1799-1801 [DB 19:204] and 1805-10 [DB 23:6, 143, 154]. He was counted as white in the 1790 Duplin County census, head of a household of two males, one female, and 3 slaves [NC:190] and counted as "other free" in Duplin County in 1800, head of a household of 4 "other free" and 3 slaves. He transferred his land to his sons by deeds which were apparently not recorded. On 30 January 1806 he was allowed the use of the plantation where he was living for the remainder of his life by a deed from his son David [DB 4A:4]. Constant Carter was probably his wife. On 29 August 1809 she sold to (her son?) Alexander Carter of Duplin County 26 cattle "in consideration of a bond for maintaining sd Constant during her natural lifetime." Their children were

i. David, born say 1760, counted as white in 1790, head of a Duplin county household of 5 males and 1 female [NC:191], and head of a Duplin County household of 9 "other free" in 1800. He sold 235 acres in Duplin County, land which had been Solomon Carter's, on 30 January 1806 with the proviso that his father have use of part of the plantation until his death [DB 4A:4].

21      ii. ?Edward7, born circa 1765.

iii. ?Leah Cartey, born say 1765, married Ezekiah Blizzard, 19 December 1782 Duplin County bond. On 27 December 1811 Alexander Carter sold Leah Carter of Lenoir County 146 acres of land in Duplin County [DB 4A:392].

iv. Manuel, born say 1770, married Fereba Alberson, 15 November 1789 Duplin County bond, Solomon Carter bondsman. He was head of a "white" Duplin household of 1 male and 1 female in 1790 [NC:191] and head of a Duplin household of 6 "other free" in 1800. He was probably Solomon's son since he sold land which had belonged to Solomon. In 1810 he was counted as white in Duplin County, head of a household of 7 males, two of them over forty-five years old, one woman over forty-five years old, and one slave [NC:690].

v. Alexander, born say 1775, married Sarah Herring, 6 June 1795 Duplin County bond, Solomon Carter bondsman. He was head of a Duplin County household of 4 "other free" in 1800. On 5 December 1806 he sold 100 acres in Duplin which previously belonged to Solomon Carter, and on 29 August 1809 he made a deed with Constant Carter, probably his mother, to maintain her for life [DB 3A:550; 4A:79]. He made 10 purchases and sales of land in Duplin County between 1806 and 1813 [DB 3A:306, 550, 556; 4:284, 392, 393, 394, 396, 402, 462]. One was for land at the head of Carter's Mill Pond and Juniper Branch adjacent to Jonathan Nickens, a relative of James Nickens, who married Margaret Carter of Hertford County.

 

19.    Abel Carter (John2, Thomas2, Thomas1), born say 1732, was "a Molatto" accused by the March 1750 Session of the Craven County court of concealing his taxables [Haun, Craven County Court Minutes, IV:31]. He was not penalized because the court accepted his defense that he was living with his father who was never legally warned by the Constable. He was listed as a "free Negro" with John Carter in Abner Neale's 1754 and 1755 Craven Muster Roll [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 708]. In 1769 Abel was taxable in Craven County on 2 Black males and 3 Black females [SS 837]. On 14 November 1778 an advertisement in the North Carolina Gazette of New Bern accused him of harboring a runaway slave:

negro fellow named Smart ... Tis supposed he is harboured about Smith River by one Abel Carter, a free Negro, as he has been seen there several times [Fouts, NC Gazette of New Bern, I:83].

He was head of a Craven County household of 7 "other free" persons in 1790 [NC:130]. His children may have been

i. John3, born 1754, enlisted in Captain Quinn's Tenth Regiment. He was engaged in skirmishes near West Point and Kings Ferry. He made a declaration in September Term 1820 Craven County court to obtain a pension. He was a cooper, living with his sister Margaret Fenner when he made his declaration in 1820. Asa Spelman testified on his behalf. He died before 30 July 1821 [M805-166, frame 497]. He may have been one of two John Carters, heads of "other free" Carteret County households in 1790 [NC:128, 129].

22      ii. George2, born about 1755.

23      iii. Isaac3, born about 1760.

iv. Margaret5 Fenner, sister of John3 Carter. She was called Margaret Moore in June 1797 when she petitioned the   court for permission to manumit her "negro man slave" named Jack Fennel who was her husband by whom she had had a number of children. Through his industry they had acquired a 200 acre plantation stocked with cattle and hogs [Byrd, In Full Force and Virtue, 41]. John Fenner, Sr., was head of a Craven County household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:65].

v. Joshua, head of a Craven County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:130]. He received 4 pounds pay for forty days service in the Craven County Militia under Major John Tillman in an expedition to Wilmington [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, Journal "A", 141].

vi. Solomon, born about 1773, a "Free Negro Boy Aged Five Years," apprenticed as a cooper to Richard Neale by the 13 March 1778 Craven County court [Minutes 1772-84, vol. 1, p.70c].

vii. Mary, petitioned the Craven County court about 1800 for permission to free her husband Anthony who was her slave [Byrd, In Full Force and Virtue, 45].

viii. Tabitha2, born say 1785, married William Howard, 9 June 1807 Craven County bond, James Godett bondsman. William Howard, born before 1776, was head of Craven County household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:65].

 

20.    Charles Carter (John1, Edward3, Thomas1), born say 1758, purchased 50 acres in Halifax County, North Carolina, joining Rosser, Carter, Johnson, and Cymons branch on 24 August 1779 from John Carter [DB 14:287]. Perhaps John was the one who was counted as one "free colored" in Rowan County in 1820 [NC:348]. Charles was head of a Halifax County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:61]. He may have been the father of

i. Randol, head of a Halifax County household of one "other free" in 1790, adjacent to Charles Carter [NC:61].

ii.Frederick, head of a Halifax County household of one "other free" in 1790, adjacent to Randol Carter [NC:61], perhaps the Frederick Carter who was head of a Haywood County, North Carolina household of 11 "free colored" in 1830.

iii. Samuel, head of a Halifax County household of one "other free" in 1800 [NC:298], six in 1810 [NC:9], and 11 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:144].

iv. William3, born say 1775, head of a Halifax County household of one "other free" in 1800 [NC:298].

 

21.    Edward7 Carter (Solomon, _____, Edward2, Edward1), born say 1765, was head of a Duplin County household of 2 males and one female counted as white in 1790 [NC:190] and head of a household of 5 "other free" in Duplin County in 1800. He and his son Elisha Carter, "son of Edward & Rachel his wife," received a deed of gift of 150 acres in Duplin County from Solomon Carter on 18 September 1797 [DB 3A:425]. His child was

i. Elisha, born 19 April 1792, moved to Washington County, Virginia, where on 20 April 1813 he sold the 150 acres in Duplin County deeded to him and his father in 1797. His mother Rachel testified that he was then twenty-one years old [Duplin DB 4A:462].

 

22.    George2 Carter (Abel, John2, Thomas2, Thomas1), born say 1755, was head of a Carteret County household of 10 "other free" in 1790 [NC:129]. He purchased land in Craven County on 5 November 1809 [mentioned in DB 43:82]. He married (second?) Sarah Kelly, 8 September 1818 Craven County bond, Peter George bondsman. His 21 March 1820 Craven County will, proved June the same year, left 30 acres to his son Theophilus, and divided the remainder between his wife Sarah and his children [WB C:191]. His children were named in a 4 November 1821 deed by which his heirs sold land on the south side of the Neuse River near the head of Adams Creek [DB 43:82]. His children were

i. Theophilus, born 1776-94, head of a Craven County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:65], perhaps named for Theophilus Norwood of Carteret County. He married Betsy George, 16 November 1804 Craven County bond with George Carter bondsman.

ii. Hannah3, wife of Peter George.

iii. William4, born 1794-1806, head of a Craven County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:65]. His wife was named Nancy according to the 4 November 1821 deed by which he sold his father's land.

iv. Charity, wife of Jacob Dove.

v. Elizabeth, wife of Abel Moore.

vi. Polly, wife of Ambrose Moore.

vii. Elsey, wife of John Moore.

