NASH FAMILY

Members of the Nash family were

1        i. John, born say 1752.

ii. James, born say 1754, a "Mulata" boy bound apprentice by the 1 September 1761 New Hanover County, North Carolina court: _ah Hand brought into Court a Mulata boy born of ___ oman, Named James Nash praying he may be bound __ him ... [Minutes 1738-69, 203].

2        iii. Thomas, born say 1762.

 

1.    John1 Nash, born say 1752, was taxable in Chesterfield County on one tithe and a horse in 1792 and 1793 and two tithes and two horses in 1794 [Personal Property Tax List, 1786-1811, frames 145, 183, 219]. He may have been the father of

i. Moses, born say 1773, a "Mulatto" taxable in Chesterfield County in 1805, 1806 and 1807, called Moses Ash in 1811 when he was laborer living with his wife and three children on Samuel Davis's land [Personal Property Tax List, 1786-1811, frames 603, 641, 689, 824]. He was called Moses Nash in 1813 when he was a "free Negrow" tithable living on Samuel Davis's land [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List]. He and Nathaniel Stewart were security for the 4 March 1812 Chesterfield County marriage bond of Mima Norton and Isham D. Valentine.

 

2.    Thomas Nash, born say 1762, (called Thomas Ash) was head of an Opelousas, Louisiana household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [LA:316]. He was counted as white in Natchitoches in 1820 [LA:92] and 1830: born 1760-70, head of a household of 5 persons [LA:58]. He was the father of

i. Mary, born 6 June 1781, daughter of Thomas Nash, married James Groves [Wise, Sweat Families of the South, 120]. James was head of a Natchitoches, Louisiana household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [LA:325].

 

Mecklenburg County, Virginia

1.    Elizabeth Naish/ Nash, born say 1778, was head of a Mecklenburg County household of a white woman 26-45 years of age in 1820 [VA:141a]. She was taxable on her son Irbey and 2 horses in 1812 [Personal Property Tax List, 1806-28, frame 293]. She rented land in Mecklenburg County from Jacob Chavis from about 1800 to 1819 [LVA chancery file 1819-006]. She was the mother of

i. ?John, born about 1794, registered in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 28 October 1826: a free mulatto about thirty two years old, five feet six and three eighths Inches high ... born of a free Woman in this County [Register of Free Negroes 1809-41, no.16, p.20]. He married Olive Ivey, 1823 Mecklenburg County bond.

ii. Irbey, born about 1795, head of a Mecklenburg County household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:141a]. He married Ann Dunston, 1830 Mecklenburg County bond. He and Ann were counted as "Mulatto" in the 1850 Mecklenburg County census [VA:138b].

iii. ?Willie, bound by the Mecklenburg County court to Jacob Chavous, wheelwright, on 12 October 1807 [Orders [Orders 1807-9, 239].

iv. ?Archibald, bound by the Mecklenburg County court to Jacob Chavous, wheelwright, on 12 September 1808 [Orders [Orders 1807-9, 467].

v. ?Banister, married Temperance Dunston, 1835 Mecklenburg County bond.

vi. ?Luvenia, born say 1808, married John Chavous, 24 February 1829 Mecklenburg County bond.

 

Another member of the Nash family in Mecklenburg County was

i. Mary, born about 1787, a sixty-three-year-old "Mulatto" counted in the 1850 Mecklenburg County census [VA:139b].

 

NEAL FAMILY

Members of the Neal family were

i. John, born say 1738, a "Mulatto boy" valued at 10 pounds in the 1 April 1748 inventory of the King George County, Virginia estate of Robert Rankins. He was called a "Mulatto Boy named Jno. Neal under indentures for 31 years from his birth" in the 2 June 1749 inventory of the King George County estate of George Harrison [Inventories 1745-65, 28, 45].

1        ii. William, born say 1740.

