LEMON FAMILY

Members of the Lemon family in Gloucester County were

1        i. Ambrose, born say 1725.

2        ii. Richard1, born say 1730.

iii. James1, born say 1733, taxable in Gloucester County from 1769 to 1771 [Tax List 1770-1, 88], taxable in Ware Parish, Gloucester County, on his own free tithe, a slave, 3 horses and 15 cattle in 1782 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-99], head of a Gloucester County household of 6 free persons in 1784 [VA:69], called James Lemon, Sr., in 1792 when he was taxable on a free tithe and 2 cattle and in 1793 when he was taxable on 3 horses but free from personal tax [Personal Property Tax List 1782-99].

3        iv. Joshua, born say 1735.

4        v. William1, born say 1745.

vi. William2, born say 1750, called William Lemon, Jr., when he was tithable in Gloucester County from 1769 to 1770 [Tax List 1770-1, 207], perhaps identical to the William Lemon who was tithable in 1796, called "William (Teagle) Lemon" when he was tithable in 1797, 1806 and 1812. He, John and Richard Lemon were living at "Dr." (Dragon) Quarter of Gloucester County in 1800 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99; 1800-20].

 

1.    Ambrose Lemon, born say 1725, was taxable on 3 tithes in Gloucester County in 1770 and 1771. He paid James Lemon's personal tax in 1770 [Tax List 1770-1, 30, 51, 161, 172, 179]. He was not listed as a taxable in 1782 or the years following [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99]. Mary Lemon may have been his widow. She was taxable in Ware Parish, Gloucester County, on 2 horses and 3 cattle in 1782, taxable on 1 free male tithe, 9 slaves, 4 horses and 23 cattle in 1783, but taxable on only a horse and 2 cattle in 1784. Perhaps some of her slaves were transferred to Dixon Lemon who was taxable on 4 slaves in 1784 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99]. He may have been the father of

5        i. John1, born say 1746.

6        ii. Lucy, born say 1760.

iii. Dixon, born say 1762, head of a Petsworth Parish, Gloucester County household of 6 free persons in 1784 [VA:69], taxable in Petsworth Parish on his own free tithe, 3 slaves over the age of 16, a slave over the age of 12, 3 horses and 8 cattle in 1784 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-99]. He was taxable in the lower district of King and Queen County on 2-3 slaves from 1790 to 1802, taxable on 2 free males in 1801 and 1802. His estate was taxable on a free male, a slave and a horse in 1803 and 1804. Ann Lemon (his widow?) was taxable on the same in 1805 and 1806. They were probably the parents of James Lemon who was taxable there on a horse from 1807 to 1813. Ann may have been identical to Nancy Lemon was taxable on a slave and a horse from 1809 to 1814. Dixon Lemon was a free male taxable in 1813. They were considered white in 1813 and later King and Queen County lists which identify all "free Negroes & Mulattoes above the age of 16" [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1803; 1804-16].

 

2.    Richard1 Lemon, born say 1730, was taxable in Gloucester County on 2 tithes in 1770 [Tax List 1770-1, 88] and head of a Petsworth Parish, Gloucester County household of 9 free persons in 1783 and 8 free persons in 1784 [VA:53, 69]. He was taxable in Petsworth Parish on one free tithe, a slave over the age of 16 and 3 horses in 1789, free from personal tax in 1790, called Richard Lemon, Sr., in 1793 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-99]. He was taxable on 76 acres from 1782 to 1794. His estate was taxable on the land in 1795 and 1796. By 1797 the land was divided among James, Robert, John, Susanna, Ann and Richard Lemon who were apparently his children [Land Tax List, 1782-1820]. He was the father of

i. Robert1, born say 1750, listed in 1770 in the tax accounts of the clerk of Gloucester County. Mary Taylor paid him 100 pounds of tobacco in 1771 [Tax List 1770-1, 159, 184]. He was taxable in Ware Parish, Gloucester County, on a free tithe, a slave and 4 horses in 1785, taxable on a free tithe and a horse in Gloucester County in 1789 and taxable on a slave in 1798 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-99]. He was taxable on 12-4/5 acres from 1797 to 1806 and called "son of Richd., Mulo" when he was taxable on 36 acres from 1807 to 1817. He was listed as deceased in 1818 [Land Tax 1782-1820]. He was called Robert Lemon, Sr., from 1804 to 1812 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20], perhaps the Ro. Lemon who was head of a household of 2 "other free," a white woman 26-45 years of age, and 2 slaves in 1810 [VA:407b]. He was called "son of Richd" when he was tithable in Gloucester County in 1814 and 1815 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20].

ii. Richard2, born say 1752, perhaps identical to Richard Lemon, Jr., who was taxable in Gloucester County in 1769 and 1770 [Tax List 1770-1]. He was taxable on 12-4/5 acres from 1797 to 1820, called "son of Richard" from 1807 to 1820 [Land Tax List 1782-1820]. He was tithable at Dragon Quarter in Gloucester County in 1800 and was called "son of Richd" when he was tithable from 1804 to 1819 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20]. He may have been the Richard Lemon who was head of a Gloucester County household of 4 "other free" and 2 white women in 1810 [VA:408a].

7        iii. James2, Jr., born say 1766.

iv. John4, born say 1776, taxable in Gloucester County in 1797, called "son of Richd" when he was taxable from 1804 to 1820 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20].

 

3.    Joshua Lemon, born say 1735, was taxable in Gloucester County in 1769 and 1770 but was not listed as a taxable in 1782 or the years following [Tax List 1770-1; Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99]. Joshua was the father of

i. John3, born say 1770, "son of Joshua," taxable in Gloucester County from 1791 to 1814 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99].

ii. Richard4, born say 1780, "son of Joshua," taxable in Gloucester County from 1804 to 1814 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20]

 

4.    William1 Lemon, born say 1745, was a "Negro" chosen as the pastor of Petsworth Parish by its predominantly white congregation in the 1780s. Robert B. Semple, a contemporary, said of him,

though he was not white...he had been washed in the layer of regeneration, had been purified and made white in a better sense...he was a lively and affecting (preacher) [Daniel, "Virginia Baptists and the Negro in the Early Republic," VMHB LXXX (1972): 62].

He was taxable in Gloucester County in 1770 [Tax List 1770-1, 177] and head of a Petsworth Parish, Gloucester County household of 8 "white" (free) persons and 2 slaves in 1783 [VA:53]. He was taxable in Petsworth Parish on his own free tithe, a slave, 2 horses and 6 cattle in 1782, taxable in Ware Parish from 1783 to 1785, taxable on 2 free male tithes in 1787, on 3 males in 1796 and taxable until 1807. His widow was probably Mary Lemon who was taxable on a slave and a horse in 1807 and 1809 and taxable on a horse in 1810 [PPTL 1782-99; 1800-20]. Molly was head of a Gloucester County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:407b] and 5 "free colored" in 1830. William was the father of

i. William3, born say 1766, called William Jr. when he taxable in Gloucester County in 1789, called "son of Wm." when he was taxable in 1792 and 1816 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-99; 1800-20].

ii. John2, born say 1769, listed himself as a tithable on the same day as William Lemon, Jr., in 1790, called "son of Wm" when he was taxable from 1804 to 1820 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99; 1800-20].

8        iii. Edward, born say 1770.

iv. Robert2, born say 1775, called "son of Wm" when he was taxable in Gloucester County in 1796 and 1797 and called "Robert Jr." from 1804 to 1811 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99].

 

5.    John1 Lemon, born say 1746, was head of a Petsworth Parish, Gloucester County household of 8 free persons and 2 slaves in 1783 [VA:53]. He was taxable in Petsworth Parish on 2 free male tithes, a slave over 16 years of age, a horse and 7 cattle in 1782, taxable on 3 free tithes from 1801 to 1803, 2 in 1804 and a free tithe in 1809 [PPTL, 1782-99; 1800-20]. He was a "Mulo" taxable on 125 acres from 1782 to 1812, taxable on another 35 acres from 1797 to 1812 and on another 38 acres in 1811 and 1812. From 1813 to 1820 Mordecai and Robert Lemon were each taxable on 20 acres of his land; Mildred, Hannah, Mary, and Sally Lemon and his widow Elizabeth Lemon were each taxable on 17 acres of his land, and his estate was taxable on 38 acres. From 1814 to 1820 Haley Lemon was taxable on 17-1/2 acres with the notation "transferred to him by John Lemon deed recorded in Gloucester Court office" [Land Tax List, 1782-1800]. Robert, Richard, and John Lemon were called sons of John Lemon when they listed their personal property [PPTL, 1800-20]. His "mulo" widow Elizabeth was listed in Gloucester County in 1813 and was taxable on 5 head of cattle in 1815 [PPTL, 1800-20]. She was head of a Gloucester County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:408a] and 3 "free colored" in 1830. John was the father of

i. Richard3, born say 1776, called "son of John Lemon" in 1810 when he was head of a Gloucester County household of 5 "other free" [VA:407b].

ii. John5, born say 1780, taxable in Gloucester County from 1797 to 1815, called "son of John Lemon" in 1806 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20] and in 1810 when he was head of a Gloucester County household of 7 "other free" and a white woman 26-45 years of age [VA:408a].

iii. Mildred, taxable on 17 acres from 1813 to 1820.

iv. Hailey, born say 1776, listed himself as a taxable on the same day as John Lemon in 1797 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99]. He was head of a Gloucester County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:662] and was a "Mulatto" listed with his unnamed wife in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20]. He received 17-1/2 acres from (his father?) John Lemon by deed recorded in Gloucester County [Land Tax List 1782-1820 (1814, p.15)].

v. Mordecai, born say 1780, head of a Gloucester County household of 4 "other free" and a white woman 26-45 years of age in 1810 [VA:407b]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in Gloucester County from 1801 to 1820 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20] and taxable on 20 acres from 1813 to 1820 [Land Tax List 1782-1820].

vi. Hannah, a "mulo," called "daughter of John Lemon" when she was listed in Gloucester County in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20]. She was taxable on 17 acres from 1813 to 1820, called "alias King" in 1818, so she probably married a member of the King family [Land Tax List 1782-1800].

vii. Robert3, "mulo" son of John Lemon, taxable in Gloucester County in 1813 and 1814 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20]. He was taxable on 20 acres in Gloucester County from 1813 to 1820 [Land Tax List, 1782-1820].

viii. Sarah, a "mulo," called "daughter of John Lemon" when she was listed in Gloucester County in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20].

ix. Mary, a "mulo," called "daughter of John Lemon" when she was listed in Gloucester County in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20]. She was taxable on 17 acres from 1813 to 1817. She died before 1818 when the tax was charged to her estate [Land Tax List 1782-1820].

 

6.    Lucy Lemon, born say 1760, was taxable in Gloucester County on a free male tithable in 1804, taxable on a slave and a horse in 1807, and was called "mother of the Wakes" in 1813 when she was listed as a "mulo" over the age of sixteen. She was probably the common-law wife of James Wakes, a "free negro" taxable in Gloucester County in 1795 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99; 1800-20]. Lucy was the mother of

i. Lewis, born say 1780, "alias Wakes," a "Mulatto" taxable in Gloucester County from 1801 to 1820, listed with his unnamed wife in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20], head of a household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:407b] and 9 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:191].

ii. John6, born say 1786, "alias Wakes," a "mulo." taxable in Gloucester County from 1809 to 1820, listed with his unnamed wife in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20], head of a household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:191].

iii. James, born say 1788, "alias Wakes," taxable in Gloucester County from 1809 to 1820 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20], head of a household of 1 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:191].

 

5.    James2 Lemon, born say 1766, was called James Lemon, Jr., when he was taxable in Gloucester County in 1787 and in 1789 when he listed his taxables on the same day as (his father) Richard Lemon. He was taxable on 2 free tithables in 1795 and taxable from 1797 to 1804 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99; 1800-20]. He was taxable on 12 acres from 1797 to 1804, and his estate was taxable on the land from 1805 to 1820 [Land Tax List, 1782-1820]. He was the father of

i. George W., born say 1796, taxable in Gloucester County from 1817 to 1820, called "son of James" in 1820 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20].

ii. ?Francis, born say 1788, taxable in Gloucester County from 1809 to 1815 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20].

 

8.    Edward Lemon, born say 1770, listed himself as a tithable on the same day as William Lemon, Sr., in 1791, 1792, 1793 and 1795. He was taxable on a slave from 1801 to 1812, was a "mulo" taxable with his unnamed son in 1813 and was called "son of Wm" when he was taxable on two tithes in 1814 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99; 1800-20]. He was head of a Gloucester County household of 2 "other free," a white woman over the age of 45 and a slave in 1810 [VA:407b]. He was taxable on 91 acres, called Cowpen Neck, from 1812 to 1816 and taxable on another 50 acres in 1812 [Land Tax List 1782-1820]. He was the father of

i. William5, born say 1792, called "son of Edward" when he was taxable in Gloucester County in 1816 [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-20].

 

LEPHEW FAMILY

1.    Stephen Lephew, born say 1750, entered 100 acres on both sides of Little Rockhouse Creek of the Dan River in Gilford County, North Carolina, on 29 January 1779 and entered another 129 acres on Rockhouse Creek on 15 April 1781 [Grant 48:54; 56:255; entry nos. 1146, 1198; SS records NC Archives call nos. S.108.721, location 235-8; S.108.722, location 1051-4]. He was head of a Rockingham County household of ten white persons in 1790: two males over the age of sixteen, six under sixteen, and two females. Perhaps his sister was Mary Lefew, counted next to him, head of a household of one white female and three white males under the age of sixteen [NC:167]. She may have been the Polly Lefew who was head of a Rockingham County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:491]. Stephen died before 1801 when 400 acres of his land was divided among his widow Elizabeth and his nine sons [DB G:158]. Elizabeth was head of a Rockingham County household of 9 "other free" in 1800 [NC:491]. Their children were

i. Elihu, sold his interest in his father's land jointly with his brother Enoch in 1805 [DB M:57].

ii. Elijah, died before 1806 when the sheriff sold his share of his father's land [DB M:109].

iii. Josiah, head of a Rockingham County household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:604].

iv. Elias, sold his land in 1809 [DB N:48].

v. Uriah. The sheriff sold his land in 1806 [M:156].

vi. Levi. The sheriff sold his land in 1806 [M:156].

vii. Joseph, born before 1776, head of a Rockingham County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:491]. He sold his land in 1806 [DB M:107] and was head of a Grainger County, Tennessee household of 4 "free colored" in 1830.

viii. Enoch, born 1776-1794, sold his interest in his father's land in 1805, purchased his brother Elias' portion in 1809, and then sold this land about a year later [DB M:57, N:48, 50]. He married Jane Craig, 21 May 1814 Rockingham County bond, William Scott bondsman. Enoch was head of a Rockingham County household of 4 "free colored" and one white woman in 1820 [NC:604].

ix. Elisha, born 1776-1794, head of a Grainger County, Tennessee household of 7 "free colored" in 1830. The sheriff sold his land in 1804 [DB L:13].

x. ?John, married Miranda Underwood, 8 May 1811 Rockingham County bond, William Scott bondsman.

 

Other members of the family were

i. Jonas, married Patsey Moore, 16 September 1812 Rockingham County bond, Uriah Lephew bondsman.

ii. Phoebe, married William Craig, 2 February 1811 Rockingham County bond.

 

LESTER FAMILY

1.    Isam Lester, born say 1765, married Elizabeth Jones Volentine (Valentine), 11 December 1789 Lunenburg County bond, Zachariah Valentine surety. He was counted in a list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" in the lower district of Lunenburg near Hawkins' Ford in 1802 and 1803 with his children: Ermin, Faith, Bolling, Jones, Anna, and Ellick [Lunenburg County, Free Negro & Slave Records, 1802-1803, LVA]. He was head of a Lunenburg County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:350] and 3 males and 7 females in a list of "Free Negroes and Mulattos" in the lower district of Lunenburg in 1814, head of a household with Patty Richardson and his children: Jones, Betsy, Anna, Elly (Ellick), and Sally Lester [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 33:268]. Isham and Elizabeth's children were

i. Ermin, born say 1790.

ii. Faith, born say 1791, married John Key(s), a Lunenburg County soldier of dark complexion who was born free in King and Queen County in 1763. Faithy Lester Key was his widow in 1853 when she began receiving a pension for his services in the Revolutionary War [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 39].

iii. Bolling.

iv. Betsy, born about 1794, registered in Lunenburg County in 1818: about 24 years of age, 4 feet 10 inches high, brown complexion.

v. Jones, born about 1795, registered in Lunenburg County on 11 April 1825: aged about 30 years, dark complexion, about five feet six inches high. He was married to Suky and had a daughter named Elizabeth by 1814 [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 33:268]

vi. Alexander, born about 1796, registered in 1818: about 22 years, about five feet high, brown complexion.

vii. Anna.

viii. Sally, born about 1800, registered in Lunenburg County on 12 November 1821: about 21 years, dark Complexion, about 4 feet 10 or 11 Inches high, daughter of Isham Lester & Elizabeth Lester his wife [WB 5, after page 89, nos. 3, 4, 11, 38].