 

23.    Isaac3 Carter (Abel, John2, Thomas2, Thomas1), born about 1760, was called a "Mulatto" in his Revolutionary War pension application. He enlisted in the 8th North Carolina Regiment on 1 September 1777, was taken prisoner, and was discharged on 20 February 1780 [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 98]. He married Sarah Perkins, 3 February 1786 Craven County bond, George Perkins bondsman. Isaac was head of a Craven County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:131]. His children were bound apprentices with his consent to William Physioc in Craven County on 11 March 1811. They were also mentioned in the Craven County will of their uncle Isaac Perkins [WB C:326]. They were

i. William5, born about 1797, fourteen years old when he was bound apprentice on 11 March 1811.

ii. Sarah, born about 1801, ten years old when she was bound apprentice on 11 March 1811.

iii. Mehetabel/ Hetty, born about 1802, nine years old when she was bound apprentice on 11 March 1811.

iv. Isaac4, born about 1806, five years old when he was bound apprentice on 11 March 1811.

 

Members of the family who remained on the Eastern Shore of Virginia were

i. James5, a soldier in the Revolution who enlisted in Northampton County, Virginia, and applied for a pension while living there [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 32], called James Carter, Sr., head of a Northampton County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217].

ii. Mitta, head of a St. George's Parish, Accomack County household of 2 "other free" and 1 slave in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:131].

iii. Ben, head of an Accomack County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 1:105].

iv. Ezekiel, born before 1776, "Brick layer," head of a Northampton County household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:216A].

v. Hannah, born before 1776, head of a Northampton County household of 8 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217A].

vi. Grace, born before 1776, head of a Northampton County household of 8 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217A].

vii. Eliza, born before 1776, head of a Northampton County household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217A].

viii. Judy, born before 1776, head of a Northampton County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217].

ix. Major, born before 1776, head of a Northampton County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217].

 

Another member of a Carter family was

i. Elizabeth, born say 1722, of Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County, presented by the court for having a bastard child "commonly reputed to be a mullatto." The case was dismissed on 25 May 1742 because she had run away. The court attached her property in the hands of Daniel Carter and Isaac Currell to pay her fine of 50 shillings [Orders 1729-43, 341, 346, 348, 351].

 

Endnotes:

1.   The lists of tithables from 1720 to 1769 are contained in Loose Papers in the Northampton County, Virginia court House.

2.   Edward6 Carter's deeds:

12 Apr 1745 330 acres in Craven County south of Neuse River [Hoffman, Land Patents, I:253].

31 Aug 1745 170 acres in Craven County south of Neuse River [DB 2:554].

03 Jul 1751 200 acres in Duplin County, by Anthony Williams' will [SS/Wills/DRB2:547].

01 Jul 1758 140 acres in Craven County south of Neuse River.

22 Apr 1763 100 acres in Duplin County north east of Cape Fear.

22 Apr 1763 50 acres in Dobbs County on Mill Marsh, his line.

26 Sep 1766 350 acres in Dobbs County south of Neuse River.

11 Dec 1770 170 acres in Dobbs County south of Neuse River.

26 Oct 1767 40 acres in Dobbs County south of Neuse River.

24 May 1773 80 acres in Dobbs County south of Neuse River [Hoffman, Land Patents, I:83, 461-2; II:77, 197, 464, 347].

08 Oct 1784 300 acres in Duplin County north of Buck Marsh [DB 1A:133].


4.   The index entries for Edward6 Carter's Dobbs County deeds are

Grantee: DB 2:300; 3:254; 5:497, 580; 7:123; 8:276, 310; 10:209, 235, 308, 442; 11:311, 418; 12:337, 447, 518; 13:114, 124; 14:327, 603; 17:217; 18:300; 22:365.


Grantor deeds: DB 7:123; 11:315; 13:195; 14:159, 212, 337, 377 [Microfilm Grantee Index to Dobbs County Deeds, M.F.95]. Dobbs County was formed from part of Johnston County in 1758 and Lenoir County was formed from Dobbs in 1791.

5.   "Couzens" Bib & Bush may have been related to Bibby Bush, a 1769 Dobbs County taxable who may have been the husband of Edward Carter's daughter, Rachel.  There was a Bibby Bush who was a surveyor of roads in Essex County in 1742 [Orders 1742-3, 39] and a Bush Beebe who was head of a Rhode Island household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [RI:20].

6.   Manuel Carter sold 250 acres on the east side of the fork of Northeast & Matthews Branch in Duplin County on 6 March 1804 for $450 [DB 3A:536], sold 150 acres on the great branch across Beaverdam on 7 July 1807 for $150 [DB 4A:306], and sold a further 100 acres in Duplin on Northeast Swamp and the south side of Matthews Branch on 9 February 1808 for $100 [DB 3A:513].

 

CARY FAMILY

1.       Mary Cary, born say 1699, complained to the York County court on 20 July 1719 that she had bound a "Mulatto" boy to Nathaniel Hook as a carpenter, but Hook was not teaching him that trade. The court dismissed her suit. She was probably identical to a white woman named Mary Cary who still had three years to serve when she was listed in the 4 July 1719 York County inventory of the estate of Edward Powers [OW 15, pt. 2, 455, 466, 471]. She may have been the ancestor of

2        i. Robert, born say 1745.

ii. Thomas, head of a Fredericksburg, Spotsylvania County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [VA:108b].

iii. William, head of a Petersburg Town household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:327].

iv. Benjamin, head of a Petersburg Town household of 2 "other free" and a white woman in 1810 [VA:329].

v. Jack, head of a Petersburg Town household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:335].

vi. Christopher, head of a Frederick County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:595].

vii. Nancy, head of a Frederick County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:340].

 

2.    Robert1 Cary, born say 1745, was taxable one tithe and a horse in Charles City County in 1790 and taxable on one tithe, a horse, and 150 acres in 1800 [1790 Personal Property Tax List, p.4; 1800, p.4; 1800 Land Tax List, p.4]. He made a 20 October 1800 Charles City County will, proved 20 November 1800. He left his son David land on the north side of the road leading from the east run to James Ladd's, adjoining Hubbard's, left 10 pounds to his daughter Frances Cary and left the remainder of the land he was living on to his grandson Robert Cary, son of David Cary. He left his granddaughter Elizabeth Cary, son of David, a cow and his grandson Robert 3 barrels of corn for sundry services. And he directed that the remainder of his estate was to be divided among all his surviving children except David and Frances [WB 1:508]. He was the father of

i. David1, born say 1770.

ii. Frances, born say 1772, perhaps identical to Frs. Cary, "F. Negro" head of a Culpeper County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:22].

iii. Bartlet, paid 6 pounds, 12 shillings by the estate of Robert Cary, deceased, "for money lent his father" [DB 1:578], perhaps identical to Cary Bartlet, head of a Richmond City household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:333].

 

3.    David1 Cary, born say 1770, taxable in Charles City County in 1800 [1800 Personal Property Tax List, p.5] and head of a Charles City County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [VA:959]. He made a 3 April 1823 Charles City County will which was proved 13 September 1823. He left two cows, a horse and cart and his land on the south side of the road to his wife and directed that his land on the north side of the road be rented out for the use of his children Polly, David, Nancy, Ebed, and Zachariah and the children of his two daughters Cretty and Betty who were deceased [WB 2:563-4]. His widow Amey registered in Charles City County on 16 November 1826: a woman of yellowish complexion, about 60 years old, 4 feet 11-1/2 inches high, short nose, large nostrils, was born free in this county [Minutes 1823-9, 196]. He was the father of

i. Robert2, named in his grandfather's 20 October 1800 will.

ii. Cretty.

iii. Betty, named in her grandfather's 20 October 1800 will.

iv. Polly Frances, born about 1783, registered in Petersburg on 9 July 1805: a dark brown Negro woman, five feet one half inches high, twenty two years old, born free in Charles City County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 304].

v. David2.

vi. Nancy, head of a Richmond City household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:340].

vii. Ebed.

viii. Zachariah.