 

1.    William Neal, born say 1740, was a "mulatto" taxable in New Hanover County, North Carolina, in 1763 [SS 837] and in Brunswick County, North Carolina, in 1769 [NCGSJ V:242]. He may have been the father of

i. Arthur, head of a Richland District, South Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [SC:60].

ii. S., head of a Brunswick County, North Carolina household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:226].

iii. Nancy, head of a Darlington District, South Carolina household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [SC:669].

iv. James, head of a Darlington District, South Carolina household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [SC:669].

v. Benjamin, head of a Marlboro District, South Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [SC:60], 4 in Richland District in 1810 [SC:177], perhaps the Benjamin Neale who was head of a Craven County, North Carolina household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:65].

 

NEWMAN FAMILY

1.    Maria Newman, born say 1735, was the servant of Thomas Maccatee on 10 June 1755 when she confessed in Charles County, Maryland court that she had a "Mollatto" child. The court bound her four-month-old son William to her master until the age of thirty-one [Court Record 1755-6, 127, 180]. She was the mother of

2        i. William1, born in February 1755.

ii. ?Benjamin, head of a Montgomery County, Maryland household of 10 "other free" in 1790.

3        ii. ?Isaac, born before 1776.

 

2.   William1 Newman, born in February 1755, was a "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 4 "other free" in 1790, 6 in 1800 [MD:515], and 3 in 1810 [MD:303]. He may have been the William Newman (born before 1776) who was a "man of colour" taxable on 2 horses in Harrison County, Virginia, from 1814 to 1818 [PPTL 1809-18, frames 222, 294, 387, 411] and head of a Randolph County, Virginia household of 2 "free colored" in 1830 [VA:130] and 1840 [VA:273]. And he may have been the father of

i. John, a "man of colour" taxable on a horse in Harrison County, Virginia, from 1814 to 1818 [PPTL 1809-18, frames 222, 294, 387, 411].

ii. Samuel, born about 1798, married Susanna Cook, 15 May 1822 Randolph County bond. He was head of an Eastern District, Monongalia County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830 [VA:362], a fifty-two-year-old "Mulatto" counted in the 1850 census for the eastern part of Monongalia County in 1850 with "Mulatto" Susanna (both born in Virginia) with $100 real estate [family no. 116].

iii. Elisha, born about 1799, head of a Randolph County household of 12 "free colored" in 1840 [VA:272], a "Mulatto" farmer with $1,000 real estate when he was counted in the 1850 census for Barbour County. He had $1,500 real estate in the Philippi, Barbour County census in 1860 [VA:51].

 

3.    Isaac Newman, born before 1776, was a "Free Negro" taxable on 2 horses in Loudoun County, Virginia, in 1813 [PPTL 1813-25], a "man of Colour" taxable on 3 horses in Harrison County, Virginia, from 1814 to 1818 [PPTL 1809-18, frames 222, 293, 320, 387, 411] and head of an Eastern District, Harrison County household of 8 "free colored" in 1830 [VA:324a]. He may have been the father of

i. Timothy, born about 1803, head of a Harrison County household of 5 "free colored" in 1830 [VA:324a], a forty-seven-year-old "Mulatto" counted in the Barbour County census with (wife?) Elizabeth and $800 real estate [VA:90b, family no. 1232].

ii. Alexander, head of a Harrison County household of 2 "free colored" in 1830 [VA:324a].

 

NEWSOM FAMILY

1.    Moses1 Newsom, born about 1710, was the (white) son of Thomas Newsom (William, William) of Isle of Wight County, Virginia, and his wife Elizabeth Crawford [Genealogy of Virginia Families IV:499-500]. He was mentioned in the 18 September 1752 Southampton County will of his mother Elizabeth Newsom [WB 1:175]. He purchased 150 acres on the south side of the Nottoway River in Isle of Wight County from his father for 5 shillings on 21 February 1736 and sold this land "conveyed to sd Moses Newsom by Thomas Newsom, father of the sd Moses" on 22 July 1745 [DB 5:94; 7:143]. This part of Isle of Wight County became Southampton County when it was formed in 1749. On 20 August 1744 he purchased 150 acres near this land, just across the county line in Northampton County, North Carolina, on the south side of Meherrin River near Kirby's Creek. He sold half this land on 25 February 1757 and purchased another acre on Ivey Branch from Over Jordan for 2-1/2 shillings for use as a water grist mill on 3 November 1760 [DB 1:135; 2:365; 3:87]. He died before May 1764 when his wife Judah was granted administration of his estate on 150 pounds bond in the Northampton County court [NCGSJ XIV:157]. The court sold the grist mill and the other 75 acres of her land on 20 October 1766 to pay her deceased husband's debts [DB 4:7]. Judah was apparently African American since their children were counted as African American. They were most likely