 

LETT FAMILY

Members of the Lett family were

1        i. Mary, born say 1706.

ii. Savory, born say 1713, married Simon Thompson ("negroes") on 10 November 1734 at St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore [Reamy, Records of St. Paul's Parish, I:31].

 

1.    Mary Lett, born say 1706, was convicted by the Baltimore County court in November 1728 and in March 1730/1 for having "Molatto" children by a "Negro" [Barnes, Baltimore Families]. She was the mother of

i. Sarah, born before August 1728.

ii. Zachariah, born about 1731.

iii. ?Samuel, taxable in Patapsco Upper Hundred in 1773 in the same list as Benjamin Banneker [http://www.msa.md.gov/megafile/msa/coagser/c400/c428/000000/000051/pdf/msa_c428-000051.pdf].

 

They were apparently the ancestors of

i. Elijah, head of a Frederick County, Maryland household of 6 "other free" in 1790, a "Negro" or "Mulatto" taxable in Loudoun County, Virginia, from 1802 to 1805 [PPTL 1798-1812].

ii. Aquilla, head of a Frederick County, Maryland household of 5 "other free" in 1790, a "free Negro" taxable in Frederick County, Virginia from 1799 to 1802 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 707, 745, 784, 821].

iii. Meshac, a "free Negro" taxable in Frederick County, Virginia, in 1800 and 1801 [PPTL 1782-1802, frame 784, 764].

iv. Rosalin, head of a Frederick County, Maryland household of 5 "other free" in 1790 and 3 in Washington County in 1800 [MD:638].

v. Daniel, taxable in Shenandoah County, Virginia, from 1806 to 1818 [PPTL 1800-18, frames 282, 407, 485, 538, 611, 657, 742, 776, 829], head of a Shenandoah County household of 6 "other free" in 1810.

vi. Charles, a "Mulatto" taxable in Loudoun County, Virginia, from 1803 to 1809: taxable on Benjamin, Elijah and Samuel Lett's tithe in 1803 [PPTL 1798-1812], head of a Jefferson County, Virginia household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [VA:78].

vii. Delilah, born about 1771, obtained a certificate of freedom in Frederick County, Maryland on 13 September 1826: about fifty five years of age...a bright Mulatto Woman...free Born as appears by the affidavit of Nicholas Willson [Certificates of Freedom 1808-42, 187].

viii. Zachariah2, a "free Black" taxable in Shenandoah County from 1801 to 1813 [PPTL 1800-18, frames 54, 221, 282, 326, 408, 485, 538].

ix. James, a "free Black" taxable in Shenandoah County from 1811 to 1814 [PPTL 1800-18, frames 463, 538, 611a].

 

LEVINER FAMILY

1.    Jean Lovina, born say 1660, was the "Negro Woman" slave of John Nichols who freed her children John and Sarah Lovina by his 11 November 1696 will, proved 17 May 1697. He gave the children 350 acres of land and called them "my two Molattos." Since Nichols did not free Jean Lovina, she may have been identical to, or the mother of, Jenny Lovina, a "Negro" slave who Edward Murden gave to his son Malachy Murden by his Norfolk County will on 16 January 1734/5 [WB 6, fol.95a-96; DB 12:83]. Jean was the mother of

2        i. John1, born say 1680.

ii. Sarah, born 23 June 1682 and died 2 October 1762 [Bell, Bass Families of the South, Chapter on Nansemond Indian Ancestry of Some Bass Families, 15]. She received 200 acres in the southern branch of the Elizabeth River by Nichols' will. On 21 December 1716 there was some uncertainty about the boundaries of her land when the Norfolk County court ordered that it be processioned [Orders 1710-17, 178, 179, 181]. She married William Bass and was still living in Norfolk County when she sold part of this land on 15 March 1757 [DB 18:41].

 

2.    John1 Lovina, born say 1680, was an apprentice of Nathan Newby when Nichols made his will. He received 150 acres adjoining his sister's land on the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River and another 160 acres in the Western Branch of Elizabeth River adjoining land of William Davenoll, deceased. John was witness to the 10 February 1703/4 Norfolk County will of James Jordan [McIntosh, Brief Abstract of Lower Norfolk County Wills, 186]. He died before 18 May 1716 when (his wife) Anne Lovinah was ordered to give an account of her deceased husband's estate [Orders 1710-17, 153]. On 12 November 1728 his son William sold his father's Norfolk County land to William Bass, Jr. [DB G:110]. One of John's children was

3        i. William1, born, born say 1707.

 

3.    William1 Leviner, born say 1707, sold 150 acres in Norfolk County on 12 November 1728 which was land his father received from Major John Nichols in 1696, and on 14 January 1734/5 he and his wife Martha sold 100 acres where they were then living on the Western Branch of the Elizabeth River "which was given unto John Lovina by John Nichols by his last will" [DB G:110; 11:28-9]. He was taxable in John Bowers' household in 1730 and in his own household in Western Branch District of Norfolk County from 1730 to 1734 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1730-150, 22, 40, 75, 96, 142]. He purchased 183 acres in Bertie County, North Carolina, on the northeast side of Cashie Swamp on 9 February 1745, and he and his wife Martha sold this land to Thomas Wilson eleven years later on 26 April 1756 [DB H:221, 326]. He was taxable on 2 tithes in John Hill's Bertie County list for 1757 and was a free male "molatto" taxable on 1 tithe in the 1764 and 1766 list of Jonathan Stanley [CR 10.702.1, Box 1]. He was probably the father of

4        i. John2, born say 1750.

 

4.    John2 Leviner, born say 1750, entered 100 acres in Anson County on 13 January 1773 [Entry no. 767; Book 25:191; NC Archives call no. S.108.403, location 1233-7, file no. 3308]. He was head of a Richmond County, North Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1790 [NC:46] and was taxable on 100 acres and one poll in 1795. He was called John Viner in his Richmond County will, proved December 1802, which named his children [WB 1:87]. They were

i. Abraham, born say 1778, indicted for petty larceny with (his brother?) Zadock Leviner in the April 1800 session of the Richmond County court. Zadock was found not guilty, and Abraham was given one lash [Minutes 1793-1804, 508].

ii. Zadock, born say 1780, among the freeholders ordered by the June 1803 Richmond County court to work on the road from Cross Roads to Duncan McFarland's [Minutes 1792-1804, 586].

iii. Isaac, born say 1781, among the freeholders ordered by the September 1804 Richmond County court to work on the road from Captain Pate's to the east bank of Joe's Creek [Minutes 1792-1804, 621]. He was head of a white Richmond County household in 1810 [NC:213].

iv. William2, born say 1783, among the freeholders ordered by the September 1804 Richmond County court to work on the road from Captain Pate's to the east bank of Joe's Creek [Minutes 1792-1804, 621]. He was head of a white Richmond County household in 1810 [NC:213].

 

LEWIN FAMILY

Members of the Lewin family in Lancaster County were

1        i. Mary, born about 1767.

ii. Charles, born about 1768, married Polly Armstead Nickens, 1 January 1805 Lancaster County bond. He was granted a certificate by the Lancaster County court on 19 April 1796 that he was free born [Orders 1792-9, 268]. He registered in Lancaster County on 23 May 1804: Age 36, Color mulatto...born free. He was head of a Lancaster County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:352].

 

1.    Mary Lewin, born about 1767, was presented by the Lancaster County court on 20 June 1782 for having an illegitimate child [Orders 1778-83, 102]. She registered in Lancaster County on 18 August 1815: Age 48, Color tawny...born free [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 2, 6]. She was head of a Lancaster County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:352]. She may have been the mother of

i. Dorcas, born about 1791, married Edward Sorrell, 15 December 1814 Lancaster County bond. He died 7 July 1839, and his will was proved in August 1840. She moved to Baltimore about 1846 where she applied for and received a survivor's Revolutionary War pension on 21 November 1853 [M804-2246, frame 0927].

ii. Polly, married James Sorrell, 13 November 1815 Northumberland County bond, Edward Sorrell security.

iii. John, married Betsy Pinn, 26 March 1819 in Lancaster County [List of Marriages in Orders 1768-70].

 

LEWIS FAMILY

1.    Mary Lewis, born say 1693, was presented by the Surry County, Virginia court on 19 December 1711 for having a "mulattoe bastard Child" [Orders 1702-13, 385]. Mary was probably related to Morgan Lewis, a taxable in the list for Southwark Parish, Surry County, Virginia, in 1703 [DW 5:290]. On 18 June 1712 when the sheriff reported that she was not in his bailiwick [Orders 1702-13, 396]. She may have been the Mary Lewis who was taxable in Beaufort County in 1755 [SS 837]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. John1, born say 1725, taxable with his son William on 2 black tithes in Beaufort County in 1764 [SS 837].

2        ii. Morgan1, born say 1730.

3        iii. Violet, born about 1740.

4        iv. Jean, born say 1741.

v. Ned, born say 1746, "a Molota" who petitioned the Onslow County, North Carolina court with his unnamed brother in December 1767 saying that they were free but held by Emmanuel Jones. Their case was put off to the next court which did not record their fate [Minutes III:10b].

 

2.    Morgan1 Lewis, born say 1730, purchased 200 acres near Conconary Swamp in Halifax County, North Carolina, in January 1775. He signed an agreement with William Hall to divide land in Halifax County on 12 March 1783 [DB 13:290; 17:431]. He probably received an additional 100 acres through this land division since he left over 300 acres to his children. His 14 August 1780 Halifax County will was proved in February 1789. He left 200 acres and 8 slaves to his wife Lucy, to be divided at her death among his children and his granddaughter Lucy Lewis [WB 3:162]. His wife probably died soon after because her children sold the land they inherited in 1791. He was head of a household of 2 free males, 3 free females, and 7 slaves in the 1786 State Census for Halifax County. His children named in his will were

i. John2, born say 1750, sold land on 21 January 1791 which he had inherited from his father and on the same day purchased 106 acres in the same area [DB 17:277, 427]. He was head of a Halifax County household of 1 male and 4 females for the 1786 state census, 4 "other free" and 1 white woman in 1790 [NC:62], and 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:324]. He and his wife Cloey sold 54 acres in Halifax on 10 January 1801 [DB 18:930]. He was probably deceased by 1810 when his wife Chloe Lewis was head of a Halifax County household of 4 "other free" [NC:33].

ii. Morgan2, born about 1751, seventy years old on 22 August 1821 when he made a declaration in Halifax County court to obtain a pension for his services as a private in the 10th Regiment of the North Carolina Line. His family at that time consisted of his seventy-year-old wife, two daughters, and a two-year-old grandson [M804-1558]. On January 1791 he sold 72 acres in Halifax County which he had received from his father [DB 17:423]. He was head of a Halifax County household of one male and 2 females for the 1786 state census, 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:62], 3 in 1800 [NC:324], and 4 in 1810 [NC:33].

iii. Elizabeth.

5        iv. Charles, born say 1765.

v. Suky.

vi. Warner, head of a Halifax County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:62], 7 in 1800 [NC:324], and 4 in 1810 [NC:32]. On 25 June 1791 he and his brother Charles sold 82 acres they inherited, and on 23 November 1791 he sold a further 82 acres he inherited from his father [DB 17:357, 419].

 

3.    Violet Lewis, born about 1740, was called by her first name only when John Foy asked the July 1760 Craven County court to bind to him her four-year-old daughter Bett [Minutes 1758-61, 66b]. Later in that same court session at the request of Peter Rhem, the Craven County court ordered John Foy to deliver "Bett a negro Child" to her mother Violet so that Rhem could have her indentured to him [Minutes 1758-61, 68b]. Four years later in July 1764 Rhem asked the court to extend Violet's indenture another two years for having two children during her indenture [Minutes 1762-64, 53b]. She was called Violet Lewis a "Free Born Negroe Woman" on 7 January 1767 when she indentured herself to Peter Rhem for eight years [Minutes 1767-75, 5c]. Her children were

i. Bett, born about 1756, four years old in July 1760 when John Foy asked the Craven County court to bind her to him [Minutes 1758-61, 66b]. She was called "Bet a free born Negro Woman" on 13 June 1777 when she complained in Craven County court that John Foy was detaining her as a servant. The court ordered her set free [Minutes 1772-84, 49c].

ii. Hannah, born about March 1763, one year and four months old on 4 July 1764 when Peter Rhem asked the court to bind her to him [Minutes 1762-64, 53b].

iii. Abigail, born about 1766, called "Abigail a free born Negroe Girl aged Eleven Years" on 11 March 1777 when the Craven County court bound her to Peter Rhem [Minutes 1772-84, 44a]. She was called Abby Lewis in 1790, head of a Craven County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:131]. She married Gabriel Moore, 15 March 1806 Craven County bond, Thomas Lewis bondsman.

 

4.    Jean Lewis, born say 1741, was taxable in Beaufort County in Mary Lewis' household in 1755: Mary Lewis and Jean - 2 black tithes [SS 837]. She indentured her son Stephen to Alexander Gray on 2 May 1777, but the 13 September 1780 Craven County court declared the indenture illegal when Stephen petitioned the court for relief from the indenture. The court bound him instead to William Tisdale [Minutes 1772-84, 21]. On 14 September 1787 the Craven County court bound Stephen and Fred Lewis, "free Negroes," to William Carter [Minutes 1786-87, 64a, 65d]. Her children were

6        i. ?Thomas1, born say 1758.

ii. ?Nanny, head of a Carteret County household of 3 "other free" in 1800.

iii. Stephen, born say 1772, a "free Negro" bound apprentice to Alexander Gray in 1777 and bound as an apprentice turner to William Carter by the 14 September 1787 Craven County court [Minutes 1786-87, 64a].

iv. ?Fred, born 25 March 1775, a "free negro" bound as an apprentice turner to William Carter by the 14 September 1787 Craven County court [Minutes 1786-87, 65d].

v. ?Isaac, born 25 October 1776, a "Mulatto" bound to Abraham Guslin as an apprentice seaman by the Craven County court on 12 March 1787 [Minutes 1786-87, 35d].

 

5.    Charles Lewis, born say 1765, was head of a Halifax County household of 3 males and 2 females in the 1786 state census, 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:62], and 5 in 1800 [NC:324]. On 25 June 1791 he and his brother Warner sold 82 acres they inherited from their father, and on the same day he sold his half interest in his father's mill [DB 17:419, 421]. He was deceased by 17 November 1801 when the Halifax County court ordered his children bound out as apprentices [Minutes, 1799-1802, n.p.]. Perhaps his wife was "Red Lewis," head of a Halifax County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [NC:45]. His children were

i. Milisey, born about 1789, twelve-year-old daughter of "Charles Lewis deceased" ordered by the Halifax County court bound apprentice to Elizabeth Branch on 17 November 1801.

ii. Letitia, born about 1793, eight-year-old daughter of Charles Lewis ordered bound apprentice to Abner Knight on 17 November 1801.

iii. Clayton, born about 1797, four-year-old son of Charles Lewis ordered bound to Abner Knight on 17 November 1801.