 

CASE FAMILY

1.    Roger Case, born about 1674, was called "Roger a Mollatto Servant" in Surry County, Virginia court in 1694 when he still had one year to serve Thomas Drew of Surry County [Haun, Surry County Court Records, V:112]. He was called Roger Case when he was taxable in Thomas Drew's Lawnes Creek Parish, Surry County household in 1695 through 1701, called Roger in 1700, and abstracted as Robt. Case in 1701. He was taxable in his own household in 1703 [DW 5:61b, 135a, 192a, 194a; 207a, 234a, 259a, 290a; Magazine of Virginia Genealogy vol.23, no.3, 71, 75, 77; vol. 24, 70, 71, 73, 79, 81]. He brought a successful suit against John Sugar in Surry County court in May 1705 for payment for two sows he sold to Sugar for 20 shillings. Evan Humphreys and John Kecotan (Tann) were his witnesses [Haun, Surry County Court Records, VI:57]. In 1721 he was taxable in Chowan County next to Hubbard Gibson, Jr. [Haun, Old Albemarle County Miscellaneous Records, 331], and he purchased land in the part of Chowan County which later became Northampton County, North Carolina [Hoffman, Chowan Precinct 1696-1723, no. 1391]. On 10 November 1740 he sold 100 acres adjoining his lands in Occoneechee Neck, Northampton County [Northampton DB 1:57]. He may have been the father of

2        i. John, born say 1710.

ii. William, born say 1715, a "Mulatto" taxable on two "Black" polls in Currituck County in 1755 [T&C 1].

 

2.    John Case, born say 1710, named his children in his Currituck County will, proved in 1763:

i. Cornelius.

ii. Elizabeth.

iii. Hall.

3        iv. Jonathan, born say 1737.

 

3.    Jonathan Case, born say 1737, served in the Revolution in Alexander Whitehall's Company of North Carolina Militia commanded by Colonel Samuel Jarvis [Saunders, Colonial and State Records, XVII:1054]. He was living in Currituck County on 2 June 1791 when he applied for a pension for eighteen months service as a Continental soldier [NCGSJ VIII:213]. He was head of a Currituck County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:21] and 10 in 1800 [NC:138]. His son may have been

4        i. Joseph, born about 1755.

 

4.    Joseph Case, born about 1755, was counted as white in 1790, head of a Currituck County household of one white male over 16, two under 16, and three females [NC:21]. He was head of a Currituck County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:138]. He made a declaration in Currituck County court on 10 May 1820 to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolutionary War. He claimed to be about sixty-five years of age and that all his possessions were worth only $32.50. He had a fifty-five-year-old wife and twenty-two-year-old son Grundy [M805-168, S41472]. His son was

i. Grundy, born about 1798.

 

Case Family of Accomack County, Virginia

1.    Mary Case, born say 1683, was the servant of John West on 3 December 1701 when the churchwardens of Accomack County Parish presented her for having a "Mullatto Bastard Child." She was presented for having another child on 6 April 1703 [Orders 1697-1703, 122a, 126a, 144]. She was probably the ancestor of

i. Elizabeth, head of a St. George Parish, Accomack County household of 3 "other free" and one slave in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:130].

ii. Major, head of an Accomack Parish, Accomack County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 1:105].

iii. Bridget, head of an Accomack County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:17].

iv. George, head of an Accomack County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:16].

http://image.lva.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/drawer?retrieve_image=Revolution&type=rw&reel=5&start=472&end=472

 

CASSIDY FAMILY

1.    Catherine Cassity, born say 1685, a white servant of John Hutchins, confessed in Lancaster County court on 12 May 1703 that she had a "Mallatoe" child [Orders 1702-13, 32]. Her descendants were

i. Ann, head of a Lancaster County household of 5 "white" (free) persons and a dwelling in 1784 [VA:74]. She married John Pinn, 12 September 1785 Northumberland County bond.

ii. William, born about 1757, taxable in York County in 1784 [Fothergill, Virginia Taxpayers, 23], taxable in Norfolk County in 1801 and 1803, counted in a list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" on Tanner's Creek in Norfolk County in 1801 with (his son?) John Cassedy, (his wife?) Sarah Cassedy, Eliza Gilleat (Gillett) and a female named "Renr" [PPTL, 1791-1812, frames 383, 462]. He registered in York County on 16 December 1822: a dark mulatto about 65 years of age 5 feet four Inches high...born free [Register of Free Negroes 1798-1831, no.163].

2        iii. Elizabeth, born say 1758.

3        iv. Susan, born say 1765.

v. Patty, a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:975].

vi. Patty Ann, married Moses Blundon, widower, 28 October 1834 Lancaster County bond, John Cassity security.

vii. Samuel, married Mary Spriddle, daughter of Nancy Spriddle, 15 December 1819 Lancaster County bond, James Spriddle security.

viii. Milly, born about 1783, registered in York County on 16 December 1822: a dark mulatto about 38 years of age 5 feet 2-1/4 Inches high very black [Register of Free Negroes 1798-1831, no.179].

 

2.    Elizabeth Cassity, born say 1758, was living in the middle district of Lancaster County on 19 July 1790 when the court ordered the overseers of the poor to bind out her orphan Thomas Casity to Job Carter [Orders 1789-92, 155]. She was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:973]. She was the mother of

i. Thomas, born say 1775, granted a certificate of freedom by the Lancaster County court on 20 October 1795 stating that he was born free [Orders 1792-9, 235].

 

3.    Sukey Cassity, born say 1765, was living in middle district of Lancaster County 20 September 1790 when the court ordered the overseers of the poor to bind her son James Cassity to Richard Sheardock [Orders 1789-92, 195]. She was the mother of

i. James, born about 1786, bound to Richard Sheardock on 20 September 1790 and bound to Joseph Sampson on 21 February 1797 [Orders 1792-9, 202, 330]. He registered as a "free Negro" in Lancaster County on 19 September 1808: Age 22, Color yellow...born free [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 4]. He was head of a Lancaster County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:341]. He registered in Middlesex County on 24 October 1827: born free; 45 years of age; 5'5"; yellow complexion. His wife was probably Lucy Ann Casity who registered in Middlesex County on 21 October 1827: born free; 37 years of age; 5'5"; yellow complexion [Register of Free Negroes 1827-60, p.1].

ii. ?Florinda, ordered bound out by overseers of the poor of the middle district of Lancaster County on 18 June 1792 [Orders 1792-9, 40].

iii. ?Nancy, ordered bound out by overseers of the poor of the middle district of Lancaster County on 18 June 1792 [Orders 1792-9, 40].

 

CAUTHER/ CATHER FAMILY

1.    Jane Cauther, born say 1745, was the mother of Rose Cauther, a "Molatto Bastard" who was ordered by the Augusta County court to be bound to John Campbell on 17 May 1768. On 27 June 1769 she was fined 500 pounds of tobacco for having a bastard child, no race indicated [Orders 1768, 143; 1768-9, 315]. She was the mother of

i. Rose, born say 1768.

ii. ?Sarah, born say 1770, a "Mulatto" child ordered bound to Nep Hansberger by the Augusta County court on 11 April 1772 [Orders 1769-73, 365]. She was called Sarah Cather, a "mulatto," when she was bound by the churchwardens of Augusta Parish to Stewart Hunsberger on 19 September 1772.

iii. ?Betty, born say 1772, a bastard (no race indicated) ordered bound to Jacob Miller by the Augusta County court on 11 April 1772 [Orders 1769-73, 365], called a Betty Cather, a "mulatto," when the churchwardens of Augusta Parish bound her to Jacob Millar on 19 September 1772 [Augusta Co. Vestry Book 1746-1779, p.506, 509 by Gill, Apprentices of Virginia, 42].