2        i. John, born say 1731.

3        ii. Moses2, born say 1735, died 1805.

iii. James1, born say 1740, purchased 103 acres on 3 December 1761 near Nathan Stancell's corner, which was near the land of (his brother?) Moses2 Newsom and sold this land on 9 October 1769 [DB 3:158; 5:21]. He was a "Black" member of the undated Colonial Muster of Captain James Fason's Northampton County militia [Mil. T.R. 1-3]. He was a Northampton County taxable in 1780 on an assessment of 370 pounds [G.A. 46.1]. He was head of a Northampton County household of 5 "Black" persons 12-50 years old and 5 "Black" persons less than 12 or over 50 years old in Dupree's District for the 1786 state census, 11 "other free" in 1790 [NC:74] and 10 in 1800 [NC:463].

4        iv. Booth, born before 1760.

 

2.    John Newsom, born say 1731, was a resident of Southampton County, Virginia, on 7 January 1752 when he purchased 150 acres near Kirby's Creek in Northampton County. He sold 15 acres of this land on 2 August 1769 [DB 2:84; 4:266]. He was a "Black" member of Captain Fason's Northampton County militia [Mil. T.R. 1-3]. In September 1774 he bought 100 acres in Northampton County adjacent to William Crumpler [DB 6:45]. He was a Northampton County taxable in 1780 on an assessment of 562 pounds [GA 46.1]. He, called John Sr., and his wife Martha made a deed of gift of their 150 acres on Kirby Creek to (their son?) Amos Newsom of Southampton County on 2 October 1782 [DB 7:121]. John and Martha may have been the parents of

i. Amos, born say 1756, a resident of Southampton County, Virginia, when (his parents?) John and Martha Newsom made a deed of gift to him of 150 acres of their land near Angelico Branch of Kirby Creek on 2 October 1782. He was head of a Northampton County household of 4 "Black" persons 12-50 years old and 4 "Black" persons less than 12 or over 50 years old in Dupree's District for the 1786 state census, 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:74], 7 in 1800 [NC:463], 11 in 1810 [NC:737], and 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:248].

5        ii. Ethelred, born say 1760.

 