 

6.    Thomas1 Lewis, born say 1758, may have been the "Tom a free Born Negroe" for whom Thomas Sitgreaves petitioned the 14 March 1777 Craven County court saying he was unjustly withheld from his liberty by Mr. John Foy. The court ordered him set free [Minutes 1772-84, 45f, 59b]. Thomas Lewis was head of a Craven County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:134]. He may have been the father of

i. Richard, born say 1777, married Keziah Dove, 16 March 1798 Craven County bond, Thomas Lewis bondsman. He was head of a Rutherford County household of 8 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:370].

ii. Margaret, born say 1783, married Robert Sawyer, 10 October 1801 Craven County bond, Samuel Simpson bondsman. Robert Sawyer was head of a New Bern, Craven County household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:78].

iii. Lucretia, born say 1785, married William Powers, 2 April 1803 Craven County bond, Solomon Bowers bondsman.

iv. Thomas2, born say 1787, married Rhoda Robeson, 13 September 1809 Craven County bond, Isaac Ransome bondsman. He may have been the same Thomas Lewis who married Nancy George, 19 August 1815 Craven County bond, (his brother?) Willis Lewis bondsman. He was head of a Craven County household of 5 "free colored" and 4 slaves in 1820 [NC:64].

v. Joshua2, born say 1788, married Betsey Goddett, 30 June 1809 Craven County bond, James Goddett bondsman.

vi. Willis, born say 1790, married Betsey Moore, 3 May 1811 Craven County bond, Isaac Ransome bondsman. He was head of a Craven County household of 9 "free colored" and 3 slaves in 1820 [NC:65].

vii. Sally, born say 1791, married Isaac Ransome, 1 November 1809 Craven County bond, Robert Sawyer bondsman. Isaac was head of a Craven County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:134] and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:78].

viii. Mary, born say 1794, married Peter Gaudett (Goddett) 12 May 1813 Craven County bond, Stephen Gaudett bondsman.

ix. Julia, born say 1796, married George Goddett, 29 October 1813 Craven County bond, George Goddett bondsman.

x. Barbara, born say 1797, married William Moore, 25 December 1813 Craven County bond, Asa Ransome bondsman.

 

Stafford County

1.    Benjamin Lewis, born say 1660, was called a "Negroe now manumitted and set free" in May 1691 Stafford County court when he sued his master, William Harris. Lewis claimed that he was free in England and was indentured to serve Christopher Robinson for four years. The court ruled in favor of Lewis, and Harris appealed to the General Court [Sparacio, Stafford County Order Book 1691-92, 20-21]. He was in Charles City County in October 1691 when the court ordered him returned to Stafford County because he had no evidence that he was free [Orders 1687-95, 360]. He may have been the ancestor of the Lewis family of Stafford and Spotsylvania counties:

i. Charles, born say 1758, a "Mulatto" child living in King George County on 5 April 1771 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Brunswick Parish to bind him and his brother Ambrose Lewis to William Buckham [Orders 1766-90, 158].

ii. Ambrose, born say 1760, a "Mulatto" child bound out in Spotsylvania County with Charles on 5 April 1771. The Hustings court held in Fredericksburg awarded him 2 pounds currency in his suit for debt against Richard Young on 17 June 1782 and 2 pounds currency in his suit against Mark Towel on 21 April 1783. He leased property from John Benson by deed proved in court on 1 December 1788. He and his wife Fanny sued Thomas Drummond for trespass, assault and battery on 26 March 1790, but the suit was dismissed on agreement of the parties [Orders 1782-5, 13, 53, 78; 1787-1800, 118]. On 4 May 1787 the Spotsylvania County court called him "a soldier who got wounded in General Gates' defeat" when it ordered that he receive a pension. The order was renewed each year through 1795 [Minutes 1786-7, 102, 158; Orders 1787-92, 48, 236; 1792-5, 78, 240]. He served in the Revolution from Spotsylvania County and later moved to Alexandria [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 39-40].

2        iii. Sall, born say 1761.

iv. Fanny, head of a Spotsylvania County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:112a].

v. William, born about 1776, registered in Petersburg on 5 June 1818: a free man of Colour, five feet ten inches high, forty two years old, brown Complection, born free & raised in Fredericksburg p. information of Ashton Johnson [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 909]. He was head of a Spotsylvania County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:111b].

vi. Matilda, head of a Spotsylvania County household of 4 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [VA:111a].

vii. Daniel, head of a Stafford County household of 10 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [VA:127].

viii. Nancy, head of a Spotsylvania County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:111a].

 

2.    Sall Lewis, born say 1761, was a "Mulatto" woman living in Spotsylvania County on 15 March 1781 when the court ordered the churchwardens of St. George Parish to bind out her "Mulatto" son Francis [Orders 1774-82, 155]. She was the mother of

i. Francis, born say 1775.

 

Princess Anne/ Norfolk County

1.    George1 Lewis, born say 1680, was ordered by the Princess Anne County court on 6 September 1721 to give security for a debt he owed John Stireing's estate. He was called a "free negro" when he was convicted by the Princess Anne County court on 3 December 1729 for concealing a tithable (probably his wife). He petitioned the Princess Anne County court on 7 January 1729/30 to be free from paying taxes, but the court ruled that he was "very able to work and labour" [Minutes 1717-28, 119, 129; 1728-37, 44, 49]. He may have been the father or grandfather of

2        i. Martha, born say 1734.

ii. Solomon, born say 1734, a "free Negro" taxable in Norfolk Borough from the south side of Tanners Creek to Spratts Bridge in 1753 and 1757 [Wingo, Norfolk County Virginia Tithables, 1751-65, 67, 121].

3        iii. Betty, born say 1742.

iv. Joshua1, born say 1744, a "free negro" taxable head of a household in the western district of Norfolk Borough in 1765 and 1767 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1751-65, 213; 1766-80, 34].

v. Jesse, born say 1760, and his wife Sarah, "Free Mulattos," had their son John baptized in Bruton Parish, James City County on 7 November 1781 [Bruton Parish Register, 34].

 

2.    Martha Lewis, born say 1734, was a taxable head of a household in the western district of Norfolk Borough in 1765 and 1767 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1751-65, 213; 1766-80, 34]. She may have been the mother of

i. Ann, born say 1752, taxable in Mary Meach's household in the borough of Norfolk in 1768 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables 1766-80, 85].

ii. Joseph, born about 1773, head of a Sussex County household of 7 "other free" in 1810. He received one of the "Certificates granted to Free negroes & mulattoes from October 1800" in Sussex County on 25 July 1818: dark complexion, 5'8-1/2", free born, 45 years old [Register, no. 333].

 

3.    Betty Lewis, born say 1742, was taxable in the Norfolk County, Virginia household of Ann Canterdine in 1759 in the district from the south side of Tanners Creek to Great Bridge and taxable in the household of (her sister?) Martha Lewis in 1765 and in her own household in 1767 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables 1751-65, 141, 213; 1766-80, 34]. She was a "free negro" living in Princess Anne County on 10 August 1780 when her sons George and John Lewis were bound to William Hancock to be planters [Minutes 1782-4, 26]. She was the mother of

i. George2, "F.B." head of a Princess Anne County household of 2 "other free" and a slave in 1810.

ii. John, born before 10 August 1780.

 

Lancaster County

1.    Mary Lewis, born say 1713, the servant of William Stamps, was presented by the Lancaster County, Virginia court on 10 November 1731 for having an illegitimate "mulatto" child in Saint Mary's White Chappel Parish. She confessed to the offense and was ordered to serve her master an additional year. The inventory of William Stamp's Lancaster County estate, returned to court on 9 May 1746, included "Molatto" girls Hannah (16 pounds currency) and Judith (10 pounds) [Orders 1729-43, 8, 46, 51; DW 1743-50, 106]. She may have been the mother of

i. William, born say 1731, taxable with his wife Betty on a white and a black tithe in the Granville County list of Gideon Macon in 1754 [CR 44.701.19].

ii. Judith, born in 1733 of free parents in Goochland County, Virginia, and freed of servitude (her indenture) by William Stamp of Goochland. She petitioned the 7 September 1757 Granville County, North Carolina court complaining that Sherwood Harris was detaining her [Owen, Granville County Notes, vol.II].

 

Dinwiddie County

1.    Matthew Lewis, born about 1755, registered in Petersburg on 31 May 1808: a dark brown Negro man, five feet four and a half inches high, fifty three years old, born free & raised in Dinwiddie County, a shoemaker [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 421]. Perhaps his wife was Margery Lewis (born about 1760) who registered in Petersburg on 9 June 1810: a brown Mulatto woman, five feet six inches high, fifty years old, born free & raised in Dinwiddie County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 572]. They may have been the parents of

i. Frederick, born about 1778, registered in Petersburg on 11 July 1805: a light or yellow brown Mulatto man, five feet six inches high, twenty seven years old, born free & raised in the Town of Petersburg [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 327].

ii. Nancy, born about 1788, registered in Petersburg on 3 April 1809: a brown Mulatto woman, five feet six inches high, twenty one years old, born free in Dinwiddie County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 470].

 

Endnotes:

1.    Other members of Isaac Ransom's family were George Ransom (head of a Craven County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:134]), Simon Ransom (head of a Robeson County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:49], 8 in 1800 [NC:414] and 2 in 1810 [NC:126]), Martin Ransom (head of a Robeson County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:126]), and Willis Ransom (head of a Robeson County household of 4 "other free in 1810 [NC:126]).

 

LIGHTY FAMILY

1.    Mary Lighty, born say 1690, won a suit against James Dudley in Middlesex County court for the freedom of her "Mulatto" daughters Betty and Lucy on 1 June 1736 [Orders 1732-7, 67-8]. She was the mother of

i. Betty, born say 1703, freed from the service of James Duley on 1 June 1736.

2        ii. Lucy, born say 1705.

 

2.    Lucy Lighty, born say 1705, was freed from the service of James Dudley on 1 June 1736. That same day the court bound her "Negro" son Maximus to Dudley until the age of twenty-one [Orders 1732-7, 67-8]. She was the mother of

i. Maximus, born say 1730.

 

LIGON FAMILY

1.    Martha Ligon, born say 1720, was living in Henrico County in February 1745 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Dale Parish to bind out her "mulatto" children Elizabeth and Francis [Orders 1737-46, 363]. Her children were

2        i. ?Hannah, born say 1740.

3        ii. Elizabeth, born say 1742.

iii. Francis1, born say 1744, perhaps identical to Frank Liggan, a "FN" taxable in the upper district of Henrico County from 1804 to 1807 [Land Tax List 1799-1816; Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frame 536].

4        iv. ?Peg, born say 1750.

 

2.    Hannah Liggon, born say 1740, was the mother of Phebe Liggon who married Thomas Findley, 10 May 1788 Henrico County bond, Hannah Liggon, Jerry Liggon, and William Logon witnesses. Samuel Findley, guardian of Phobe, gave his consent. She was the mother of

i. ?Jeremiah, born about 1762, a witness to the marriage of Phebe Liggon and Thomas Findley, 10 May 1788 Henrico County bond. On 14 May 1792 he, Thomas Findley and two white men were ordered by the Chesterfield County court to post bond of 2 pounds, 10 shillings to keep the peace for three months [Orders 1791-2, 346]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in Chesterfield County from 1788 to 1810 [PPTL, 1786-1811, frames 37, 183, 542, 619, 661, 717, 753, 799]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 26 August 1816: fifty four years old, brown complexioned, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, 261]. He was security for the 13 September 1813 marriage of Manuel Valentine and Nancy Cox (free persons of colour), 13 September 1813 Chesterfield County bond [Marriage Register, 122].

ii. Phebe, born say 1770, married Thomas Findley, 10 May 1788 Henrico County bond.

iii. ?Thomas1, born about 1772, a "Mulatto" taxable in Chesterfield County from 1798 to 1810 [Personal Property Tax List, 1786-1811, frames 358, 469, 581, 619, 753, 799]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 13 October 1828: fifty six years old, black complexion, born free [Register of Free negroes 1804-53, no. 611].

iv. Peter, born about 1780, a "Mulatto" taxable in Chesterfield County from 1803 to 1810 [Personal Property Tax List, 1786-1811, frames 542, 619, 661, 717, 799]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 8 September 1806: twenty five years old, black complexioned, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 28].

 

3.    Elizabeth Ligon, born say 1742, was living in Henrico County in April 1765 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Henrico Parish to bind out her son Chamberlayne Liggon (no race indicated) [Orders 1763-67, 441]. She was the mother of

i. Chamberlayne, born say 1763.

5        ii. ?William1, born say 1765.

iii. ?Mary, living in Chesterfield County on 4 July 1783 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Dale Parish to bind her and William Ligon out as apprentices [Orders 1774-84, 456], perhaps the Mary Ligon who was living in Powhatan County on 15 January 1795 when the court ordered the overseers of the poor to bind her son William Ligon to Samuel Roper to be a shoemaker [Orders 1794-8, 43].

iv. ?Samuel, born say 1784, a "free Negro" taxable in Henrico County in 1801 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frame 434].

 

4.    Peg Ligon, born say 1750, was living in Chesterfield County on 1 April 1774 when the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her children Beverly and Frank (no race indicated) [Orders 1774-84, 9]. She was the mother of

i. Beverly, a "Mo" taxable in Powhatan County in 1791 [Personal Property Tax List, 1787-1825, frame 62].

ii. Francis2, born say 1775, a "Mo" taxable in Powhatan County from 1790 to 1794, his tax charged to John Forlines in 1790 [Personal Property Tax List, 1787-1825, frames 46, 62, 79, 94, 107]; taxable in the lower district of Henrico County from 1796 to 1813: his tax charged to William Liggon in 1796 and 1797; called a "free Mulatto" from 1803 to 1805, a "free Negro" starting in 1806; taxable on a slave in 1809; taxable in the lower district of Henrico County on 29 acres adjoining William Roberson's land in 1813; taxable on 20 acres near the Stage Road in 1815 and 1816 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frames 345, 407, 434, 463, 490, 515, 556, 577, 619, 684, 704, 772; Land Tax List 1799-1816], head of a Henrico County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:991].

iii. ?John, born say 1780, a "Mulatto" taxable in Chesterfield County from 1801 to 1809 [Personal Property Tax List, 1786-1811, frames 469, 542, 581, 661, 753].

iv. ?Winsey, born say 1785, taxable in William Liggon's Henrico County household in 1801.

v. ?Phebe, born say 1788, married Thomas Bibby, "F.N.," 30 December 1806 Chesterfield County bond, John Ligon bondsman.

vi. ?William2, born about 1789, obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 9 July 1810: twenty one years old, yellow complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 133]. He registered in Botetourt County: William Liggin, 30 years old, Yellow Complexion, 6 feet high ... born free as appears by the certificate from the clerk of Staunton Corporation court, Registered 17th July 1819 [Free Negroes &c Registered in the Clerks Office of Botetourt County, #22]. And he registered in Halifax County, Virginia, on 21 June 1831: a bright Mulatto man, five feet 11 inches high and about forty two years old, who was born free as appears by a register of the Clerk of the Hustings Court of the City of Richmond [Registers of Free Negroes, 1802-1831, no. 198].

vii. ?Elizabeth, born about 1789, married Ned Bibby, 13 September 1813 Chesterfield County bond.

 

5.    William1 Ligon, born say 1765, married Fanny Mathews, daughter of Rachel Mathews who consented, 14 July 1787 Henrico County bond, surety Nathaniel Couzins who certified that Fanny was over the age of twenty-one. William was taxable in the lower district of Henrico County from 1792 to 1814: taxable on Francis Liggon's tithe in 1796 and 1797; taxable on his own tithe, (his son?) Winsey Liggon's tithe and a horse in 1801; called a "free Mulatto" or "free Negro" starting in 1801; taxable on a slave in 1806; taxable on his two unnamed sons in 1813: taxable on 26 acres on the Stage Road in 1813; taxable on 81 acres on the Stage Road in 1815 and 1816. His wife was probably the Fanny Liggon who was counted in a "List of Female Free Negroes & Mulattoes over the age of 16" in Henrico County in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frames 294, 306, 332, 345, 356, 390, 434, 463, 557, 577, 619, 684, 704, 789; Land Tax List 1799-1816]. He was head of a Henrico County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:991]. He may have been the father of

i. Thomas3, born say 1788, a "free Mulatto" or "free Negro" taxable in the lower district of Henrico County from 1805 to 1814: taxable on a slave in 1813; taxable on 40 acres in the lower district near the Stage Road in 1815 and 1816 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frames 515, 557, 577, 619, 684, 704, 772, 789; Land Tax List 1799-1816] and head of a Henrico County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:991].

ii. Betsy, born about 1793, obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 11 June 1827: thirty four years old, brown complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 571].

 

Other members of the family were

i. Nancy, born say 1782, head of a Richmond City household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:330].

ii. Thomas2, born say 1780, head of a Prince Edward County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:576].

iii. Betty, born about 1774, "Persons of Color," head of a Cumberland County, Virginia household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:103]. She registered in Powhatan County on 19 December 1822: Age: 48; Color: Black; Stature: 5'1-1/2"; Born Free [Register of Free Negroes, no.50].

iv. Phobe, "F.B.," head of a Powhatan County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:10]. On 16 April 1800 the Powhatan County court ordered the overseers of the poor to bind her sons Barnett and Benjamin Ligon to William Lewis to learn house carpentry because their master John Cheatwood had moved out of the county [Orders 1798-1802, 226].

v. Cam Loggins, a "Mulatto" taxable in Patrick County from 1807 to 1817 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1823, frames 492, 520, 540, 616, 666].

vi. Tilmon Loggins, a "Mulatto" taxable in Patrick County from 1809 to 1817 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1823, frames 519, 539, 598, 666]. He, Prudence, Jeremiah, Polly, Edward, Isaiah, Isham and Saundary Loggins obtained certificates of freedom in Patrick County in December 1829.