 

CAUSEY FAMILY

1.    Judith1 Causey, born say 1728, was head of a Northumberland County household of 5 "Blacks" in 1782 [VA:37] and taxable there on 4 cattle in 1782; taxable on a slave in 1783, 1784, 1786 and 1787; a "Blk" taxable on a horse in 1811 [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 238, 251, 267, 283, 298, 319, 667]. She was most likely the mother of

2        i. William1, born about 1747.

ii. Rachel, born about 1755, registered as a "free Negro" in Northumberland County on 9 March 1807: dark Mulatto, about 52 years old, 5 feet 2 inches, Emancipated by the will of John Bar [Register of Free Negroes, 1803-50, no. 30]

3        iii. Abel, born say 1755.

iv. Nelly, born about 1759, registered in Northumberland County on 12 January 1807: a bright mulatto, about 48 years of age, 5 feet 3 inches, born free [Register of Free Negroes, 1803-50, no. 28].

4        v. James, born say 1762.

vi. Thomas, born say 1765, his Northumberland County tax charged to Abel Causey in 1787 [PPTL 1782-1812, frame 319, 327].

 

2.    William1 Causey, born about 1747, was listed among the slaves in the 18 May 1770 inventory of the Northumberland County estate of the Honorable Presley Thornton: Billy Causey, free at 31 years old - 25 pounds [RB 1770-2, 18, 110]. He enlisted in the Revolution for three years and was discharged on 16 February 1780 by the captain of the ship Dragon [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 32]. He was a "mulatto man" residing in Northumberland County on 9 May 1796 when the court certified that he was born free [Orders 1796-7, 26]. He was taxable in Northumberland County from 1782 to 1813: listed with 4 cattle in 1782; listed with 2 tithables in 1803; listed as a "Blk" tithable from 1809 to 1813; called William, Sr., starting in 1810 [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 236, 268, 284, 319, 327, 348, 363, 378, 422, 436, 444, 476, 491, 505, 514, 535, 550, 564, 621, 634, 653, 668, 682]. He registered as a "free Negro" in Northumberland County on 12 January 1807: Mulatto, about 60 years old, 5 feet 9-1/4 Inches, Born free [Register of Free Negroes, 1803-50, no.27]. He was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:975]. He was the father of

i. Philip Sprittle, born 29 December 1770 in Northumberland County, "Son of William Causse & Elizabeth Sprittle" [Fleet, Northumberland County Record of Births, 107]. Betty Spriddle was a "Mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household in 1810 [VA:994].

ii. ?Polly, born about 1781, a "Mulatto" living in Northumberland County on 10 June 1799 when the county court certified that she was born free [Orders 1793-1800, 80]. She registered in Northumberland County on 12 March 1806: bright mulatto, 25 years of age, 5 feet 5 inches high, born free [Register of Free Negroes, 1803-50, no. 24].

iii. Elizabeth, born say 1782, a "Mulatto" living in Northumberland County on 10 June 1799 when the county court certified that she was born free [Orders 1793-1800, 80]. She was called the "daughter of William Causey" when she married A. Nickens, 5 July 1800 Northumberland County bond, Joseph Mott security.

iv. William2, born about 1787, married Rachel Barr, 23 April 1810 Northumberland County bond, John Causey security. He registered in Northumberland County on 12 October 1812: Mulatto man, about 25 years of age, 5 feet 6-1/2 inches high, Born of free parents in Northd County [Register of Free Negroes, 1803-50, nos. 55, 63].

v. John, born about 1791, registered in Northumberland County on 12 August 1811: Dark lad, about 20, 5 feet 7-1/8 inches high, Born of free parents in Northumbd County [Register of Free Negroes, 1803-50, nos. 54, 65].

vi. Nancy, married Joseph Weaver, 6 May 1810 Northumberland County bond, Amos Nicken security, with permission of William Causey.

 

3.    Abel Causey, born say 1755, was head of a Northumberland County household with no whites in 1784 [VA:75] and was a "mulatto man" residing in Northumberland County on 9 May 1796 when the court certified that he was born free [Orders 1796-7, 26]. He was taxable there from 1783 to 1810: taxable on a slave in 1785 and 1786; listed with 2 tithables and 2 horses in 1791 and 1792; taxable on a slave and 3 horses from 1794 to 1803 [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 251, 280, 297, 319, 327, 363, 392, 422, 436, 444, 458, 476, 491, 505, 514, 535, 550, 564, 603, 621, 634, 653]. He was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:975]. He may have been the father of

i. Susan, born say 1786, married Anthony Weaver, 30 May 1807 Northumberland County bond, James Toulson security.

 

4.    James Causey, born say 1762, was a seaman from Northumberland County who served in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 32]. He was taxable in Northumberland County from 1785 to 1813 [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 283, 603, 621, 653, 668, 682] and a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:975]. He was probably the father of

i. Judith2, married George Credit, widower, 2 May 1821 Northumberland County bond, James Causey security. George was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:976]. Judith married, second, James Sorrell and was listed with him and their children in the 1850 Northumberland County census.

 

CHAMBERS FAMILY

1.    Elizabeth Chambers, born say 1726, was the servant of Elliott Benger, Esqr., on 1 July 1746 when she confessed to the Spotsylvania County court that she had an illegitimate "Mulatto" child by William Scroghams, a "Servant Negro man" of John Spotswood, Gent. [Orders 1738-49, 380]. She was probably the ancestor of

i. John, born say 1750, a "free Molatto" who testified on 8 June 1775 at the trial of Will, a Negro slave belonging to the estate of Francis Taliaferro. Will was charged in Caroline County, Virginia court with breaking and entering the house of Thomas Cason of King George County and stealing sundry articles which belonged to Chambers [Orders 1772-6, 601]. John was head of a Spotsylvania County household of 7 "other free" and a white woman aged 26-45 in 1810 [VA:102b].

ii. Polly, head of a Spotsylvania County, Virginia household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:103b].

 

CHANDLER FAMILY

Mixed-race members of the Chandler family free during the colonial period were

1        i. John, born say 1710.

2        ii. Francis, born say 1715.

 

1.    John Chandler, born say 1710 was living in Littenburn Parish, Richmond County, on 7 May 1729 when the court presented him for living in fornication with Sarah Mozingo [Orders 1721-32, 468]. His wife was probably Sarah Chandler, daughter of Edward Mozingo, who was mentioned in her father's 10 November 1753 Richmond County, Virginia will [Wills 1753-67]. He was called a "Mulatto" when he was sued in Westmoreland County, Virginia court for a 2 pound debt on 30 September 1755 [Orders 1755-8, 7a]. He may have been the father of

3        i. William1, born say 1740.

 

2.    Francis Chandler, born say 1715, was living in Westmoreland County on 1 April 1741 when the churchwardens of Cople Parish presented him and Rebecca Paine for cohabiting together. The same court described Francis' wife Margaret Chandler as a "Mulatto" and ordered her to appear to answer the presentment of the grand jury for living in adultery with George Henson [Orders 1739-43, 100]. He may have been the father of

i. Elizabeth, born say 1738, a "melatto" listed (with "melatto" Stephen Jones) in the Lunenburg County, Virginia inventory of the estate of Thomas Blank on 20 August 1753. Elizabeth and Stephen were apparently his indentured servants because no slaves were listed in his will [WB 1:74, 107].

4        ii. Tabitha, born say 1742.

 

3.    William1 Chandler, born say 1740, was living in Halifax County, Virginia, in May 1765 when the court presented him, Shadrack Gowin, Peter Rickman, and Philip Dennum for concealing a tithable. The tithables were probably their wives. He purchased land by deed proved in Halifax County court in March 1768 [Pleas 5:46; 6:58]. William was probably the father of

i. William2, born say 1767, bondsman for the 25 February 1797 Mecklenburg County, Virginia marriage of Siller Walden and Matthew Stewart. He was head of a Randolph County, North Carolina household of 4 "other free" [NC:64]. He may have been the father of William Chandler (born about 1795) who obtained free papers in Randolph County on 23 September 1833 and recorded them in Owen County, Indiana, on 18 June 1834 [DB 4:153 by Peterson, Owen County Records, 30].

ii. Samuel, born say 1769, married Sinai Stewart, 23 December 1793 Mecklenburg County, Virginia bond, William Chandler bondsman. He was head of a Randolph County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [NC:64].

iii. Jean, married George Stewart, 27 December 1797 Mecklenburg County, Virginia bond, Moses Stewart security.