3.    Moses2 Newsom, born say 1735, received a grant for 480 acres in Northampton County on 4 March 1761 and sold this land on 3 February 1768 [DB 4:147]. He was listed among the "Black" members of the undated Colonial Muster Roll of Captain Fason's Northampton County Militia [Mil. T.R. 1-3]. On 10 August 1778 he repurchased 462 acres adjoining John Newsom's line which was part of the land he sold in 1768. He sold 22 acres of this land on 12 February 1780 and sold a further 314 acres adjoining James Newsom's line on 6 April 1785 [DB 6:256: 7:47, 236]. He was taxed in Northampton County on an assessment of 2,430 pounds in 1780 [GA 46.1]. He was head of a Northampton County household of 9 "Black" persons 12-50 years old and 7 "Black" persons less than 12 or over 50 years old in Dupree's District of Northampton County in 1786 for the state census, 14 "other free" in 1790 [NC:74], and 10 in 1800 [NC:463]. He may have been the Moses Newsom who entered tracts of 100 acres and 125 acres on Potts Branch near Thomas Ivey in Robeson County on 19 April 1791 [Pruitt, Land Entries: Robeson County, I:45, 53]. This was near the land of (his nephew?) Ethelred Newsom. Between 1796 and 1802 he married Winnifred Walden, widow of John Walden. Winnifred was granted administration on John Walden's estate in 1796, but Moses Newsom was the estate representative mentioned in the 6 February 1802 account of sales [CR 71.801.20]. Moses Newsom's 17 September 1805 Northampton County will was proved in December of that year. He left 50 acres on Little Swamp near the Roanoke River to his wife Winnie, one silver dollar to George Artist, named some of his children: Tabitha Cumbo, Henry Newsam, and James Newsam; divided the residue among other unnamed children; and named his son Nathaniel Newsom executor [WB 2:297]. Winnie Newsom by her 4 November 1807 will, proved December the same year, gave land to Harwood Dukes in return for his lending money to her son by her previous marriage, Harrod/ Harwood Walden. She also divided four head of cattle among the unnamed children of Joel Newsom and Howell Wade and made small bequests to her daughter Penny Newsom and granddaughters Winnie Walden and Lucy Newsom. Drury Walden was her executor [WB 2:353]. Moses Newsom's children were identified in a chancery suit in Champaign County, Ohio, brought by Henry Newsom on 30 July 1832 against the heirs of (his brother) James Newsom. They were Nathaniel Newsom of North Carolina, Moses Newsom of North Carolina, Nathan Newsom of Pennsylvania, Naomi Banks (wife of Cyrus Banks) of North Carolina, Cloe Rand (wife of Micajah Rand) of North Carolina, the heirs of Joel Newsom, the heirs of Tabitha Cumbo (late Tabitha Newsom), the heirs of Martha Artist (late Martha Newsom), and Turner Byrd of Logan County in right of his mother Judith Byrd, deceased (late Judith Newsom) [Court of Common Pleas, Champaign County reel 14-344]. Moses Newsom's children were

6        i. Nathaniel1, born say 1765-70.

ii. a daughter, married George Artis. She apparently died before 1807 when George married Hannah Archer, widow of Luke Archer.

iii. Moses3, Jr., born say 1776, head of a Northampton County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 [NC:463], 3 "other free in 1810 [NC:737], and 1 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:248]. He made deeds of trust for the 24 acres on which he was living on 5 September 1830 and 28 August 1835 [DB 28:176, 308]. He was called "Moses Newsoms son" in the 28 August 1835 deed. His 25 May 1840 Northampton County will was proved in June 1846. He named only his nephew Everett Banks [WB 5:48].

iv. Nathan, living in the state of Pennsylvania when the suit for partition was filed in Champaign County.

v. Naomi Banks, born about 1765, wife of Cyrus Banks of North Carolina who was apparently identical to Silas Banks of Northampton County, North Carolina. Ona Banks was about eighty-five years of age in 1850 when she was counted with (her son) Everett Banks in the Northampton County household of (her son-in-law) Thomas Smith [household no. 1041].

vi. Tabitha Cumbo, who was deceased when Moses2 Newsom made his will. Her children mentioned in the will were Jinny, Henry, and John. Henry, John and Jensy Cumbo were named in the Champaign County suit for partition. By 1832 when the suit was filed, Henry and John were living in North Carolina; Jensy had married John Newsom and was living in Logan County.

7        vii. Henry1, born say 1780.

viii. James2, died intestate in Logan County, Ohio, before 6 August 1832 when (his brother) Henry Newsom was granted administration on his estate on $1,600 security [Administrative Docket Book B:3, 22]. Pm 30 July 1832 Henry brought suit against James's heirs for partition of his land. The land included 200 acres which James had purchased by deed of 29 January 1817 and four lots in the town of Milford which he had purchased by deed of 4 February 1818 [Court of Common Pleas, July Term 1836, Champaign County reel 14-344, pp. 344-52].

ix. Chloe Rann, sister of James Newsom, and wife of Michael Rann who stated in his 10 November 1847 Halifax County, North Carolina will that he had a claim on part of James Newsom's Ohio estate [WB 4:295].