 

LIVELY FAMILY

Members of the Lively family in Virginia were

i. Thomas, born about 1736, taxable in Chesterfield County from 1793 to 1811, a "Mulatto" living with his two children on James Scott's land in 1809 and 1811 [Personal Property Tax List, 1786-1811, frames 162, 198, 268, 301, 374, 563, 689, 738]. He was a "man of Colour," eighty four years of age on 31 May 1820 when he made a declaration in Petersburg to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution, stating that he enlisted in Chesterfield County in the 5th Virginia Regiment in 1777. On 27 August 1820 his family consisted of his twenty-three-year-old daughter Sally Freeman, her twenty-seven-year-old husband Kit Freeman and their seven-year-old son James [M804-1573, frame 0042].

ii. William1, born about 1750, a twenty-three-year-old indented "Mulatto fellow" who ran away from Lewis Boaten of Roberson Fork, Culpeper County, according to the 15 July 1773 issue of the Virginia Gazette [Rind edition], perhaps the William Lively, born before 1776, who was head of a Petersburg household of 4 "free colored" in 1830.

iii. Sally, born about 1792, obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 18 July 1821: twenty nine years old, bright mulatto complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 448].

iv. William2, born about 1794, registered in Petersburg on 24 April 1815: a light brown Mulatto man, five feet seven and a half inches high, twenty one years old, rather yellowish eyes, born free and raised in the County of Chesterfield [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 770].

v. Becky, born about 1794, obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 13 July 1818: twenty four years old, yellow complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 323].

vi. Charity, born about 1797, obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 18 July 1821: twenty five years old, bright mulatto complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 447].

vii. John, born about 1814, registered in York County on 18 June 1832: a mulatto boy about 18 years of age ... long bushy hair ... Born in Gloster County [Free Negroes Register 1831-1850, no. 339].

 

LIVERPOOL/ POOL FAMILY

1.    Sarah Liverpool, born say 1743, was a free "Negro" who was presented by the Northampton County, Virginia court on 8 May 1764 for having an illegitimate child. She confessed to the offense and was ordered to be whipped [Minutes 1761-5, 113, 119]. She was apparently the ancestor of

2        i. Solomon, born say 1763.

ii. Abel, born say 1770, taxable in Northampton County from 1789 to 1796 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 102, 131, 214].

iii. Henry, born say 1772, taxable in Northampton County from 1789 to 1791 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 102, 131]. He married Keziah Beckett, 17 March 1799 Northampton County bond, Solomon Liverpool security. They were called Henry and Kesiah Pool when they registered as "free Negroes" in Northampton County on 12 June 1794 [Orders 1789-95, 358].

iv. George, born say 1773, taxable in Northampton County from 1790 to 1798 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 117, 214, 252], called George Pool when he married Comfort Weeks, 10 May 1793 Northampton County bond, Abraham Lang security. They were called George Anderson Pool and Comfort Anderson Pool when they registered as "free Negroes" in Northampton County on 10 and 11 June 1794 [Orders 1789-95, 354]. He may have been the George Pool who married Patience Stephens, 27 September 1819 Northampton County bond, Daniel Pool security. George Liverpool was head of a Northampton County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217].

v. Anderson Pool, a "free Negro" taxable in Northampton County from 1795 to 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 197, 214, 252].

vi. Daniel, born say 1774, registered as a "free Negro" in Northampton County on 11 June 1794 [Orders 1789-95], married Elishe Driggers, 25 June 1799 Northampton County bond, Josias Liverpool security. Daniel may have been identical to Daniel Pool who was security for the 27 September 1819 Northampton County marriage of George Pool. He was a "free Negro" taxable in Northampton County from 1796 to [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 214, 252].

vii. Josiah, born say 1776, registered as a "free Negro" in Northampton County on 11 June 1794 [Orders 1789-95], probably identical to Sias Pool who was a "free Negro" taxable in Northampton County from 1795 to 1798 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 197] and head of a Northampton County household of 11 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:216A].

viii. Sarah, born say 1778, registered as a "free Negro" in Northampton County on 11 June 1794 [Orders 1789-95]. She married Solomon Beckett, July 1800 Northampton County bond.

ix. Adah, born say 1780, married Solomon Beckett, 7 July 1801 Northampton County bond, Josiah Liverpool security.

 

2.    Solomon Liverpool, born say 1763, was presented by the Northampton County court on 11 November 1788 for tending crops on land belonging to the Gingaskin Indians. He was called Solomon L. Pool when Isaac Webb sued him in Northampton County on 13 May 1789 [Orders 1787-9, 269, 270, 272]. He registered as a "free Negro" in Northampton County on 11 June 1794 together with Betty, Catherine, Charles and Nat who were called children of Solomon and Bridget his wife. Bridget was probably the Bridget Liverpool who registered her children Absobeth and William three days later on 14 June 1794 [Orders 1787-9; 1789-95, 367]. Perhaps Bridget was an Indian since she did not register herself. Solomon was taxable in Northampton County from 1783 to 1813: taxable on 2 slaves, 2 horses and 3 cattle in 1783; taxable on a slave over the age of sixteen in 1788; taxable on 2 free males in 1801; 3 free males and 6 horses in 1802; 2 male and 2 female "free Negroes" above the age of 16 in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 18, 32, 87, 131, 195, 250, 311, 331, 540]. He was head of a Northampton County household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217]. He and Bridget were the parents of

i. Betty, born say 1776.

ii. Catherine, born say 1778.

iii. Charles, born say 1779, called Charles Pool when he was taxable in Northampton County from 1795 to 1813, called "Charles Liverpool son of Solomon" in 1806 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 197, 413, 540]. He married Anne Driggus, 1 January 1820 Northampton County bond, Cudjo Stephens security, and was head of a Northampton County household of 9 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217].

iv. William, born say 1779, a "free Negro" taxable in Northampton County from 1795 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 197].

v. Nat, born say 1782.

vi. Absobeth, born say 1784, probably identical to Absel Pool who married Esau Gutrie of Accomack County, 23 December 1803 Northampton County bond, Moses Buckner security. Esaw Gutridge and his unnamed wife were listed with 2 males and a female over the age of 16 in their Accomack County household in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1814, frame 856].

 

Members of the Pool family in Northampton County were

i. Anderson Pool, married Catherine Drighouse, 23 June 1800 Northampton County bond, Jacob Holland security.

ii. Isaac Pool, married Sophia Morris, 17 December 1811 Northampton County bond, John Upchurch security. He was a "N." taxable in Northampton County in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frame 543]. Isaac Liverpool was head of a Northampton County household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217].

iii. Marshall Pool, married Margaret Weeks, 27 December 1817 Northampton County bond, John Weeks security.

 

LOCKLEAR FAMILY

Jacob Lockeleer, born say 1636, was a Frenchman who arrived in Virginia without an indenture and was bound to Edward Diggs, Esquire, for four years. He completed his indenture in York County, Virginia, on 24 April 1660 [DWO 4:86, 89]. He may have been the ancestor of the Locklears who were early residents of Lunenburg County, Virginia, and Edgecombe County, North Carolina. They were taxed as mixed-race in Bladen and Granville counties, North Carolina, in the 1760's. In 1895 Mrs. Mary C. Norment in her book, The Lowrie History, claimed that Bettie Locklayer was "a half-breed Tuscarora Indian woman." In the twentieth century they were among those light skinned people in Robeson County who were called "Lumbee Indians." However, it is more likely that they were already a mixture of African, European, and perhaps Native American when they came to North Carolina. Certainly, their white and African American neighbors considered them "free Negroes." William Chavis charged "Thomas Lockery ... Free Negro" with trespass in Granville County court in 1770 [CR 044.928.15].

 

1.    Robert1 Locklear, born say 1700, was living in Edgecombe County on 10 December 1738 when Benjamin Rawlings mentioned him in his will. Rawlings allowed him to purchase the plantation he was then living on for 10 pounds [SS 1738-52, 63]. This plantation was probably in the part of Edgecombe County which became Halifax County in 1758. Locklear's land was mentioned in a 1 November 1753 Edgecombe County deed which was recorded later in Halifax County. It adjoined the Roanoke River, Quankey Pocosin, and Chavis's Branch [Halifax DB 17:568; Edgecombe DB 2:97]. Robert may have been renting this land or perhaps he was Benjamin Rawling's son-in-law since he was the first person mentioned in Rawling's will [SS 1738-52, 63]. Robert made a deed of gift of all his goods and chattels in Edgecombe County to his son John on 24 May 1749 with the proviso that he maintain him and his wife for the rest of their lives [DB 3:347]. Robert Locklear's children were

2        i. John1, born say 1721, died about 1787.

ii.?Dudley, born say 1722, the defendant in an Edgecombe County court suit, Campbell vs. Dudley Locklear, in August 1746 [Haun, Edgecombe County Court Minutes, I:110, 116]. He was a taxable "Molato" in Bladen County in 1776 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, II:64, 84]. He received a patent for 150 acres in Bladen County on the south side of Drowning Creek and Ashpole Swamp below his improvements on 11 November 1779 and sold 100 acres of this land on 10 September 1783 [DB 19:8; 1:36].

3        iii. ?Major1, born say 1724.

iv. ?Susannah Lakier, born say 1725, no race indicated, who was bound an additional year by order of the 8 November 1743 session of the Bertie County court because she had a bastard child during her indenture [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, II:417].

4        v. ?Randall, born say 1730.

5        vi. ?William1, born say 1740.

 

2.    John1 Locklear, born say 1722, entered 100 acres in Bladen County on the south side of Gum Swamp and Drowning Creek between 5 October and 15 November 1752 [Pruitt, Bladen County Land Entries 1787-1795, no.665]. He and his wife were "Mulatto" Cumberland County taxables in 1755 [T&C 1], and he and his wife, son, and daughter were taxable in Bladen County in 1763 [Bladen County Tax List (1763)]. He, his wife, son William, and daughters Sarah and Elizabeth were taxable "Mulatoes" in Bladen County in 1768 (his name torn, but apparent from later lists), taxable with his wife and son William in 1770 and 1771 and taxable with his wife and son Robert in 1772 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:5, 46, 58, 82, 124; II:101, 119]. He patented 250 acres in Cumberland County on the East side of Drowning Creek on 28 February 1764, and he and his wife Elizabeth sold 50 acres of this land on 1 May 1787 [Hoffman, Land Patents, I:504; DB A:56]. On 5 August 1784 he made his Bladen County will, recorded in Robeson County soon after it was formed in 1787 (no probate date). He left his plantation to his wife and then to son Samuel with a shilling to his other unnamed children [WB 1:8]. His children were

i. ?Jacob, born say 1745, taxable in Bladen County with his wife from 1768 to 1774 ("Mulatoes"), also taxable on Riding Kersey's tax in 1774, and taxable on 100 acres and one poll in McNeill's District in Bladen County in 1784 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:7, 46, 82, 124, 135; II:119; Bladen County Tax List (1784)]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:48] and 5 in 1800 [NC:389b]. He purchased 100 acres on Bear Swamp in Robeson County from James Lowery on 13 June 1791 [DB B:341].

ii. Samuel, born say 1748, perhaps the unnamed son who was taxable in John Locklear's Bladen County household in 1763. He was head of a Robeson County household of 1 "other free" in 1790, 5 in 1800 [NC:389b], 12 in 1810 [NC:231] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:312].

iii. William2, born say 1751, taxable in his father's Bladen County household from 1768 to 1771, head of his own household in 1772, and married by 1774 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:5, 46, 58, 82, 124, 135; II:101, 119]. He had put his improvements on land in Bladen County on Juniper Branch on 7 December 1778 [Bladen County envelope 4070, Land Grant Office]. He received a grant for this 100 acres on Juniper Branch in Bladen County on 7 November 1784 [DB 1:73] and was taxable in Bladen County on this land in 1784. On 26 May 1788 the sheriff sold this 100 acres on the east side of Drowning Creek and both sides of Juniper Branch for a debt he owed John Moore [DB A:288]. He sold 100 acres on the east side of Drowning Creek to William3 Locklear in 1810 [DB P:258]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 11 "other free" in 1790 [NC:48], 12 in 1800 [NC:389b], 7 in 1810 [NC:232], and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:295].

iv. Sarah, born before 1752, taxable in her father's Bladen County household in 1763 and 1768.

v. Elizabeth, born before 1757, taxable in her father's Bladen County household in 1768.

6        vi. ?Joseph, born say 1758.

vii. Robert3, born say 1759, taxable in his father's Bladen County household in 1772, head of a Fairfield County, South Carolina household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [SC:226].

viii. ?John2, Jr., born say 1767, entered 100 acres on the east side of Juniper Branch adjoining William Locklear in Robeson County on 22 March 1788 [Pruitt, Land Entries: Robeson County, I:15]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:48], was living in Richmond County in 1810 [NC:192], and was head of a Richmond County household of 8 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:216].

ix. ?Malcolm Buie, born say 1768, entered 50 acres east of Long Swamp in Robeson County on 12 March 1789 including Charles Valentine's improvements and 50 acres bordering his own line east of Juniper Branch on 29 January 1794 [Pruitt, Land Entries: Robeson County, I:23, no. 1462]. He purchased adjoining tracts of 100 acres and 177 acres on the east side of Juniper Branch from James Lowery on 27 May 1801 and 4 October 1803, and purchased land from Malcolm McMillan by deed proved in Robeson County on 4 October 1803 [DB L:20; N:187-90; Minutes I:264]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:48], 5 in 1800 [NC:389] and 7 in 1810 [NC:232].

 

3.    Major1 Locklear, born say 1724, was the defendant in an Edgecombe County court suit, Campbell vs. Major Locklear, in August 1746 [Haun, Edgecombe County Court Minutes, I:110, 116]. He was living on the northeast side of Drowning Creek on White Oak Swamp on 27 August 1753 in what was then Bladen County when a land entry was issued to Dennis McLendle and James McCallam for 100 acres which he was living on [Pruitt, Bladen County Land Entries, no. 793; NCGSJ VI:174 (Papers of Colonial Governors 1753-4, #CGP 4)]. He was taxed as a "Mulatto" in Cumberland County in 1755 [T&C 1]. He was listed as a "white" taxable in Bladen County in 1768 and a "Mulato" taxable in 1770 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:7, 45, 143]. He was living in Bladen County on 13 October 1773 when he was listed as a harborer of "free Negors and Mullatus living upon the Kings Land" who included Edward and Tiely Lockclear [G.A. 1773, Box 7]. Perhaps his widow was Ann Locklear who was head of a Bladen County household of one "Black" person from 12 to 50 years old and six "Black" persons over 50 or under 12 years old in 1786 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, II:169]. He may have been the father of

i. Edward, born say 1750, a taxable "Mulato" in Bladen County in 1772 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, II:72, 143].

ii. Tiely, born say 1752.

iii. Guttridge, born say 1753, a taxable "Mulato" in Bladen County from 1769 to 1776, living in John Bullard's household in 1770 and listed as white in 1774 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:14, 33, 78, 111, 129; II:64, 84]. He received a patent for 200 acres in Bladen near Haleys Mill Swamp on 23 October 1782 [Hoffman, Land Patents, vol. II, no.592] and sold this land near what was then called Cade's Mill Swamp on 23 February 1786 [Robeson DB C:27]. He was counted as white in 1790, head of an Orangeburgh District, South Carolina household of three males over 16, 4 under 16, and four females [SC:96]. He was listed near Charity Groom, Isaac Groom, Richard Groom, William Groom, Benjamin Sweat, and Gideon Bunch, Jr., who were also counted as white. Benjamin Sweat, and the Groom family were "free Negors and Mullatus" included in the before mentioned 13 October 1773 Bladen County list [G.A. 1773, Box 7].