 

4.    Tabitha Chandler, born say 1742, had a "mulatto" child named Ann who was ordered bound out by the Henrico County court in April 1760 [Orders 1755-62, 409]. She may have been related to Mary Chandler (no race indicated) who was bound out to Matthew Talbert in Amelia County on 12 November 1736 [Orders 1:14]. Tabitha was the mother of

i. Ann, born say 1760.

 

Another member of the Chandler family was

i. Thornton, born about 1776, counted in a "List of Free Negroes in the Parish of St. Ann's" in Essex County with a male and female above the age of sixteen in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1819, frame 510], registered as a free Negro in Essex County on 15 August 1829: born free by statement in writing of Richd Rowzee, dark Mulattoe, 53 years of age. He married Catherine Fortune [Register of Free Negroes 1810-43, nos. 190, 192]..

 

CHAPMAN FAMILY

1.    Betty Chapman, born say 1756, sued Frezill McTeir for her freedom in Lunenburg County court on 11 September 1777. He was called Frizell Martin on 13 May 1779 when the court ordered her discharged from his service. On 10 July 1800 the court summoned Henry Freeman to show cause why he was detaining her children Lizzy and Mary Chapman who were suggested to the court to be entitled to their freedom [Orders 1777-84, 3, 28; 1799-1801, fol. 84]. She was living on Flat Rock Creek, Lunenburg County in 1802 and 1803 when she was counted in a "List of free Negroes & Mulattoes" with her children: Nancy, Winny, Lucy, Charlotte, Henry, and Biddy [LVA, Lunenburg County, Free Negro & Slave Records, 1802-1803]. She was head of a Mecklenburg County household of 13 "free colored" in 1830 (said to be over the age of 100). She was the mother of

i. Robert, born say 1779, child of Betty Chapman, ordered bound apprentice by the 10 February 1780 session of the Lunenburg County court [Orders 1777-84, fol. 50].

ii. Nancy, born say 1780, living in her mother's household in 1802 and 1803 with her children Betsy and John Chapman.

iii. Winny, born say 1782, living in her mother's household in 1802 and with her daughter Lucy in 1803.

iv. ?Milly, living at Thomas Scarborough's in Lunenburg County in 1802 with her daughter Lily and a child not yet named.

v. ?Eliza, living at Stony Creek, Lunenburg County with her daughter Patsey in 1802 and 1803.

vi. Lucy, living in her mother's household in Lunenburg County in 1802 and 1803, head of a Campbell County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:854].

vii. Charlotte1, living in her mother's household in 1802, 1803, and 1814 [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 33:266].

viii. Henry2.

ix. Biddy.

 

Other members of the Chapman family were

i. Jesse, a "free Negro" taxable in Surry County from 1796 to 1816, listed in 1813 with 5 "free Negroes & Mulattoes above the age of 16," 3 of whom were male tithables [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frames 256, 367, 521, 611, 649, 731, 851].

ii. Saul, head of a Prince William County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:502].

iii. Henry1, born about 1778, registered in Middlesex County, Virginia, on 23 June 1800: born free; 22 years old; 5'5-1/4"; yellow complexion [Register of Free Negroes, 1800-60, p.15].

iv. James, "Free man of color," head of a Washington County, Virginia household of 2 "other free" in 1810.

v. Richard, a "free negro" taxable in Pittsylvania County in 1810 [PPTL 1797-1812, frame 707].

vi. Mary, head of an Albemarle County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:182].

vii. Sally, born about 1793, registered in Halifax County, Virginia, on 21 May 1831: about 38 years of age, five feet five inches high, of a yellow complexion [Registers of Free Negroes, 1802-1831, no. 144].

viii. Charlotte2, born about 1796, registered in Lunenburg County on 12 October 1846: yellow Colour, born free about 50 years of age, about 5 feet 3 inches high [WB 5, after page 89, no.129]. She was counted in Lunenburg County in 1814 with her daughter Eliza [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 33:266].

 

CHARITY FAMILY

1.    Charity, born say 1660, was a "Negro girle" tithable in Arthur Jordan's household in the 1677 list for Surry County, Virginia, and a "Negro woman" in his household in the 1678 list [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy, vol.22, 3:60]. She was taxable in his household in 1694 and 1695 and a "Negro woman" slave of Arthur Jordan freed by his 24 September 1698 will [DW 5:22a, 59b, 160]. She may have been the daughter of a "Negro Woman Judith" who was to be free seven years after George Jordan's decease according to his 25 February 1677/8 Surry County will, proved 5 November 1678 [DW 1671-84, 192]. Judith was probably the slave by that name who was taxable in Mr. Thomas Jordan's household in Surry County from 1679 to 1685 [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy, vol.22, 3:65; 4:48, 51; vol. 23, 1:44, 47]. Charity was called a free "negro woman" when she was presented by the Surry County court in May 1702 for having a bastard child. On 20 August 1712 she brought suit for 30 pounds sterling damages against George Jordan, Jr., for an assault and "other Enormitys" on her daughter Jane Mingo. Jane would have been about ten years old at that time if she was the child Charity was presented for in 1702. Jordan delayed the case until 17 December 1712 when the jury found that he took her away by force from her mother and detained her in his service for several days before the assault took place. They also found that Charity was born in Virginia, freed by Arthur Jordan's will in 1698, and had Jane Mingo in Surry County after she was freed. After hearing evidence from Thomas and William Hux, the jury found in Jane's favor for only one shilling damages, and only if the court ruled that Jane was legally a free person. The court ruled so later in that session [Orders 1701-13, 17, 399, 401, 403, 407, 410]. Charity's was the mother of

i. Jane Mingo, probably born before May 1702 when her mother was presented for having a bastard child. She may have been the mother of Mary Mingo whose "Molatto Son" Shadrack Mingo was ordered bound to Doctor John Ramsey in Norfolk County on 16 August 1754 [Orders 1753-55, 73]. Perhaps another descendant was William Mingo, head of a Southampton County household of 9 "other free" in 1810.

 

Their descendants were apparently the Charity family of Surry County:

i. John1, sued for a 2 pound/ 1 shilling debt in Surry County on 17 September 1753, died insolvent before 16 March 1762 according to the account of the Surry County estate of Martha Bryan [Orders 1753-7, 290; DW&c 10:274].

2        ii. William, born say 1720.

3        iii. Sarah1, born say 1722.

4        iv. Jeffrey1, born say 1725.

5        v. Mary1, born say 1735.

vi. Hannah, born say 1738, complained to the Surry County court on 19 February 1760 that her master William Mooring was detaining her past her indented time of service. The court ordered her discharged from his service [Orders 1757-63, 228, 233].

 

2.    William Charity, born say 1720, was among fourteen free African Americans of Surry County, Virginia, who were presented by the court on 21 November 1758 for failing to pay tax on their wives, "supposing the said persons to be Mulattoes" [Orders 1757-64, 135]. He proved a claim in Surry County court on 23 October 1764 for taking up a runaway [Orders 1764-74]. He died before 27 October 1778 when the Surry County court ordered his estate appraised [Orders 1775-85, 70]. His children may have been

6        i. Henry1, born say 1741.

7        ii. David1, born say 1749.

8        iii. Elizabeth1, born say 1751.

iv. Benjamin1, born say 1758, presented in Surry County on 26 February 1783 for not listing his taxable property [Orders 1775-85, 201]. He was head of a Surry County household of 5 "whites" in 1784 [VA:78] and was a freeholder in Governor's Road Precinct on 26 July 1785 when he, David Charity, Nicholas Scott, John Debereax, Armstead Peters and several white freeholders were ordered to maintain the road in their area [Orders 1775-85, 443]. He married Sarah Stephens, 5 September 1803 Surry County bond, William Scott surety. He was taxable in Cabin Point district of Surry County from 1783 to 1807 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-90, frames 367, 399, 470, 596; 1791-1816, frames 57, 126, 234, 287, 445, 559, 611, 629].

v. John2, sued in the Hustings Court of Petersburg on 5 March 1788 for a 36 shilling debt and on 4 February 1789 for a 2 pound debt due by note [Orders 1784-91, 226, 259].