x. Joel, born 1776-94, head of a Northampton County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [NC:737] and 9 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:248]. His heirs listed in the Champaign County suit for partition were Angelina Artist (wife of James Artist of Logan County), Henry Newsom of North Carolina, Moses Newsom of North Carolina, Lucy Hunt, wife of James Hunt of North Carolina, and four others whose names were unknown to Henry Newsom at the time of the Champaign County suit.

xi. Martha Artist, wife of George Artist. Her heirs (sons) Kinchen Artist of Logan County and Newsom Artist of North Carolina were named in the Champaign County suit for partition as well as in George Artis's 30 December 1819 Northampton County will [WB 3:296].

xii. Penny, received a hat by the 4 November 1807 Northampton County will of her mother Winna Newsom.

xiii. Judith Byrd, whose only heir was Turner Byrd of Logan County when the Champaign County suit was filed.

 

4.    Booth Newsom was born before 1760 since he was listed in the Colonial Muster Roll of Captain James Fason's Northampton County Militia [Mil. T.R. 1-3]. He was taxable in Northampton County on an assessment of 215 pounds in 1780 [GA 46.1] and was head of a Northampton County household of 1 "Black" person 12-50 years old and 2 "Black" persons less than 12 or over 50 years old in Elisha Webb's District in 1786 for the state census. He was head of a Northampton County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:74] and 8 in 1800 [NC:463]. He may have been the Boothe Newsom who was declared an insolvent debtor by the Halifax County court on 28 November 1844. Perhaps his children were the Newsoms counted in the census for Halifax County, North Carolina, in 1820:

i. Patience, born before 1776, head of a household of 9 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:159].

ii. Seymour, head of a household of Northampton County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [NC:737], 7 "free colored" in Halifax County in 1820 [NC:159] and 9 in 1830. He was permitted to carry a gun by order of the 17 August 1840 session of the Halifax County court [Minutes 1732-46, vol.2].

iii. Arthur, born about 1790, an eight-year-old "base born child" bound out by the Halifax County court on 21 August 1798. He married Tempy Ash, 13 April 1820 Halifax County bond, and was head of a Halifax County household of 8 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:159].

 

5.    Ethelred1 Newsom, born say 1760, may have been named for Ethelred Taylor who sold John Newsom his land on 7 January 1752 and witnessed the will of Jacob Newsom in Southampton County, Virginia, on 2 October 1771 [WB 3:240]. He was a soldier in the Tenth Regiment of the North Carolina Continental Line [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, XVI:1126], called "Netheneldred Newsom of Robeson County" on 18 April 1792 when he appointed Jacob Rhodes his attorney to receive his final settlement for serving in the war [NCGSJ XIV:111]. He entered 100 acres on the east side of Five Mile Branch near Thomas Ivey in Robeson County on 24 December 1787 and another 200 acres on 12 September 1788 [Pruitt, Land Entries: Robeson County, I:12, 18]. He purchased land by deed proved in Robeson County on 2 July 1801 [Minutes I:331]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:50], 3 in 1800 [NC:408], and 4 in 1810 [NC:241]. He may have been in Northampton County in 1800 when he was counted in the census for that county with 6 "other free" in his household. He sold 320 acres in Chatham County on the west side of the Haw River on 18 November 1817 [DB V:89]. His 20 December 1820 Robeson County will, no probate date, mentioned his wife Lucy and left land to his grandsons [WB 1:325]. Lucy transferred land to Nelson Roberts by deed proved in May 1838 Robeson County court [Minutes 1829-39]. Ethelred's children were

i. a daughter, married ____ Terry, mother of Newsom Terry. Her husband was probably Philip Terry, head of a Cumberland County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:191] who may have been a son of David Terry, head of a Sampson County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:51].

ii. Mary Roberts, mother of Ishmael Roberts. Ishmael was also mentioned in the Chatham County will of his grandfather Ishmael Roberts [CR 22.801.16].

iii. Sarah Roberts, mother of Ethelred Roberts, and wife of Aaron Roberts according to Aaron's free papers recorded in Owen County, Indiana [DB 3:280].