 

4.    Randolph/ Randall Locklear, born about 1730, was taxable in Lunenburg County, Virginia, in the list of Edmund Taylor for St. James Parish in 1751 [Tax List 1748-52]. He was in the Muster Roll of Captain Smith's Company of the Edgecombe County Militia in the 1750's [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 672]. In 1765 he and wife Sarah were "Black" tithables in Granville County, North Carolina, and in 1766 they were tithable on 3 persons [CR 44.701.20]. He sued Thomas Evans in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 14 March 1774 for a debt of 2 pounds due by note of hand [Orders 1773-9, 185]. He was taxed on 150 acres and one poll in Bladen County, North Carolina, in 1784. He was granted a patent for 150 acres in Bladen County on the west side of Ashpole Swamp crossing the Boggy Branch on 22 March 1788 [DB 36:493] and made a Robeson County deed of gift of this land to his son Robert on 7 February 1794 [DB F:157]. In 1790 he was head of a Robeson County household of 10 "other free" [NC:48]. His children were

7        i. ?Thomas, born say 1750.

ii. Robert2, born say 1753, brought to court with Nathaniel Gowen in Granville County in 1773 on an unspecified charge but released on payment of their prison charges when no one appeared against them [Minutes 1773-83, 1]. "Chavis and Robert Locklear" received a patent for 150 acres on the north side of the Little Peedee and west side of the Shoeheel Swamp in Bladen County on 11 November 1779 [DB 19:484, #182]. Robert was taxable on one poll tax in Bladen County in 1784 in McNeill's District and entered 100 acres on Juniper Branch in what was then Robeson County on 4 September 1790 [Pruitt, Land Entries: Robeson County, I:38]. On 8 February 1794 he received a deed of gift from his father Randal for 150 acres in Robeson County on the south side of Ashpole Swamp, being the plantation his father was then living on, and sold this land on 25 February 1799 [DB F:157; I:7]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 9 "other free" in 1790 [NC:48], 11 in 1800 [NC:389b], 13 in 1810 [NC:230], and 9 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:301].

iii. William3, born say 1765, purchased 100 acres on the east side of Drowning Creek from William2 Locklear in 1810 [DB P:258]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [NC:220] and 11 "free colored" in 1820, called William Locklear, Jr. [NC:293].

 

5.    William1 Locklear, born say 1740, was probably living in Halifax County before 1 November 1753 when a Granville grant to Joseph Montfort mentioned land joining Chavis' branch and Lockaleer [Halifax DB 17:568]. The family was still in Halifax County on 20 May 1777 when a deed from Alexander McCulloch to John Clayton mentioned land adjoining Lockalear's pocosin [DB 13:455]. William1 Locklear died before 18 November 1784 when the Halifax County court ordered the sheriff to "sell as much of the estate of William Locklear to satisfy the debts of the decedent." Mary Locklear, head of a Halifax County household of 8 "other free" in 1800, may have been his widow [NC:324]. Their children may have been

8        i. Maria, born say 1765.

ii. Robert4, born about 1784, seventeen years old when he, Israel, and Aaron Locklear and Lucy Cooley were ordered bound apprentices to Samuel Tunnell by the 18 August 1801 Halifax County court. He was head of a Halifax County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:33], 8 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:155], and 8 in 1830. He obtained free papers in Halifax County court on 23 February 1850: Robin Locklear about 65 years old, very dark complexion, 5 feet 10 inches tall. Charlotte Locklear, his wife, 61 years old, bright complexion, 5 feet 3/4 inches tall [CR 47.301.7, cited by Kent, Swampers, 7].

 

6.    Joseph Locklear, born say 1758, was living in South Carolina on 2 April 1779 when he, Elijah Locklear, Sherwood Chavis, and Isaac Malone, alias Rouse, were jailed in the district gaol of Salisbury on suspicion of robbery. They were released because there was no evidence against them, and they were "willing and desirous of enlisting in the Continental [Charlotte Gazette]. Joseph was taxable in 1784 in McNeill's District, Bladen County. He purchased 100 acres in Robeson County from James Lowry on 13 June 1791 [DB B:341] and entered 100 acres of land bordering Crickett Lockleir on Bear Swamp on 6 September 1793 [Pruitt, Land Entries: Robeson County, I:84]. The sheriff sold 100 acres of his land on the east side of Long Swamp adjoining John Locklear for debt on 5 November 1788 [DB A:211]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:48], 9 in 1800 [NC:389], 7 in 1810 [NC:230], and 8 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:294]. He was probably the father of

i. Wiley, married Nancy Evans, 25 May 1817 Robeson County bond, Joseph Locklear bondsman.

 

7.    Thomas Locklear, born say 1750, may have been one of three taxables in the 1766 Granville County household of (his father?) Randall Locklear. He was sued in the October 1770 Granville County court by William Chavis:

Take body of Thomas lockery of your sd County Free Negro ... answer William Chavers of a plea of Trespas on the case ...at Oxford [CR 44.928.15].

He was called Thomas Lockleer/ Locklear/ Locklier when his taxable property in Granville was assessed at 120 pounds in 1780, and in 1782 he was taxable on a horse and 5 cattle in Fishing Creek District. He was head of a Dutch District household of 3 males and 3 females in 1786 for the North Carolina State Census, head of a Wake County household of 13 "other free" in 1790 [NC:103], and head of a Wake County household in 1800 [NC:779]. He was taxable on 180 acres in Captain Ray's district of Wake County in 1793 and 1794 [CR 099.701.1, frames 46, 121]. He may have been the father of

i. Polly, born say 1786, married David Mitchell, 1 January 1804 Granville County bond with John Tyner bondsman.

ii. Rachel, born say 1790, married Peter Chavis, 29 April 1807 Wake County bond, Irby Phillips bondsman.

iii. Elizabeth, born say 1795, married Robert Chavis, 29 September 1813 Wake County bond, James Shaw bondsman.

iv. Solomon2, born say 1797, married Phillis Dunston, 19 January 1818 Wake County bond, John Phillips bondsman.

v. Catherine, married Edward Bass, 28 August 1821 Wake County bond, Samuel Bass bondsman.

 

8.    Maria Locklear, born say 1765, was head of a Halifax County household of 4 "other free in 1800 [NC:324]. She may have been the Mary Locklier who was cited by the 28 November 1801 Halifax County court to bring her children to court so they could be bound out [Minutes 1799-1802]. Her 9 May 1832 Halifax County will, proved August 1832, mentioned her granddaughters Eliza and Maria Locklear, and children: Gabriel Locklear and Maria and Polly Scott [WB 4:90]. Her children were

i. Gabriel, born about 1787, a fourteen-year-old "base born child" ordered bound apprentice to Julius Horton by the 18 August 1801 Halifax County court. He was head of a Halifax County household of 8 "free colored" in 1830 and was executor of his mother's 1832 will. On 20 November 1837 the Halifax County court bound to him three children "of color:" Catherine, Jethro, and Mary Locklayer. The 25 February 1842 and 18 August 1845 sessions of the court allowed him to carry his gun, and the 19 August 1845 session ordered him jailed until he paid a fine [Minutes 1832-46].

ii. Polly Scott, probably the wife of Joseph Scott who was also mentioned in Maria's will.

iii. Maria, born about 1795, a six-year-old "base born Child" ordered bound to Edith Clifton by the 18 August 1801 Halifax County court [Minutes 1799-1802]. She married Harwood Scott, 25 February 1819 Halifax County bond with Joseph Scott bondsman. Her husband Harwood Scott was mentioned in her mother's will.

iv. ?Samuel, head of a Halifax County household of 1 "other free in 1810 [NC:33]. He was in the First Company detached from the Halifax County Regiment in the War of 1812 [N.C. Adjutant General, Muster Rolls of the War of 1812, 19].

v. ?Solomon1, head of a Rowan County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:336]. He was in the First Company detached from the Halifax County Regiment in the War of 1812.

 

Other members of the family were

i. Major2, taxable in Captain Ward's District of Warren County in 1799 [Tax List 1781-1801, 387], head of a Williamson County, Tennessee household of 7 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. Levinia, born before 1776, head of a Warren County household of 1 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:796].

iii. John, born before 1776, head of a Dickson County, Tennessee household of 5 "free colored" in 1820, living near Lovet Lockalier, born before 1795, who was head of a household of 6 "free colored."

iv. James1, born before 1776, head of a Richland District, South Carolina household of 7 "free colored" in 1830.

v. James2, born before 1776, head of a Richland District, South Carolina household of 6 "free colored" in 1830.

vi. Thomas2, "free man of color" married to Susan Locklear, daughter of "free person of color" Francis Hamlin who purchased her from James Sims of Limestone County, Alabama, in 1826 in order to emancipate her [Schweninger, Race, Slavery, and Free Blacks, Series 1, 319 (PAR Number 10182605)].

 

Endnotes:

1.    He was called "Thomas Lockleer" in the 1780 Granville County tax assessments list.

2.    Mecklenburg County was formed from St. James Parish, Lunenburg County, in 1765.

3.    Elijah Lockelaire was counted as white in Marlboro County, South Carolina in 1800 with (sons?): John, Stephen, and Major [SC:54].

 

LOCKSAM/ LOCKSON FAMILY

1.    Rebecca Locksam, born say 1750, was a "Mullatto" woman claimed as a servant by James Robb, merchant of Fredericksburg, but in the possession of Doctor Archibald Campbell on 24 August 1771 when she petitioned the Orange County, Virginia court for her freedom. The court ruled that she was entitled to her freedom but bound her illegitimate "Mulattoe" son Billey to Alexander Waugh, Jr., on 26 November 1772 [Orders 1769-77, 92, 135, 145, 156, 167, 230]. She was the mother of

i. William Locksam, born say 1770.

ii. ?George Lockson, head of a Madison County, Virginia household of 1 "other free" and 4 slaves in 1810 [VA:395].

iii. ?Rachel Lockson, "F.N." head of a Rockingham County, Virginia household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:27].

 

LUCAS/ LOCUS(T) FAMILY

The Lucas/ Locus/ Locust family may have originated in Charles City County where Elizabeth Lucie was presented by the churchwardens of Weynoke Parish for having a bastard child by an unknown father. Her son, a "molotto boy the sonne of Elizabeth Lucie dec'd," was bound to Howell Pryse on 4 December 1665. Perhaps his father was Jack (John1 Tann), "a negro servant to Mr. Rice Hoe," who was ordered freed from his service on 8 February 1665/6 by virtue of a note given him by his former master, Rice Hoe, Sr. A former servant of Hoe claimed that "Hoe had never a servt. maid but the sd Jack the Negro lay w'th her or got her w'th child" [Orders 1655-65, 601, 617, 618, 632]. One of Hoe's descendants, Howson Hooe of Prince William County, was the master of Hester Lucas, a "mulatto woman servant" whose son was bound to Hooe in 1763. Perhaps the descendants of Elizabeth Lucie and Jack were

1        i. Francis Locus, born say 1728.

2        ii. James Locus, born say 1730.

3        iii. Joseph1 Lucas, born 16 July 1735.

iv. William Lucas, born 25 August 1737 in St. Peter's Parish, New Kent County, "a mulatto Boy belong. to Mich'l Harfield" [NSCDA, Parish Register of St. Peter's, 133].

4        v. Hester Lucas, born say 1740.

5        vi. Susannah, born say 1741.

6        vii. Anthony1, born say 1742.

7        viii. Daniel1 Lucas, born say 1745.

8        ix.Charles1, born about 1746.

x. Thomas Locus, born about 1748, about five years old on 3 December 1753, called a "base born son of ____ Locus "a free Negro woman," when he was bound an apprentice shoemaker to Sherwood Haywood of Granville County, North Carolina [CR 44.101.2]. He was head of a District 11, Nash County household of 8 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:432].

9        xi. Anthony2, born say 1750.

10       xii. Mary, born say 1755.

 

1.   Francis Locus(t), born say 1728, charged Thomas and William Tabers/ Tabor (Taborn) with 53 pounds damages for trespass in Southampton County court on 14 September 1749. James Brooks, Jr., was their security. The suit was discontinued on the agreement of all parties [Orders 1749-54, 17; Judgment Papers 1749-50, frames 178-9]. His wife may have been a member of the Jeffries family since William Sweat and his wife Margaret Jeffries, Francis Locust and his wife Hannah, and Margaret Jeffries, daughter of the aforesaid, lost their right to 190 acres on the north side of the Meherrin River in Southampton County in a dispute with Arthur Taylor heard at the Council of Virginia on 8 November 1753 [Hall, Executive Journals of the Council, V:448]. On 11 April 1754 he was one of fourteen householders sued in Southampton County by William Bynum (informer) for failing to pay the discriminatory tax on free African American and Indian women. He was found not guilty on 15 November 1754, but Bynum was granted a new trial because his witness Joseph Norton had not appeared. Francis was found guilty at the new trial on 13 February 1755 with Joseph Everett as Bynum's witness. Francis was fined 1,000 pounds of tobacco which was the fine for concealing two tithables: (his wife) Hannah Locust and Katherine Andrews. James Brooks was his security. Bynum sued him again on 14 March 1755 on another matter, but Francis was found not guilty [Orders 1749-54, 473, 495, 507, 512; 1754-9, 23, 32, 34, 40, 69; Judgment Papers 1752-5, frames 848-55]. In June 1759 he was one of the freeholders of Edgecombe County, North Carolina, who were ordered to work on the road from Bryant's Creek to the Granville line [Haun, Edgecombe County Court Minutes, I:238]. He received a grant for 525 acres on Turkey Creek in Nash County, North Carolina, on 9 October 1783 and a further 150 acres on the south side of the creek on 1 November 1784 [DB 3:119; 2:146]. He was taxed on 800 acres, 20 cattle, and 6 horses in Nash County in an undated tax list which should perhaps be 1784. He sold 300 acres of this land to Francis Anderson on 11 February 1785 [DB 1:174]. He was head of a Nash County household of 8 "other free" in 1790 [NC:70]. He was called Francis Locust of Granville County in an undated power of attorney to Samuel Bailey to recover his lands in Southampton County, Virginia, proved in the February 1803 Granville County court [WB 5:291]. He sold to Jesse Hammons 250 acres on the north side of Turkey Creek on 20 November 1792 and 150 acres on the west side of the creek on 13 January 1798 [DB 6:114, 366]. In 1800 he was in Anson County where he was head of a household of 9 "other free" [NC:221]. He may have been the father of

i. Billing Lucas, "man of color," enlisted for nine months in the 10th North Carolina Regiment and died September 5, 1779 [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 101].

ii. Arthur, born say 1760, taxed on 3 cattle in a Nash County tax list circa 1784. He may have been living on land of (his father?) Francis Locus. He was head of a Nash County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:70], 8 "other free" in Darlington District, South Carolina, in 1800 [SC:116], and 4 "other free" in 1810 [SC:667].

iii. Joshua, born about 1782, head of a Darlington District, South Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [SC:667]. In 1860 he was a seventy-eight-year-old "Mulatto" living in household #1010, Cass County, Michigan, in the household of (his son?) Henry Lucas who was born in South Carolina.

 

2.    James Locus, born say 1730, was a "Black" taxable living with his wife in the Granville County tax list of Robert Harris in 1754 [CR 44.701.19]. They may have been the parents of

11      i. Valentine, born say 1750.

12      ii. James, born say 1755.

iii. Barnaby, born say 1755, head of a Nash County household of 8 "other free" in 1790 [NC:70].

iv. John, born say 1757, head of a Nash County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:70], 6 in 1800 [NC:109], and 4 in 1810 [NC:660].

v. George, born say 1758, head of a Nash County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:70].

 

3.    Joseph1 Lucas, born 16 July 1735 in St. Peter's Parish, New Kent County, a "Mulatto Boy," was bound to Michael Harfield until the age of thirty-one [NSCDA, Parish Register of St. Peter's, 36]. He sold property in Henrico County by deed proved on 7 September 1789 [Orders 1789-91, 77]. He was taxable in the lower district of Henrico County on a horse from 1783 to 1797 and taxable on 18 acres in 1799 and 1800. He was deceased by 1801 when his estate was taxable on the land [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frames 12, 46, 107, 163, 181, 239, 256, 294, 332, 356; Land Tax List 1799-1816]. He may have been the father of

i. Solomon Lucas, a "free Negro" taxable in the lower district of Henrico County from 1797 to 1814: his tax charged to Robinson Lord from 1797 to 1801, called a "free Mulatto" in 1803 and 1804 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frames 356, 390, 423, 515, 557, 577, 619, 684, 704, 772, 789; Land Tax List 1799-1816], head of a Henrico County household of 2 "other free" and a white woman in 1810 [VA:993].

ii. George Locus(t), born say 1780, a "free Negro" taxable in the upper district of Henrico County from 1806 to 1814 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frames 490, 536, 598, 641, 725, 824], head of a Henrico County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:1015].