9        vi. Sterling, born about 1768.

vii. Jeffrey2, born say 1774, a "poor infant" of Southwark Parish bound apprentice on 24 March 1778 [Orders 1775-85, 53].

 

3.    Sarah1 Charity, born say 1722, was living in Southwarke Parish, Surry County, on 20 May 1755 when the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her son Sharrard [Orders 1753-7, 212]. She was the mother of

10      i. Sherwood1 (Sherod), born say 1747.

 

4.    Jeffrey1 Charity, born say 1725, was a defendant in a Surry County suit for debt in January 1748/9 and 26 February 1754 when the court ruled that Jeffrey was "not an inhabitant of this County" [Orders 1744-9, 530; 1753-57, 116]. He was listed in the 16 November 1756 account of the Surry County estate of John Simmons [DW 10:76]. On 19 June 1759 the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out his son Hartwell Charity because he had left the county without making provision for his child [Orders 1756-63, 194]. He was the father of

i. Hartwell, born say 1760, taxable in Cabin Point District of Surry County from 1783 to 1807 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-90, frames 367, 399, 447, 549; 1791-1816, frames 58, 158, 287, 404, 519, 590, 629]. He was surety for the 17 October 1809 Isle of Wight County marriage bond of Randall Wilson and Milly Charity. Perhaps Hartwell's widow was Cherry Charity who was called the relict of H. Charity when she was counted as a "free Negro & Mulatto" in Surry County in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frame 732].

 

5.    Mary1 Charity, born say 1735, was bound out by the churchwardens of Southwarke Parish in Surry County on 15 April 1747 [Orders 1744-49, 300]. She was called Mary Chariott, a "Molatto woman," on 15 August 1758 when the Surry County court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her children Ann, Robert, Charles, and Jane. On 16 December 1766 the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out "poor Mulattos" Nanny, Robert, Charles, Jenny, Thomas, Cherry, and Sarah Charity [Orders 1757-63, 123; 1764-74, 102-3]. She was the mother of

11      i. Ann, born say 1753.

ii. Robert, born say 1755.

iii. Charles, born say 1756, a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in Surry County who enlisted in the Revolution in Dinwiddie County and later moved to Cumberland County, Virginia [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 148].

12      iv. Jane, born say 1758.

v. Thomas, born say 1760, head of a Surry County household of 3 "whites" (free persons) in 1784 [VA:78]. He and Hartwell Charity were listed among the freeholders who were ordered to maintain the road in Galloway's Precinct on 28 December 1785 [Orders 1774-84, 473].

vi. Cherry, born say 1762, listed as a "free Negro & Mulatto" in Surry County in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frame 732].

vii. Sarah2, born say 1764.

 

6.    Henry1 Charity, born say 1741, was sued for a 3 pound, 6 shilling debt in Surry County on 15 June 1762 [Orders 1757-63, 335]. He purchased 125 acres in Southwark Parish on the east side of Great Branch on 19 August 1766. He and his wife Sacugoth Charity sold 50 acres of this land to Peter Valentine on 12 January 1768 and he sold the remaining 75 acres on 15 August 1769 [DB 8:315, 374, 431]. He and William Walden were sued for debt on 19 July 1768 [Orders 1764-74, 159]. He was head of a Surry County household of 9 persons in 1782 [VA:43] and 10 in 1784 [VA:78]. He was taxable in Surry County from 1782 to 1800: taxable on a horse and 9 cattle in 1782; taxable on 2 tithes in 1786; taxable on Squire and Henry Charity's tithes in 1787; taxable on John Charity's tithe in 1799 and 1800 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-90, frames 358, 379, 397, 449, 549; 1791-1816, frames 281, 323, 404]. On 4 June 1787 he purchased 50 acres in Southwark Parish adjoining William Walden from Nanny and Sarah Simon which was land descended to them from Thomas Simon, a Surry County resident presented by the court for failing to pay tax on his wife on 21 November 1758 [Orders 1757-64, 135]. Henry was married to Judy Banks by 22 February 1796 when they sold her part of her rights to land descended to her from her brother Matthew Banks [Deeds 1792-9, 344-6]. His will was proved in 1801 [Wills, etc. 1:466-7] and the transfer of his land (to his wife and children) was recorded in the Surry County Tax Alterations: 50 acres to Judith Charity, 54 acres to Elijah Charity, and 12 acres to John Charity. His children were

13      i. Wilson, born about 1770.

ii. ?Henry2, born say 1771, a 16-21-year-old taxable in the household of (his father?) Henry Charity in 1787, called Henry Charity, Jr., when he was taxable in Henry Charity, Sr.'s household in 1797 and 1798, not mentioned again in Surry County records [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-90, frames 449; 1791-1816, 323, 366].

iii. Elijah, born about 1774, taxable in Surry County from 1791 to 1816: his tax charged to Henry Charity from 1791 to 1794; charged with his own tax from 1795; listed with 2 "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in 1813 [PPTL, 1791-1816, frame 8, 57, 108, 158, 235, 286, 364, 442, 518, 589, 629, 666, 706, 730, 850]. He registered as a "free Negro in Surry County on 9 January 1796: son of Henry Charity a resident of this County, a dark mulattoe man, aged about 22 years, pretty well made, short hair, 5'11" high, born of free parents [Back of Guardian Accounts Book 1783-1804, no.16]. He married Charlotte Charity (of lawful age), 29 January 1803 Surry County bond, Joseph Roberts surety. He was charged with burglary in Surry County court on 22 May 1804 but found not guilty [Criminal Proceedings Against Free Persons, Slaves, etc., 1742-1822]. Elijah was head of a Surry County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:604] and 12 "free colored" in 1830.

iv. Keziah, born about 1780, twenty-four-year-old "daughter of Judith Charity," married Nicholas Scott Valentine, 28 May 1804 Surry County bond, Wright Walden surety.

v. Sarah3, born say 1790, "daughter of Judith Charity who consents," married David Fulks, 23 March 1807 Surry County bond, David Debrix surety. David Folks registered in Surry County on 26 June 1818: a free Negroe Man of bright complexion, aged about 36 years next January who is 5'5-1/4" high ... was born free as appears by a Certificate from Edenton North Carolina produced by him [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 69].

vi. John3, born say 1781, taxable in Henry Charity's household in 1799 and 1800, taxable in Judy Charity's household from 1801 to 1804, called "son of Judith" from 1805 to 1812 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frames 366, 404, 444, 479, 519, 558, 590, 611, 649, 686, 706]. He may have been the John Charity who was ordered by the Surry County court on 23 June 1807 to pay support for his illegitimate female child by Mary Walden. He married Mason Charity, daughter of Mary Blizzard, 28 June 1808 Surry County bond, Peter Blizzard surety. He was head of a Surry County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:604] and 11 "free colored" in 1830. His son Acquilla Charity registered in Surry County on 26 November 1831: son of John Charity & Mason his wife ... of a dark complexion, spare made ... about 21 years of age and is 5'8-1/2" high [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 103].

 

7.    David1 Charity, born say 1749, was presented by the Surry County court on 15 May 1770 for not listing his tithables [Orders 1764-74, 213]. He was head of a Surry County household of 4 persons in 1782 [VA:43], 4 in 1784 [VA:78], and 10 "other free" in 1810 [VA:604]. He was taxable in Surry County from 1784 to 1812: taxable on a horse and 2 cattle in 1784; charged with Tom Stephens' tithe in 1797 and 1798; taxable on a horse in 1816 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-90, frames 379, 448, 549; 1791-1816, frames 8, 106, 158, 234, 287, 323, 365, 444, 519, 558, 611, 649, 667, 706]. And he was taxable on 60 acres from 1795 to 1814 [1795 Property Tax Alterations; Land Tax Lists]. His children were

i. Elsey, born say 1782, "daughter of David Charity," married Aaron Taylor 23 December 1799 Surry County bond [Ministers Returns, 54].

ii. Elizabeth2, born about 1783, "daughter of David Charity," married Joseph Roberts, 17 May 1802 Surry County bond, David Charity surety, married by Rev. James Warren of the Methodist Church [Ministers Returns, 61]. She registered in Surry County on 26 March 1805: a woman of a bright complexion aged about 22 years, short hair ... 5'3" high [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 25].

iii. ?John4, Jr., born say 1786, married Lucretia Charity, "daughter of Rebecca Andrews," 2 September 1807 Surry County bond, David Charity surety. Lucretia was Rebecca Charity's daughter, born before her 20 April 1791 marriage to Thomas Andrews. She may have been the Lucretia Charity who was counted as a "free Negro & Mulatto" in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, 733].

 

8.    Elizabeth1 Charity, born say 1751, was the mother of Alexander and David Charity who were bound out by the Surry County court on 28 January 1783 [Orders 1775-85, 192]. She consented to the 28 December 1792 marriage of her daughter Edy Charity. Her children were

i. Alexander/ Elick, born say 1770, a "poor Mulatto infant" bound apprentice in Surry County on 27 July 1779 [Orders 1775-85, 88]. He was taxable in Surry County from 1787 to 1816: a 16-21-year-old Surry County tithable in 1787, his tax charged to John Ellis; charged with his own tax from 1791 to 1794; listed with William Scott in 1795; charged with his own tithe from 1796; listed in 1813 with 2 "free Negroes & Mulattoes" [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-90, frames 416; 1791-1816, frames 7, 107, 243, 325, 406, 590, 629, 667, 706, 733, 850]. He married Polly Debrix, daughter of John Debrix, 12 June 1800 Surry County bond, Aaron Taylor surety.

ii. Nanny, born say 1771, "daughter of Betty Charity," bound out by the Surry County court on 25 May 1784 [Orders 1775-85, 298]. She married Peter Newby, 14 April 1792 Southampton County bond. Peter was a "free Negro" taxable in Sussex County in 1784 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1812, frame 114], head of a Randolph County, North Carolina household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [NC:350] and a Southampton County household of 9 "other free" in 1810.

iii. David2, Jr., born about 1776, tithable in Cabin Point District of Surry County from 1793 to 1801: called David Charity, Jr. [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frames 108, 234, 287, 366, 404, 444]. He married Nancy Debberick (Debrix), 17 August 1799, Sussex County bond, Jones Cannada surety. He registered as a "free Negro" in Surry County on 20 September 1800: son of Elizabeth Charity coloured mulattoe man - aged about 24 years, pretty well made, bushy hair, 5'6-1/2" high, born of a free parent [Back of Guardian Accounts Book 1783-1804, no.65].

iv. Edy, born say 1776, daughter of Elizabeth Charity, married William Scott, 28 December 1792 Surry County bond, Major Debrix security. Her son John Charity, "son of Edith," was taxable in Surry County in 1810 and 1811 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frames 668, 687].

v. ?John3, born say 1781, taxable in William Scott's Surry County household from 1799 to 1802 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frames 385, 426, 463, 500].

vi. Sherod/Sherwood2, born 23 March 1782, taxable in Surry County from 1800 to 1807: listed in the household of Constable Samuel Carrel in 1800; listed with Micajah Coggins in 1801; charged with his own tax from 1805 to 1807 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frames 404, 444, 591, 611, 630]. He married Ariana Stephens, daughter of Lucy Stephens, 27 May 1806 Surry County bond, Major Debrix security. He registered in Surry County on 1 October 1804: a mulatto man of a bright complexion aged about 22 years 23 day of March last, who is 5'8" high, pretty straight and well made, very short hair ... was born of free parents of this county [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 23].

 

9.    Sterling Charity, born about 1768, was ordered bound an apprentice with Jeffrey Charity, "poor infants," on 26 May 1778 [Orders 1775-85, 53]. He was taxable in Surry County from 1787 to 1802: his tax charged to Samuel Cocke in 1787 and 1788; charged with his own tax from 1791; charged with Wright Walden's tithe in 1798 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-90, frames 449, 471; 1791-1816, frames 7, 106, 253, 325, 405, 480]. He married Elizabeth Jones, 13 March 1793 Surry County bond, Davis Charity witness, Sampson Walden surety, 14 March marriage by Rev. Nathaniel Berriman, Deacon of the Methodist Church [Marriage Returns, 36]. Sterling was a Mulatto" taxable in Prince George County from 1803 to 1811, taxable on slave and 2 horses in 1809 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1811, frames 576, 600, 650, 698, 721, 741] and head of a Prince George County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:546]. He registered in Surry County on 28 September 1818: a free-born Man of colour, aged 50 years who is of a bright complexion, much pitted with the small pox, 5'3-3/4" high, pretty stout & square made ... has round & distended Nostrils [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 69]. His children were

i. Nancy, "daughter of Sterling Charity," married Archer Lowery, 8 April 1812 Surry County bond, Joseph Roberts security.

ii. Elizabeth3, born 4 November 1797, registered in Surry County on 27 September 1819: a mulatto Woman the daughter of Sterling Charity and Betsy his wife free persons of Colour of this County aged 22 years the 4th day of November next is 5'1" high [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 71].

 

10.    Sherwood1 Charity, born say 1747, was called an infant (no parent or race mentioned) when he was ordered bound an apprentice by the churchwardens of Southwarke Parish in Surry County, Virginia, on 19 November 1751 [Orders 1751-53, 18]. The court called him the son of Sarah Charity when he was ordered bound out on 20 May 1755. On 19 February 1760 the court ordered John Angus to appear to show cause why Sherrard should not be removed from his service [Orders 1757-63, 228]. He purchased 100 acres on the south side of "Johnshehawkin" swamp on 27 April 1779 [DW 11:48]. He died before 25 June 1782 when Sarah Charity, "widow and relict of Sherwood Charity decd.," was summoned to take the inventory of her husband's estate [Orders 1775-85, 151]. She recorded the inventory on 10 August 1782 [DW 11:298]. The 27 September 1785 Surry County court appointed her guardian to her children: "Rebecca, Mary Ann, Clary, Wilmouth, and Anna Charity, orphans of Sherwood Charity decd" [Orders 1775-85, 453]. The transfer of Sherod's 100 acres to Sarah was recorded in the property tax alterations for Surry County in 1783, and she was taxable on this land through 1807 [Land Tax Lists]. She was head of a Surry County household of 7 "whites" in 1782 [VA:43] and 0 whites in 1784 [VA:78]. She was taxable on a horse in Surry County from 1782 to 1816: taxable on 5 cattle in 1787; taxable on slave Fanny in 1803; taxable on 2 slave in 1809; [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-90, frames 352, 397, 470; 1791-1816, frames 7, 107, 256, 324, 405, 520, 590, 629, 649, 686, 733, 851]. Sally was head of a Surry County household of 2 "other free" and a white woman over forty-five years of age in 1810 [VA:603]. Sherwood and Sarah's children were

i. ?Harwood, born say 1768, "not 25" years old on 2 April 1792 when he and Queen Charlotte Charity were mentioned in the Surry County will of Archibald Dunlop. He was taxable in Surry County from 1791 to 1816: his tax charged to Archibald Dunlop from 1791 to 1793; charged with his own tax in 1799; called Harwood C. Charity starting in 1805; taxable on 2 slaves from 1805 to 1813; listed with 1 "free Negro & Mulatto" in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frames 10, 59, 108, 367, 480, 559, 590, 629, 667, 706, 731]. Harrod was head of a Surry County household of 1 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. Rebecca, born say 1773, married Thomas Andrews 26 April 1791 Surry County bond, Joseph Byrd surety, 11 May marriage.