 

4.    Hester Lucas, born say 1740, a "mulatto woman" servant of Howson Hooe, was the mother of several illegitimate children born in Prince William County, Virginia. She may have been the common-law wife of one of Hooe's slaves. Her children were

i. Francis (Frances), bastard female born 28 July 1761 to Hester Lucas, bound to Howson Hooe on 3 May 1763 [Historic Dumfries, Records of Dettingen Parish, 113]. Perhaps she was the Francis Lucas, "F. Negro," who was head of a Fairfax County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:276].

ii. James, born 24 July 1764 to Hester Lucas, bound to Howson Hooe on 4 June 1765 until the age of thirty-one [Historic Dumfries, Records of Dettingen Parish, 113]. He was taxable in Prince William County in 1787 (listed with Howson Hooe, Esq.), 1801 and 1802 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1810, frames 87, 478, 491], head of a Prince William County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:523].

iii. Sarah, born about 1764, registered at the court of the District of Columbia in Alexandria on 10 July 1804: a Mulatto woman aged about forty years, was born free ... all her female ancestors were born free, particularly her mother who I well know, Barthw. Dade [Arlington County Register of Free Negroes, 1797-1861, no. 8, p.9].

iv. Betsy, married to Benjamin Nickens on 5 August 1805 when they obtained certificates of freedom in Prince William County [Orders 1804-6, 204].

v. ?Charles1, may have been identical to Charles Lucas who was taxable in Loudoun County in 1778 [Tithables 1758-1799, 857a]. He was taxable in the upper district of Prince William County from 1787 to 1810: listed with William Mitchell in 1787, called a "black" man in 1802 [PPTL, 1782-1810, frames 88, 128, 156, 222, 285, 352, 491, 545, 509, 723]. He was head of a Prince William County household of 15 "other free" in 1810 [VA:523]. He was a "F.N." taxable on his unnamed son in Loudoun County in 1811 [PPTL 1798-1812].

vi. ?Philip1, may have been identical to Phil Lucas who was one of Peter Fox's Loudoun County tithables in 1767, James Sinclair's tithable in 1768 and Benjamin Dowers' tithable in 1769 [Tithables 1758-1799, 402, 468]. He was a "free negro" taxable in Fauquier County in 1786, 1789; listed with Peter Powers in 1790, with Alderman Sanders in 1791; listed with Richard Gray from 1804 to 1807 [PPTL 1782-96, frames 97, 278, 413; 1797-1807, frames 653, 785], taxable near Occoquan in Prince William County from 1791 to 1810, called a "Mul" in 1802 [PPTL, 1782-1810, frames 168, 273, 462, 509, 545, 597, 736], head of a Prince William County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:503], listed with his wife Susanna in Fauquier County in 1813 [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List].

 

5.    Susannah Lucas, born say 1741, was living in Cumberland County, Virginia, on 25 May 1761 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Southam Parish to bind out her "Mulatto" infant son Joseph Lucas until the age of thirty-one "according to the condition of his mother" [Orders 1758-62, 320]. She was the mother of

13      i. Joseph2, born say 1760.

 

6.   Anthony1 Lucas, born say 1742, was taxable in Prince William County from 1782 to 1796: listed with slaves Harry and Sarah, 4 horses and 13 cattle in 1782, taxed on Benjamin Cunningham's tithe in 1787. He purchased 142 acres near Blandsford in Prince William County from Thomas Blackburn for 142 pounds in 1794 [DB Z:92-3]. He left a 16 March 1796 Prince William County will, proved 6 February 1797, by which he divided his land among his sons Thomas, Samuel, Semer and Anthony Lucas and his grandson Alexander Lucas after the death of his wife Rebecca. His land included the 142 acres he had purchased from Blackburn as well as another 57 acres he leased from Blackburn for three lives. He divided his estate among his children Thomas, Nancy, Dosha, Samuel, Semer, Tamer, Anthony, Rebecca, and his grandson Alexander Lucas after his wife's death. He appointed Bernard Hooe, Sr., executor. His estate was appraised at $642 [WB H:192-3, 211]. His widow Rebecca Lucas was taxable from 1797 to 1813, in a list of "FNs and Mulattoes" above the age of 16 in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1810, frames 18, 51, 65, 88, 128, 212, 246, 298, 327, 380, 493, 559, 695, 723] and head of a Prince William County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:524]. On 2 October 1826 the Fairfax County court issued a certificate of freedom to Rachel Lucas: (from an affidavit of Bernard Hooe) a bright mulatto woman, about twenty five years of age, five feet five and an half inches high...is daughter of Milly Lucas who by a judgment of the County Court of Prince William against Rebecca Lucas, administratrix of Anthony Lucas, deceased, received her freedom [Register of Free Negroes, 1822-61, no.62]. Anthony's children were

i. Nancy, born say 1777, in a list of "FNs and Mulattoes above the age of 16" in Prince William County in 1813, perhaps the mother of Alexander Lucas who was in the same list [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1810, frame 723].

ii. Thomas, born say 1780, taxable in Prince William County in 1798 and 1799 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1810, frames 352, 380].

iii. Samuel, born say 1783, taxable in Prince William County in 1800 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1810 frames 422], head of a Prince William County household of 7 in 1810 [VA:518].

iv. Dosha.

v. Semer.

vi. Tamer.

vii. Anthony3, in a list of "FNs and Mulattoes" above the age of 16 in Prince William County in 1813 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1810, frame 723].

viii. Rebecca.

 

7.    Daniel1 Lucas, born say 1745, and his wife Sarah were the "mollatto" parents of several children born in St. Peter's Parish, New Kent County [NSCDA, Parish Register of St. Peter's, 166]. He was taxable in New Kent County from 1782 to 1786, in 1790, and from 1793 to 1807: called Daniel Lucas, Sr., from 1798 to 1807; listed as a "M"(ulatto) starting in 1801 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1800, frames 8, 17, 90, 148, 211; 1791-1828, frames 269, 283, 296, 308, 319, 331, 344, 358, 371, 383, 396, 408, 420, 432]. Their children were

i. Thomas, born 7 May 1771, baptized 10 June 1771.

ii. Joseph3, born 7 February 1773, baptized 14 March 1773. He was taxable in New Kent County from 1793 to 1795, called Joseph Lucas, Jr. [Personal Property Tax List 1791-1828, frames 255, 269, 283].

iii. Daniel2, born 19 March 1775, taxable in New Kent County from 1798 to 1810: called Daniel Lucas, Jr., from 1797 to 1810; listed as a "M"(ulatto) starting in 1801 [Personal Property Tax List 1791-1828, frames 308, 319, 331, 344, 358, 371, 383, 396, 420, 432, 443, 455].

 

8.    Charles1 Lucas, born about 1746, received a certificate of freedom in Loudoun County on 13 May 1816: This day Robert Sears appeared and made Oath before me that Charles Lucas a Man of Colour Aged Upward of Seventy Years is a free man (& was born free) & Served Capt. Howsen Hoe of Prince William County--Untill he was thirty one years of Age, Agreeable to a former Law of the State of Virginia. He and his wife Nancy were identified in the 29 October 1811 Loudoun County certificate of freedom of their son William Lucas: I do certify that Charles Lucas and Nancy Lucas his wife has live near me for twenty odd years two mulattos I always believed them free born consequently the Bearer William Lucas being the son of the above must be born free...Henry Washington [Lucas, Townsend M., Loudoun County, Virginia, Records of Free Negroes, 1778-1838 (bound book at Thomas Balch Library in Loudoun County)]. He may have been identical to Charles Lucas who was taxable in Loudoun County in 1778 [Tithables 1758-1799, 857a]. He was taxable in the upper district of Prince William County from 1787 to 1810: listed with William Mitchell in 1787, called a "black" man in 1802 [PPTL, 1782-1810, frames 88, 128, 156, 222, 285, 352, 491, 545, 509, 723]. He was head of a Prince William County household of 15 "other free" in 1810 [VA:523]. He was a "F.N." taxable on his unnamed son in Loudoun County in 1811 [PPTL 1798-1812] and head of a Belmont County, Ohio household of 8 "free colored" in 1820, including a male and female over the age of forty-five. He was the father of

i. William, born 3 November 1788(?), registered in Loudoun County on 15 November 1811: a bright Mulatto aged 23(?) Years the 3rd Day of this Month about 5 feet 7 Inches high, was born free as is generally reputed that he well knows his reputed Father & Mother who considered as free, his Mother being a white woman [Lucas, Townsend M., Loudoun County, Virginia, Records of Free Negroes, 1778-1838, Numbered certificates, no. 333 (bound book at Thomas Balch Library in Loudoun County)]

ii. James, born about 1788, married Juda Grimes, 12 September 1814 Loudoun County bond.

iii. Eli, born about 1796, married Martha Barker.

iv. John, born about 1797.

 

9.    Anthony2 Lucas, born say 1750, may have been identical to Anthony Lucas who was one of Francis Peyton's tithables in Loudoun County in 1780 and 1784 [Tithables 1758-99, 985, 1184]. He was a "F.N." taxable in Loudoun County from 1788 to 1812: taxable on Samuel King's tithe and 5 horses in 1791, on John Butler's tithe and 6 horses in 1795 and 1796, on his son Thomas's tithe in 1803, taxable on his 2 unnamed sons from 1804 to 1806, taxable on Charles Hill's tithe in 1803 and 1804, listed with his son, a slave and 8 cattle in 1812 [PPTL 1787-97; 1798-1812] and head of a Loudoun County household of 11 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [VA:258]. He was the father of

i. Susannah, born 25 April 1793, daughter of Anthony Lucas, married Elihu Goins, and they registered as "free Negroes" in Loudoun County [Certificates of Free Negroes at the Loudoun County courthouse by Townsend Lucas].

 

10.    Mary Lucas, born say 1755, was a "free mulatto hireling" living in Richmond City with her unnamed six-year-old son and infant daughter in 1782 [VA:112]. She was head of a Henrico County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:993]. She may have been the mother of

i. Eliza, head of a Richmond City household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:321],

ii. Charity Lucis, head of a Richmond City household of 7 "other free" [VA:368].

 

11.    Valentine Locus, born say 1750, married Rachel Pettiford, 1780 Granville County bond. Rachel received a pension for his services in the Revolutionary War. He was living in Oxford District, Granville County, in 1790 [NC:91] and was head of a Wake County household of 8 "other free" in 1790 (abstracted as Valentine Dorus) [NC:106] and 9 "other free" in 1800 [NC:778]. He was taxable in Henry King's list for Wake County on 60 acres from 1793 to 1802 but not charged with poll tax in 1802 [MFCR 099.701.1, frames 54, 227, 253]. He was called an "aged free Negro, who resides on Leek Creek in Wake County" in the 6 October 1801 edition of the Raleigh Register which reported that four men entered his home with clubs, beat him and his wife until they were near death, and stole two of their children. Luckily, the children managed to escape later while their captives slept [Raleigh Register, October 6, 1801, cited by Franklin, Free Negro in North Carolina, 54]. According to Rachel's declaration on 24 May 1838 in Wake County court to obtain a pension, she was an eighty-year-old "free woman of color" whose husband died about a month before Christmas 1812. Bartlett Pettiford, "a person of respectability" testified that Rachel was his sister, that he had witnessed their marriage, and that they had eight children: Martin, Phereby, Kinchen, Nancy, Ruthy, Polly, Jordan, and Absalom [M805-533, frame 766]. Their children were

i. Martin, born about 1780, head of a Wake County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:778]. He married Molley Mitchell, 24 January 1800 Orange County bond, Lawrence Pettiford bondsman.

ii. Pheraby, also mentioned in Valentine's will. She married Jonathan George, 27 January 1802 Orange County bond, Lawrence Pettiford bondsman.

iii. Kinchen, head of a Nash County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:663].

iv. Nancy.

v. Ruthy, probably identical to Ruthy Lucas who married Brittain Pitman, 21 February 1815 Wake County bond, William Curtis bondsman. Brittain may have been the brother of Archibald Pitman, a "mulatto boy" aged five years the 26 December 1798, ordered bound to Nathan Bradley as an apprentice wheelwright by the Wednesday session of the August 1799 Edgecombe County court [Minutes 1797-1800, n.p.].

vi. Polly.

vii. Jordan.

viii. Absalom.

 

12.    James Locus, born say 1755, was taxable on six head of cattle in Nash County in 1784. He was head of a Nash County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:70] and 9 in 1800 [NC:108]. He died before 14 August 1809 when his orphans were bound by the Nash County court to Jesse Booth, Benjamin Tann, and John Locus [Rackley, Nash County North Carolina Court Minutes VI:71]. His children may have been

i. Berry, born about 1796, thirteen years old on 14 August 1809 when he was bound by the Nash County court to Jesse Booth until the age of twenty-one. He was married to Beady Taborn, daughter of Burrell Taborn, on 9 January 1842 when her brother Hardimon applied for a pension for their father's service in the Revolution [M804-2335, frame 744].

ii. Elijah, born about 1807, two years old on 14 August 1809 when he was bound to Jesse Booth.

iii. Susanna, born about 1798, about eleven years old on 14 August 1809 when she was bound to Benjamin Tann.

iv. John, born about 1799, about ten years old on 14 August 1809 when he was bound to Benjamin Tann.

v. James, born about 1801, about eight years old on 14 August 1809 when he was bound to John Locus.

vi. Obedience, born about 1805, four years old on 14 August 1809 when she was bound to John Locus.

 

13.    Joseph2 Lucas, born say 1760, was bound out in Cumberland County, Virginia, on 25 May 1761. He was a "yellow" complexioned man living in Powhatan County when he was listed as a soldier who served as a substitute in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 151]. He was a "free Bk" taxable in Powhatan County in 1790 [Personal Property Tax List, 1787-1825, frame 48]. He and his wife Lucy Lucas were the parents of William, Nancy, Josiah and Abraham Lucas (no race mentioned) whose births were registered in St. Peter's Parish, New Kent County, from 1786 to 1794 [NSCDA, Parish Register of St. Peter's, 166]. He was taxable in New Kent County from 1792 to 1809: called a "F. Negroe" in 1792 and 1794; taxable on 2 tithes in 1805 and 1806 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1800, frames 188, 211; 1791-1828, 269, 283, 296, 308, 319, 331, 344, 358, 383, 396, 408, 420, 432, 443]. He was called "Joseph Locust, free Negro" when he was taxable in the upper district of Henrico County in 1811 and 1812, charged with William Locust's tithe in 1812 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frames 666, 726]. He registered as a free Negro in Goochland County on 18 July 1809: five feet nine and an half inches high, about forty five years of age, short curled hair intermingled with Grey ... free born [Register of Free Negroes, p. 32]. He was head of a Henrico County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:998]. His children were

i. William, born 28 January 1786 [NSCDA, Parish Register of St. Peter's, 166], a "M"(ulatto) taxable in New Kent County from 1807 to 1810, taxable on a slave aged 12-16 and a horse in 1807 [Personal Property Tax List 1791-1828, frames 432, 443, 455]. He was a "free Negro" taxable in the upper district of Henrico County from 1811 to 1814: his tax charged to Joseph Locust in 1812; listed with his unnamed wife in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1814, frames 666, 726, 759, 824], head of a Henrico County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:1015]. He registered in Henrico County on 11 November 1831: age 44, a mullatto man, 5 feet 9-3/4 inches, Free as appears from his register from the County of New Kent [Register of Free Negroes and Mulattoes, 1831-1844, p.7, no. 638].

ii. Nancy, born 23 February 1788, perhaps the Nancy Lucas who was head of a Richmond City household of 4 "other free" and one slave in 1810 [VA:353].

iii. Josiah, born 8 December 1792.

iv. Abraham, born 5 October 1794.

 

Westmoreland and King George County, Virginia

1.    Elizabeth Lucus, born say 1717, the servant of John Footman, confessed to the Westmoreland County, Virginia court on 30 March 1736 that she had an illegitimate "Mulatto" child. The court ordered that she pay fifteen pounds after completing her indenture or be sold by the churchwardens of Cople Parish for five years [Orders 1731-9, 189a, 192a]. She and her children were listed in the inventory of John Footman's Westmoreland County estate which was taken on 21 March 1739/40:

1 Negro man named Sambo 26 pounds

1 Negro Boy named Anthony 10 pounds

1 white servant woman that has four years & a half to serve 9 pounds

1 Mulatto Boy named Nathaniel Lucas 15 pounds

1 Mulatto Boy named John Lucas 12 pounds

1 Mulatto Boy named Leonard Lucas 10 pounds

1 Mulatto Boy named Abraham Lucas 5 pounds

[Estate Settlements, Records, Inventories 1723-46, 221].