14      iii. Mary2, born say 1775.

iv. Clary, married Wilson Charity, 9 February 1796 Surry County bond, Sampson Granthum surety.

v. Wilmouth.

vi. Anne, "daughter of Sarah Charity, married Moses Debrix 30 December 1800 Surry County bond, Davis (David?) Charity surety.

vii. Bolling, orphan of Sherwood Charity, deceased, bound apprentice in Surry County on 28 January 1783 [Orders 1775-85, 192].

 

11.    Ann Charity, born say 1753, had an illegitimate child by Joseph Byrd before 22 June 1774 when the Surry County court ordered him to pay 3 pounds per annum in child support [Orders 1764-74, 380]. She was the mother of

15      i. Squire1, born 8 September 1768.

ii. ?William, born say 1776, taxable in Cabin Point District of Surry County from 1793: his tax charged to William Cypress in 1793; listed with Squire Charity in 1802 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-1816, frame 107, 478], a "F.N." taxable in Isle of Wight County from 1803 to 1806 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1810, frames 618, 635, 694, 735].

iii. ?Joseph, born say 1780, a "F.N." taxable in Isle of Wight County from 1798 to 1800 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1810, frames 444, 509].

 

12.    Jane Charity, born say 1758, a "poor Mulatto" daughter of Mary Charity, was ordered bound out in Surry County on 15 August 1758 and 16 December 1766 [Orders 1757-63, 123; 1764-74, 102-3]. She was the mother of

i. Nancy, born about 1780, registered as a "free Negro" in Surry County on 27 January 1802: daughter of Jane Charity who was late resident of this county of a dark complexion, has a white spot on her left cheek, 5' high has short hair - aged about 22 years [Back of Guardian Accounts Book 1783-1804, no.136]. She was over fifty-five years of age in 1830, head of a Surry County household of 3 "free colored" in 1830.

 

13.    Wilson Charity, born about 1770, was taxable in the Cabin Point district of Surry County from 1787 to 1813: his tax charged to Henry Charity in 1790; charged with his own tax starting in 1791; listed with Henry Charity in 1794; charged with his own tax from 1795 to 1804; taxable on 2 tithes in 1805, 1806 and 1807; listed with 3 "free Negroes & Mulattoes" above the age of sixteen in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-90, frames 446, 596; 1791-1816, frames 8, 158, 234, 287, 366, 444, 519, 590, 611, 629, 649, 733]. He married Susanna Monroe, 27 December 1787 Surry County bond, William Walden surety. On 9 January 1796 he registered as a "free Negro" in Surry County: son of Henry Charity a resident of this County, a bright mulattoe man aged about 25 years, pretty well made, short hair, 5'10" high, born of free parents [Back of Guardian Accounts Book 1783-1804, no.15]. He married second, Clary Charity, 9 February 1796 Surry County bond, Sampson Granthum surety. He was the father of

16      i. James, born about 1788.

 

14.    Mary2 Charity, born say 1775, married Peter Blizzard, 30 September 1791 Surry County bond, William C. Partain surety. Her child born before her marriage was

i. Mason Charity, born say 1790, "daughter of Mary Blizzard," married John Charity, 28 June 1808 Surry County bond, Peter Blizzard bondsman.

 

15.    Squire1 Charity, born 8 September 1768, "orphan of Ann Charity decd.," was ordered bound an apprentice by the Surry County court on 23 July 1782 [Orders 1775-85, 157]. He was taxable in Surry County from 1787 to : a 16-21-year-old taxable in the household of (his brother?) Henry Charity in 1787; charged with his own tax in 1791; charged with William Charity's tax in 1802; taxable on a slave named Dolly over the age of sixteen in 1803; taxable on 2 slaves in 1805 and 1806; 4 slaves in 1807; 2 free males, 2 slaves and 2 horses in 1809 and 1810; 3 free males and 2 slaves in 1811 and 1812; 4 free males and 5 "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-90, frames 449, 471, 549, 596; 1791-1816, frame 8, 77, 128, 208, 254, 286, 322, 365, 403, 443, 478, 519, 558, 611, 629, 649, 667, 686, 706, 732]. He married Lucy Elliott, 25 April 1791 Surry County bond, Henry Charity surety, 26 April marriage by Rev. Samuel Butler, Rector of Southwark Parish, Episcopal Church [Ministers' Returns, 32]. He was head of a Surry County household of 9 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [VA:603], taxable that year on 67 acres in Surry County [Property Tax Alterations]. He registered in Surry County on 24 December 1821: a free man of Colour aged 53 years the 8th day of September last, is 5'6-3/4" high of yellow Complexion [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 74]. The inventory of his estate was recorded in Surry County in 1838 [Wills, Etc. 7:478-480]. He and Lucy were the parents of

i. Squire2, born in January 1796, registered in Surry County on 21 December 1817: a son of Squire Charity and Lucy, his wife of Surry County, free people of Colour the said Squire Charity is about 22 years old next January 1818 is of a bright Complexion, has a large nose, tolerable straight and Stout made and has straight hair ... is 5'3-3/8" high.

ii. Park, born 6 August 1797, registered in Surry County on 24 August 1818: a Mulattoe Man, the son of Squire Charity and Lucy his wife free person of Colour of this County, aged 21 years the 6th day of August instant is 5'9-1/4" high, of bright complexion streight and well made, thin Visage, and prominent lips.

iii. Hamlin, born 8 October 1804, registered in Surry County on 26 December 1825: a Son of Squire Charity, was born free, aged 21 years, the 8 October 1825, of a bright complexion, straight hair, 5'7-1/4" high.

iv. Henry3, born 25 January 1792, registered in Surry County on 26 January 1813: son of Squire Charity & Lucy, his Wife of Surry County, free people of Colour ... is said by his Father to have been 21 years old the 25th this Instant (Jay) is of a bright complexion, has a flat Nose, tolerable straight & long hair, for one of colour ... is stout made & rather knock-knee'd - is 5'7" high [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 49, 68, 69, 81].

 

16.    James Charity, born about 1788, registered in Surry County on 24 February 1812: son of Wilson Charity a free Mulattoe man of Surry County, aged about 24 years, or there abouts, is 5'8-3/4" high, very long hair, long pekid face, (sharp) nose, his hair grows low in his fore head [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 48]. He was taxable in Charles City County in 1809 and a "Mulattoe" taxable there in 1813 and 1814 [PPTL 1809-23]. He purchased ten barrels of corn for $43 at the sale of the Charles City County estate of John Royall on 10 February 1823 [WB 2:551, 552] and was head of a Charles City County household of 10 "free colored" in 1830. He was the father of

i. Archer, born 18 September 1814, registered in Charles City County on 17 December 1835: son of James Charity, a mulatto man, 21 years of age ye 18 September 1835 [Orders 1830-9, 257].

ii. Littleton, born 19 April 1816, registered in Charles City County on 21 December 1837: son of James Charity, 21 years of age 19 April last, mulatto man [Orders 1830-9, 337].

iii. Walker, born in August 1818, registered in Charles City County on 21 December 1837: son of James Charity, 19 years of age August last, mulatto man [Orders 1830-9, 337].

 

Endnotes:

1.   Other members of the Newby family were Moses Newby, born about 1782, 16 years old when he was apprenticed to John Bullock of Orange County, North Carolina, as a potter in 1798. He was a potter in 1805 when the Guilford County court ruled that he was free because his parents had been emancipated by Quakers. George Newby, born about 1801, was 12 years old in 1813 when he was apprenticed as a potter to William Dennis of Randolph County [NCGSJ May 1985, p.93]. He was head of a Jackson Township, Wayne County, Indiana household of 5 "free colored" in 1840. Joseph Newby was head of a Sussex County, Virginia household of 7 "other free" in 1810, also counted in Isle of Wight County, "free Negro" head of a household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:20]. Harry, Aaron, Tony, and Edmond Newby were "free Negro" taxables in Nansemond County in 1815 [Supplement to the 1810 Census of Virginia, S-14].

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