On 28 May 1745 she was presented by the court for "entertaining Negroes & Servants & keeping a disorderly house" [Orders 1743-7, 76, 178a]. She was the ancestor of

i. Nathaniel1, born say 1733, a "Mulatto" boy listed in the account of the estate of John Footman, Gent., on 21 March 1739/40. He was taxable in Westmoreland County from 1782 to 1815: taxable on 3 tithes from 1788 to 1790 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1815, frames 246, 327, 358, 372, 399, 696, 628, 784, 835]. He married Nelly Lawrence, 31 May 1791 Westmoreland County bond, John Lucas security. He was a "Molatto" farmer living with his wife Nelly Lucaus and children Meredith, Alcey, and Fanny Locust on William Fitzhugh's land in Westmoreland County in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31:42].

ii. John, born say 1735, a "Mulatto" boy listed in the account of the estate of John Footman, Gent., on 21 March 1739/40. He was probably the John Lucus who was taxable above Rappahannock Creek in Richmond County in 1782, and from 1787 to 1794: taxable on a horse and 10 cattle in 1782, taxable on John Lucus, Jr., Nathaniel Lucus and 2 horses in 1788 and 1789 [PPTL 1782-8, frames 629, 740, 748; 1789-1829, frames 15, 24, 44, 53, 73, 81].

iii. Leonard, born say 1737, a "Mulatto" boy listed in the account of the estate of John Footman, Gent., on 21 March 1739/40. He was taxable in King George County in 1782 [Fothergill, Virginia Taxpayers, 78] and taxable in Westmoreland County from 1787 to 1793: taxable on 2 tithes and 2 horses in 1791 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1815, frames 317, 346, 372, 399]. His widow may have been Milly Locus, a "Molatto" farmer living on Thomas Sanford's land in Westmoreland County in 1801 with children Mark, Naney, Dulcey, Harraway, and Betsey Locust [Virginia Genealogist 31:41]. She was head of a Westmoreland County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:777].

iv. Abraham, born say 1739, a "Mulatto" boy listed in the account of the estate of John Footman, Gent., on 21 March 1739/40. He was taxable in King George County from 1786 to 1795 [PPTL, 1782-1830, frames 35, 42, 60, 105, 118, 137], exempted from taxation by order of the King George County court on 3 July 1800. James Kendall sued him for trespass, but the jury found him not guilty on 3 December 1801 [Orders 1799-1805, 77, 259].

v. James, born say 1756, a seaman in the Revolution from King George County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40]. Perhaps he was identical to James Locust whose Westmoreland County tax was charged to David Ashton in 1787 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1815, frame 314]. He registered in King George County on 1 May 1800: a dark Mulatto man aged about ___ years, and about five feet ___ Inches, was bound to Thomas Massey, Senr. of this County to serve till the age of thirty one years [Register of Free Persons 1785-1799, no.12].

vi. John, born say 1760, served as a seaman in the Revolution from King George County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40]. He was a "free Neg" or "Black" taxable in Stafford County from 1783 to 1792: listed by John DeBaptist in 1787 [PPTL 1782-1813, frames 106, 151, 218, 226, 263]. He may have been the John Locus who was a "Molatto" farmer living in Westmoreland County with Margaret Locus and children Penny, Margaret, and Joyce Locus on D. McCarty's land in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31:41, 42]. He was taxable in Stafford County from 1803 to 1813, listed with wife Mary in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1813, frames 542, 553, 597, 672, 775, 834] and head of a Stafford County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:126]. Margaret Locus was taxable on a horse in the upper district of Westmoreland County from 1804 to 1807 [PPTL, 1782-1815, frames 606, 666] and head of a Westmoreland County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:777].

vii. Agatha, born say 1770, married Newman Harrison, 15 April 1791 Westmoreland County bond. He was called Newman Hammon in 1801 when he was counted with his wife Aggy in a List of "Free Mulattoes & Negroes in Westmoreland County" [Virginia Genealogist 31:42].

viii. Elizabeth, born say 1772, married Allen Ashton, 24 December 1793 Westmoreland County bond.

ix. Elizabeth, born say 1773, married Thomas Sorrell, 3 December 1794 Westmoreland County bond.

x. Spencer, born say 1780, taxable in Westmoreland County from 1801 to 1815 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1815, frames 551, 635, 784, 835], a "Molatto" working as a distiller for Daniel McCarty in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31:42].

xi. Anthony3, registered in King George County on 13 May 1800: a dark Mulatto man aged about ___ years & about five feet ___ Inches, was born in this County of a free woman [Register of Free Persons 1785-1799, no.13].

xii. Charles2, born about 1780, registered in King George County on 9 October 1800: a dark molatto man, aged about twenty years, & about five feet five inches high, was born in this County of a free malatto woman [Register of Free Persons 1785-1799, no.14]. He was head of a Spotsylvania County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:112b].

xiii. Barbary, born say 1780, a "Molatto" farmer living with children Rubin and George Locus on Thomas Sanford's land in Westmoreland County in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31:41]. She was head of a Westmoreland County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:777].

xiv. Philip, head of a King George County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:206].

xv. David, taxable in King George County from 1796 to 1803 [PPTL 1782-1830, frames 127, 178, 230], head of a King George County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:206].

xvi. Jane, born about 1780, registered in King George County on 7 September 1820: daughter of ___ Lucas, a dark mulatto about 40 years of age, 5' 1/12 Inch high ... born free in this County [Register of Free Persons 1785-1799, no.63].

xvii. Nathaniel2, taxable in Stafford County from 1809 to 1813: listed with wife Jenney in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1813, frames 714, 755, 775, 834] and head of a Stafford County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:128].

xviii. Leonard, a "Black" taxable in Stafford County in 1791, 1798, 1810 and 1813 [PPTL 1782-1813, frames 227, 407, 755, 834].

xix. Hannah, born say 1788, married Samuel Tate, 30 December 1809 Westmoreland County bond, Lawrence Ashton security.

xx. William, born about 1792, registered in King George County on 4 December 1817: a black man aged about Twenty five years, about five feet six and a half Inches high ... born of a free black woman [Register of Free Persons 1785-1799, no.49].

xxi. Harriet, born about 1796, registered in King George County in March 1820: a dark mulatto woman, about 24 years of age, about 5 feet high, stout made, born in this County of free Parents [Register of Free Persons, 1785-99, no.57].

 

Other members of the Lucas family in Virginia were

i. Samuel, head of a Loudoun County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [VA:258].

ii. Catey, "F. Negroe," head of a Fauquier County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:379].

iii. Francis, "F. Negro," head of a Fairfax County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:276].

iv. William, head of a Prince William County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:523].

 

LONGO FAMILY

1.    Anthony Longo, born say 1625, was called Tony Longo "a negro" on 1 February 1647 when the Northampton County, Virginia court ordered him to pay his debt of 384 pounds of tobacco to Francis White. He was taxable on one tithe in Northampton County in 1660 [Orders 1657-64, 102]. Edmund Morgan in American Slavery - American Freedom quoted a confrontation that Anthony had with a Northampton County court official as evidence that racism had not yet taken hold on the Eastern Shore in the seventeenth century and how quickly Africans assumed typical English disdain for authority:

Anthony Longo: What shall I go to Mr. Walkers for: go about your business you idle rascal: I told him I had a warrant for him: shitt of your warrant have I nothing to do but go to Mr. Walker, go about your business you idle rascal as did likewise his wife, with such noise that I could hardly hear my own words, when I had done reading the warrant: stroke at me, and gave me some blows [Orders DW&c 1654-5, 60a].

He was apparently the father of

2        i. James1, born say 1652.

 

2.    James1 Longo born say 1652, was a tithable head of household in Accomack County from 1676 to 1692 [Orders 1676-78, 32, 58, 1678-82, 17, 101; W&cO 1682-97, 192, 228a, 258a]. He was a delinquent Accomack County militiaman in January 1685. On 20 September 1687 he and Jane Fitzgerald posted bond for Dorothy Bestick, servant of George Nicholas Hack of Pungoteague, who was presented by the court for having an illegitimate child by "George Francis Negro Slave to ye sd Geo Nich Hack." In 1687 Dorothy bound her daughter Sarah to him until the age of eighteen years [W&cO 1682-97, 57, 119a, 142a]. On 20 September 1687 James was fined 100 pounds of tobacco for assaulting Richard Shulster. Shulster testified that when he passed by James Longo's house on horseback,

James ... leaped over his fence furiously ... laye hold of ye Deponts. horses bridle ... calling the deponent Rogue, Rascall, and severall other scurrilous words over and over againe threatning to beate him and asked me why I did not come to pay him a dayes work ... layd his hands on my shoulder in a violent manner ... caused great paine.

The next day he brought suit in court against Shulster. He was sued by William Twyford on 20 November 1689 for failing to perform carpentry work which he had contracted for, and on 16 June 1691 the Accomack County court presented him for working on holy days [W&cO 1682-97, 119, 170a]. He was called James Longo, "the Molatta," on 21 February 1694 when he was presented by the grand jury for turning a road which passed through his land [Orders 1690-7, 32, 123a, 124a]. On 2 April 1706 he petitioned the Accomack County court to permit him to turn this road. The court gave him permission to do so as long as the new road was as near to or nearer to Pungoteague and was well maintained. The court was not satisfied with the new road, and on 9 October 1707 the justices ordered him to reopen the original road. On 5 May 1708 he posted bond for the illegitimate child he had by Isabel Hutton (a white woman) who was presented by the court on 3 June 1707 for having a "Mulatto Bastard Child." On 5 May 1708 she testified in Accomack County court that James Longo, "negro or mullatto," was the father of the child she was pregnant with, and on 5 August the same year she was called "Isabel Hutton who lives at James Longoes" when she was convicted of "having a Bastard Child by a Mulatto." The same court ordered that he be arrested for acting in a contemptuous manner when an officer of the court attempted to serve him with a warrant [Orders 1703-9, 68, 74, 98, 101a, 114, 114a, 122, 125]. He left a 13 August 1729 Accomack will, proved 1 September 1730. He left 70 acres of his land to his son James, 70 acres to his daughter Mary Huten, and 70 acres to his daughter Elizabeth, and the remainder of his estate to his wife Isabel. His wife and daughters were executrices of the will [Wills 1729-37, pt.1, 101]. His children were

i. ?Ann Longo, born say 1683, a "Mallatta Woman" living at William Smith's who was presented by the Prince George's County, Maryland court on 28 March 1703/4 for having an illegitimate child. She was called "Ann Congo," servant of William Smith, on 22 August 1704 when he paid her fine [Court Record 1699-1705, 289a, 309a].

ii. James2, taxable head of a Matapony Hundred, Somerset County, Maryland household in 1727, and head of a household in Wicomoco Hundred from 1731 to 1740. In March 1740/1 Thomas and William Selby were indicted by the Somerset County court for stealing seven turkeys from him [Judicial Record 1740-2, 92, 96]

iii. Elizabeth.

iv. Mary Hutton, born about 1708. Her descendants were John Hutton, head of a Washington, D.C. household of 1 "other free" in 1800 and Sarah Hutton, head of a Kent County, Delaware household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [DE:198].

 

Their Longo descendants were

i. Daniel, "Mulatto" taxable in Little Creek Hundred, Kent County, Delaware, in 1797 and 1798 [Assessments, frames 7, 483].

 

LOWRY FAMILY

A history of the Lowry family was written in 1895 by Mrs. Mary C. Norment, a resident of Robeson County whose husband was killed by one of James Lowry's great grandsons. Her book, The Lowrie History, was based solely on the hearsay of older members of Robeson County. She described James Lowry as a

well proportioned, fine looking, respectable mulatto ... characterized by elegance and refinement of manners, tall and commanding in personal appearance, urbane, courtly and genteel in his whole deportment

who told Robeson County residents that he was the son of a white man, Judge Lowry of Virginia, and his slave. He was manumitted by his father in Bute County and in 1769 moved with Silas Atkins to the part of Bladen County which later became Robeson County. He farmed and kept a tavern during the Revolutionary War. His wife was Sarah Kersey who was described by Norment as a "half breed Tuscarora Indian." James Lowry had three sons: William, Thomas, and James. Thomas married Nancy Deas, a white woman, and James never married. William was a Revolutionary War veteran who married Betty Locklear, "a half-breed Tuscarora Indian." William's son, Allen, married Polly Cumbo, a Portuguese woman, and they had four children who were members of a "robber band" which revenged the killing of Allen Lowry.

The most obvious discrepancies in this history are

1.    There were no Lowrys in the 1767-1779 Bute County court records or the 1771 Bute County tax lists. Manumission was illegal in North Carolina without permission from the General Assembly. No such manumission was recorded in the colonial records of the General Assembly.

2.    The Kersey family were not Tuscarora Indians. They were a mixed-race family descended from Peter Kersey, "a Negroe" living in Surry County, Virginia, on 4 March 1678 when the court ordered him to return his son John Kersy to the estate of Judith Parker, deceased [Haun, Surry County Court Records, III:240].

3.    Nancy Deas was not white, nor was Betty Locklear a Tuscarora Indian. They were probably descendants of Benjamin Dees, Edward Locklear, Tiely Locklear, and Major Locklear, "free Negors and Mullatus" living in Bladen County on 13 October 1773 [N.C. Archives File G.A. 1773, Box 7].

4.    Polly Cumbo was not Portuguese. She was a descendant of Emanuel Cumbo, a "Negro" who was granted a patent for 50 acres in James City County on 18 April 1667 [Patent 6:39].

The Lowry family history according to the surviving records is as follows.

1.    James1 Lowry, born say 1735, received a grant for land in Bladen County on 26 October 1767 [DB 23:216-7], and between 1770 and 1772 he received patents on more than one thousand acres of land in Bladen County [Hoffman, Land Patents, II:191, 221, 356, 600]. He was taxable in Bladen County with his wife from 1768 to 1774 ("Mulates"), taxable on William Jones, a "Mulato," from 1768 to 1771, taxable on a slave named Jack in 1769 and on Jack and a slave named Hansom in 1776. In 1779 he was taxable on two slaves, 400 acres of improved land, four horses, and 100 head of cattle [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:5, 17, 45, 60, 123, 136; II:63, 84, 101, 115]. He sold more than 300 acres, part on Drowning Creek and part on Raft Swamp, by deeds dated 7 January 1772, May 1772, no month 1772, and 29 January 1773 but was still taxable on 400 acres in 1784. He received a patent for 100 acres on Middle Swamp on 7 November 1784 and sold it on 27 June 1785. He purchased 100 acres on the north side of Drowning Creek in 1786 [DB 1:4, 183; 23:216, 217, 431, 299]. On 1 April 1805 the Robeson County court appointed him overseer of the road from his house to the house where Neil Buie formerly lived, a position usually reserved for whites [Minutes I:321]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 6 "other free" and 3 slaves in 1790 [NC:49] and 6 "other free" and 6 slaves in 1800 [NC:389]. By his 13 March 1810 Robeson County will he left land and nine slaves to his wife, not named, and his children [WB 1:121]. His wife was most likely Celia Lowry who was appointed administratrix of his estate by the Robeson County court on 26 November 1810 [Minutes II:207]. His children were

2        i. William, born say 1754.

ii. Thomas, born say 1760. He purchased land in Robeson by deeds proved on 9 October 1800, 7 October 1805, and 5 Oct 1807 [Minutes I:128, 339; II:52] and purchased 100 acres on the north side of Back Swamp from Ishmael Chavers on 17 May 1804 [DB O:163]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:389] and 5 whites and 1 "other free" in 1810 [NC:220]. Nancy Deas was living with him on 24 November 1812 when the Robeson County court ordered her to bring two of her illegitimate children by James Lowry to the next court [Minutes 1806-13, 351].

3        iii. James2, born before 1776.

iv. Mary.

v. Ceily, head of a Robeson County household of 6 whites and 10 slaves in 1810 [NC:219]. She was called Celia, Junr., in a deed to her from her brother James Lowery, proved in Robeson County in February 1827 [Minutes 1829-39, 142]. She died before August 1829 when her lands were ordered partitioned among her brothers: Thomas, William, and James [Minutes 1829-39, 20].

 

2.    William Lowry, born say 1754, was called the son of James Lowry in an 18 February 1775 deed by which he purchased land in Bladen County from Ann Perkins. He sold land in Bladen County shortly afterwards on 2 May 1775 [DB 23:481-2; 36:381] and was head of a Bladen County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:9] and 9 "free colored" in Robeson County in 1820 [NC:304]. On 23 August 1831 he challenged the right of his brother Thomas to administer the estate of their younger brother James2, claiming that he as elder brother should have been administrator. However, the court ruled that Thomas was more competent. William's children were

i. ?Daniel, married Betsey Locklear, 2 July 1805 Robeson County bond.

4        ii. Allen, born say 1795.

iii. ?Alfred, born say 1802, not mentioned in the Lowrie History. William transferred land to him by deed proved in November 1829.

 

3.    James2 Lowery, born before 1776, sold 50 acres on Ashpole Swamp in Robeson County to Emmanuel Carter by a deed proved in 1797 [DB G:142]. He sold two tracts of land to Malcolm Locklear, one for 100 acres on the east side of Juniper Branch on 27 May 1801 and one for 177 acres adjoining this land on 4 October 1803 and purchased land by deed proved on 7 October 1807 and 27 August 1811 [DB L:20; N:187-190; Minutes I:340; II:280]. He was head of a household of 3 male and 2 female "free colored" and 9 slaves in 1820 [NC:294]. According to Mrs. Norment he did not marry. However, Robeson County records indicate otherwise. After his death, Doctor Edmund McLucen was appointed guardian to Catherine, "an infant daughter the only legitimate child of James Lowrie decd" in Tuesday court, February 1833. His wife probably predeceased him since she was not mentioned. In addition, he had at least six bastard children by several Robeson County women. Administration on his estate was granted to his brother Thomas Lowery on 22 August 1831 on a bond of 700 pounds. His administrator sold some of his land and one of his slaves, Dick, by deed proved on 28 November 1831 in order to pay the debts of the estate [Minutes 1829-39, 106]. About 1,100 acres of land remained for his daughter Catherine [Minutes 1839-43, 39]. Some of his children were

i. a child by Sarah Hammons, who the 27 August 1810 Robeson County court ordered him to support [Minutes II:217].

ii. a child by Ann Deas, who he was ordered to support on 27 August 1811 [Minutes II:217].

iii. Parker Deas, a child by Nancy Deas [Minutes II:328, 351].

iv. Sally Deas, a child by Nancy Deas [Minutes II:328, 351].

v. a child by Eliza Carter, charged to him by the 24 November 1812 Robeson County court [Minutes II:350].

vi. Turner, an illegitimate son by Mary Sweat charged to him by the May 1833 Robeson County court.

vii. Catherine, his only legitimate child.

 

4.    Allen Lowry, born about 1795, married Catherine Locklear, 27 April 1816 Robeson County bond. Allen's father William Lowry transferred land to him by deeds proved in Robeson in Wednesday court 1837 and November court 1838 [Minutes 1829-39]. He was a fifty-five-year-old "Mulatto" carpenter with $334 in real estate when he was counted in the Southern Division of the 1850 Robeson County census with forty-year-old (wife?) Mary Lowrie and (sons?) James, Calvin, Thomas, Stephen and Henry B. Lowrie [NC:827 (family no. 939]. He and his son William, suspected of supporting the Union cause, were murdered by the white Home Guard near the end of the Civil War in March 1865. His son Henry Berry Lowry led a band of his relatives and friends who killed or drove from the county all those responsible for the murders. According to reporter Alfred Townsend, Allen married Mary Combes (Cumbo?) and was the father of Patrick, Purdie, Andrew, Sinclair, William, Thomas, Stephen, Calvin, Henry Berry, and Mary [Townsend, The Swamp Outlaws, 47]. Four of his children were part of the infamous Lowry band:

i. William.

ii. Steve.

iii. Thomas.

iv. Henry Berry, who was probably named for the Berry or Oberry family. He led the band from 1864 to 24 February 1874. According to tradition the band included his brothers and Calvin and Henderson Oxendine, William Chavis (a "bright mulatto" who was married to a Lowry), George Applewhite (a former slave), Shoemaker John (a "regular negro"), Boss and Andrew Strong, and Zack T. McLaughlin (a "low-bred" Scottish youth). Most of the African Americans of the county sympathized with their cause [Norment, The Lowrie History, 7-8]. (Boss and Andrew Strong may have been related to John Strong who married Mary Gibson in Richmond County between 1 December 1787 and 1 December 1788 [Fayetteville District Papers, D.C.R. 4.008 by NCGSJ XII:168].)

 

LUGROVE FAMILY

1.    Bridget Lugrove, alias Churchhouse, born say 1668, the servant of Thomas Chamberlayne, confessed in Henrico County court on 1 October 1687 that she had been delivered a bastard child. She petitioned the court for her freedom on 1 December 1691, but her master informed the court that she had delivered a second bastard child for which the court ordered she serve an additional two years. On 16 May 1692 she was presented by the court for having a child by a "Negro" [Orders 1678-93, 248, 396, 406, 419, 421, 435]. She was probably the mother of

i. Jane, born say 1691, petioned the court against her master Thomas Chamberlayne in August 1712. She was discharged from his service in September 1712 [Orders 1710-4, 172, 185].

 

LYNAM FAMILY

1.    Margaret1 Lynrum, born say 1755, was a "Mullatto Girl" given by Peter Routt to his daughter Hannah Wickers by his Stafford County will dated 25 March 1765 and proved 14 October 1765. He also left his son William Routt "one Mullatto Boy named Francis Lynrun." Margaret was valued at 25 pounds and Francis was valued at 28 pounds in the inventory of Peter Routt's estate in October 1766 [Deed Book, Wills Liber O, 1748-63, 493, 816]. Peggy Lynem was living in Botetourt County on 9 September 1779 when the court bound her "Mulatto" daughter Agnes to James Curry [Orders 1776-80, 305]. She was head of a Jessamine County, Kentucky household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [KY:50]. She was the mother of

i. Agnes, born say 1774.

ii. ?Thomas, born before 1776, head of a Fayette County, Kentucky household of 3 "free colored" men, one over the age of fifty-five, and a white woman.

2        iii. ?Francis2, born about 1777.

iv. ?Joseph, a "free man of color," was taxable in Bourbon County, Kentucky, from 1792 to 1799 and head of a Stoner District, Kentucky household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [KY:96].

v. ?Dennis, taxable in Fleming County, Kentucky, died after being stabbed by James Flanagan of Clark County on 24 September 1804 according to the 9 October 1804 issue of the Kentucky Gazette. He had a son Dennis Lynam born in 1803.

 

2.    Francis2 Lynam, born about 1777, was taxable in Bourbon County in 1799 and 1800, and head of a Harrison County, Kentucky household of 10 "free colored" in 1820. His infant children Katey and Jehentha were apprenticed to Leander Ayres, shoemaker and "free man of color," by the Harrison County court [Record Book D, 1820-8, 321]. Francis was the father of

i. Susanna, born about 1803, married Leander Ayers in April 1818 in Harrison County, Kentucky, Francis Lynam witness.

ii. Katey, born about 1812.

iii. Jehentha, born about 1815.

iv. Martha Ann, born about 1822. The October 1827 session of the Harrsion County court ordered Leander Ayres to show cause why Martha Ann should not be bound out [Record Book D 1820-8, 417].

Endnote:

1.    More on the Kentucky history of the Lynam family is available from descendant Keith Josef Adkins keithjosef@usa.net

 

LYNCH FAMILY

1.    Ann Lynch, born say 1750, was listed in George Payne's Goochland County household in 1774 [List of Tithables 1767-1780, frame 282]. She was indentured to George Payne in Goochland County in September 1773 when her son Thomas (no race mentioned) was also bound apprentice to Payne [Orders 1771-78, 360]. Thomas was baptized on 22 April 1775, "a mulatto of Co: Paynes." Ann married Bristol Matthews on 25 September 1775, "Mulattoes, he in this parish and she in Hanover" [Jones, The Douglas Register, 348, 347]. Ann was the mother of

2        i. ?Polly, born say 1768.

ii. Thomas, born Whitsunday 1772, baptized 22 April 1775, married Sally Banks, daughter of John Banks, 29 July 1801 Goochland County bond, Edward Fuzmore surety, 29 July marriage [Minister's Returns, 78]. He was taxable in the upper district of Goochland County from 1791 to 1814: his tax charged to Agatha Payne from 1791 to 1797, charged with his own tax in 1798, a "Mulatto" planter on Thomas Thurston's land in 1804, listed with wife Sally in 1813 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1809, frames 286, 302, 346, 470, 484, 672, 692, 744, 785, 828, 870; 1810-32, frames 11, 77, 102, 165, 198]. He was head of a Goochland County household of 6 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [VA:701]. His wife Sally Lynch registered as a free Negro in Goochland County on 5 September 1829: yellow complexion, about fifty years of age, about five feet three & an half inches high [Register of Free Negroes, p.202]. Perhaps they were the parents of Edmund Lynch, head of a Campbell County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:853].

iii. ?Robert, born say 1773, head of a Goochland County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:701].

3        iv. ?Patsy, born say 1774.

 

2.    Polly Lynch, born say 1768, was a "Mulatto" spinner living at Sarah Bowles' in the upper district of Goochland County from 1804 to 1814: taxable on John Lynch's tithe in 1804 and 1805, charged with Billy Lynch's tithe and a slave above the age of sixteen in 1811 and 1812, charged with J. Brooks' tithe and a slave in 1814 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1809, frames 692, 744, 828, 870; 1810-32, frames 77, 102, 199]. She was the mother of

i. ?John, born say 1787, taxable in the upper district of Goochland County from 1804 to 1814, a "Mulatto" blacksmith on John Richards, Jr.'s land in 1806 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1809, frames 785, 827; 1810-32, frames 102, 199].

ii. ?William, born say 1790, taxable in the upper district of Goochland County from 1807 to 1814: a "free boy" listed with John Glass in 1807, listed with Polly Lynch in 1811, a "Mulatto" blacksmith at N. Perkins' in 1813 and 1814 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1809, frames 824; 1810-32, frames 77, 165, 199].

iii. Nancy, born say 1794, daughter of Polly Lynch, married Elisha Banks, 10 March 1813 Goochland County bond, Robert Lynch surety, 11 March marriage, "both people of color."

 

3.    Patsy Lynch, born say 1774, was head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [NC:324]. She charged James Weaver with bastardy in Halifax County court on 24 May 1798. Their son was probably Charles Lynch, two months and eleven days old, who was ordered bound apprentice to James Weaver on the same day to learn the trade of cooper [Minutes 1796-98]. She was the mother of

i. ?Stephen, born 1776-1794, head of a Halifax County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:155] and 11 in 1830.

ii. ?Mary, born 1776-1794, head of a Halifax County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:155].

iii. ?Nancy, born 1794-1806, head of a Halifax County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830.

iv. Charles, born in March 1798, two months and eleven days old on 24 May 1798 when he was bound apprentice to (his father) James Weaver by the Halifax County court. He married Lizzy Coley, 27 May 1817 Halifax County bond and was head of a Halifax County household of 4 "free colored" in 1830.

 

LYONS FAMILY

1.    Elizabeth Armfield, born say 1742, was sued for trespass, assault and battery in York County by Anne Gwinn and her "next friend" Jane Savy (Savoy) on 16 May 1763. She was found guilty and ordered to pay 20 shillings [Judgments & Orders 1763-5, 14, 37]. She was called "a free mulatto" when she registered the birth of her son James in Bruton Parish in 1766. She sued Samuel Timson in York County court for trespass, assault and battery on 18 September 1769 [Judgments & Orders 1768-70, 351, 406]. She was taxable on her property in York County from 1782 to 1803: on 13 cattle in 1782, on between one and two slaves from 1792 to 1797, on two free tithables in 1802, and was called Betty Lyons in 1790, 1791 and 1793 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-41, frames 69, 72, 106, 138, 147, 163, 173, 180, 193, 199, 209, 218, 227, 274, 284]. Elizabeth probably had children by William Lyon, Jr., who was sued by her father Daniel Armfield for trespass, assault and battery on 19 December 1763 [Judgments & Orders 1763-5, 126, 171]. She was called Betty Armfield when she was head of a York County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:870]. Her children were

i. ?Milly Armfield, born say 1760, a "Poor orphan" ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Bruton Parish on 19 May 1760 [Judgments & Orders 1759-63, 143].

ii. James Armfield, born 16 March 1766, "Bastard son of Elizabeth Armfield" [Bruton Parish Register, 27], called James Lyons when he was taxable in York County in 1788 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frame 141]. Peter and Robert Gillett sued James Lyon and Charles Orrell in York County court for trespass, assault and battery on 22 November 1787 [Orders 1784-7, 520].

iii. Daniel2 Armfield, born 15 February 1768, baptized 3 April [Bruton Parish Register, 32], called Daniel Lyons when he was taxable in York County from 1788 to 1814, taxable on a slave from 1795 onwards [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frames 141, 152, 163, 211, 221, 230, 238, 245, 256, 266, 277, 287, 297, 307, 328, 391, 408]. On 22 November 1796 the York County court awarded Peter Hailey 25 pounds in his suit against Daniel Lyons for trespass, assault and battery. Daniel then brought a suit in chancery to stay the execution of the judgment, and this case was continued until 19 November 1798 when Daniel was again found guilty [Orders 1795-1803, 138, 144, 192, 239, 249, 250, 292-3].

iv. ?Matthew2 Armfield, born about 1779.

v. ?Warren Armfield, born say 1781, taxable in York County in 1803 and 1805 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frames 284, 304].

vi. John Lyons, born 22 January 1783, baptized 26 March 1783, son of Betty Armfield [Bruton Parish Register, 35].

vii. ?Martha Armfield, taxable in York County on one free tithable in 1803 and on one free tithable and a slave in 1805 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frames 284, 304].

viii. ?William Lyons, born about 1787, registered in York County on 16 December 1822: a bright Mulatto about 35 years of age ... has short hair ... born free. When William renewed his registration nine years later on 28 September 1831, the clerk added the notation: since the above has become bald, wears whiskers, grey Beard & much the appearance of an Indian [Free Negro Register, 1798-1831, no. 194].

ix. ?Nancy Lyons, head of a Richmond City household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:340].

 

Endnote:

1.    The Lyon family may have originated in Rhode Island. Enoch Lyon left a 2 December 1788 Yorktown, York County will by which he left all his estate to his friend William Gossley who was to repay the Synagogue of Newport, Rhode Island, 10 pounds per annum for supporting and burying his deceased mother [W&I 23:621-2].

 

LYTLE FAMILY

1.    Frank Lytle, born about 1774, was freed in 1795 after the death of his master, Thomas Lytle of Randolph County, North Carolina. Thomas Lytle came to North Carolina from Pennsylvania about 1760. His family was probably responsible for the freedom of the two "other free" Little families in Pennsylvania in 1790:

i. George, head of a Bedford County household of 9 "other free."

ii. James, head of a Westmoreland County household of 1 "other free."

 

Before his death Thomas Lytle required his heirs and executors to sign a bond on 25 January 1794 to give Frank his freedom and 200 acres. The General Assembly passed a bill which legalized his freedom on 24 January 1795 for "meritorious Services" [by Rik Vigeland in North Carolina African American Historical & Genealogical Society Journal, V, no.1, p.4]. On 20 March 1795 Thomas' wife Catherine and his executors deeded the 200 acres on Caraway to him:

for and in consideration of fidelity of Frank Lytle to his former master and also desire of said master that he should be provided for [DB 6:72].

And they deeded an additional 132 acres on the waters of the Uwharrie River to him for the same consideration a month later on 20 April 1795 [DB 6:73]. He purchased 175 acres on the Caraway for $500 in 1806 and another 220 acres for $275 in 1831 [DB 12:113; 19:18]. He was counted in the 1860 Randolph County census as a "Mulatto," born in North Carolina, with $6,000 real estate [NC:157]. According to the 1870 mortality schedule for Randolph County he died in September 1869 at the age of ninety-five. His children married whites and light-skinned African Americans, and most of his ancestors were considered white [NCAAHGS V, no.1, p.4]. His children were

i. Francis Jr, head of a Randolph County household of 5 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. Elizabeth, married William Walden, Sr., 6 February 1819 Randolph County bond.

iii. Albert, head of a Randolph County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830.

iv. Catherine Lytle.

v. Deborah Robbins, married Emsley Robbins on 30 June 1827. He was the son of Ezekiel Robbins and Mary Arnold [NCAAHGS V, no.1, 7].

vi. Dorcas Swaney.

vii. Mary Laughlin.

viii. Alfred.

ix. Rebecca Lytle.

 

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