8        iv. ?Henry3, born about 1800.

 

6.    Nathaniel1 Newsom, born 1765-70, was head of a Northampton household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:74], 6 in 1800 [NC:463], 11 in 1810 [NC:737], and 7 "free colored" in 1820. His wife was Edy Hawley whose father Benjamin Hawley mentioned her and her daughter Charlotte Newsom in his 9 July 179_ Northampton County will, proved March 1805 [WB 2:276]. Nathaniel's 31 July 1835 Northampton County will was proved in September the same year [WB 4:37]. He left land in Northampton County and land in Logan County, Ohio, to his children:

i. Nathaniel2, who received 157 acres where his father lived. In 1860 he was head of a Jefferson Township, Logan County, Ohio household with $3,650 real estate [OH:43].

ii. Willis, who received the land he was living on.

iii. Dorothy Archer, who received land in Logan County, Ohio.

iv. Sally Byrd.

v. Charlotte, married Sterling Haithcock, 24 November 1813 Northampton County bond.

vi. Edith Roberts.

vii. Elizabeth Newsom.

viii. Tilitha Hawley.

 

7.    Henry1 Newsom, born say 1780, was head of a Northampton County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:737]. He was taxable on 100 acres in Champaign County, Ohio, in 1816 based on military title [Champaign County Genealogical Society Newsletter July/Aug/Sep 1999: 90]. He left a 4 September 1841 Logan County will, proved 28 October 1841. He devised to his wife Dorothy 70 acres of his land on the north side of the road leading from Zanesfield to Middleburgh. The profits from the remainder of his farm land was to be used to pay for the education to his youngest sons John and Henry. When John reached the age of twenty-one and at the death of his wife, all the land was to be divided between John and Henry who were also to receive forty acres of land in Mercer County adjoining land he had deeded to Judith and Nancy Newsom. He left $1 each to his children Priscilla Dick, Nathan Newsom, Levina Witsell, Martha Byrd, Eliza Allen and divided the remainder of his estate equally between his children Lydia, Ann, Judith, Nancy, Alice, John and Henry. Buyers at the sale of his estate included Sterling Heathcock (Haithcock), Owen Byrd, Green Allen, Kinchen Artis, Peter Byrd, Joshua Hunt, David Hunt, Joseph Allen, Martha Newsom, William Dempsey, Matthew Newsom, Leonard Whitfield, Benjamin Hawley, Hardy Wade and Jonathan Bowser [Administrative Docket Book B:146, 263-270]. He was the father of

i. Lydia.

ii. Ann.

iii. Judith.

iv. Nancy.

v. Alice.

vi. Priscilla Dick.

vii. Nathan.

viii. Levina Witsell, probably wife of Felix Whitsel who was a buyer at the sale of Henry Newsom's estate [WB, 270].

ix. Martha Byrd.

x. Eliza Allen.

xi. John.

xii. Henry4.

 

8.    Henry3 Newsom, born about 1800, received twenty lashes by order of the 7 December 1829 Cumberland County court, and on 11 June 1830 he took the oath of an insolvent debtor. He obtained "free papers" in Cumberland County on 15 and 17 March 1834 and recorded them in Owen County, Indiana, on 10 November 1845: he is the son of Lifsy (Lucy?) Newsom, a free born woman of colour ... is married to one Polly George, a free born woman of color and has seven children namely: Isham (about fifteen years old), Dred (about thirteen years old), Lifsy (about eleven years old), Sarah (about eight years old), Henry (about five years old), Martha (about four years old), and Elijah (about fifteen months old) ... he is of dark complexion ... about thirty four years old about five feet five inches high ... for many years a resident in this Town. His wife Polly also obtained free papers in Cumberland County (on 19 March 1834) and recorded them in Owen County on 10 November 1845: wife of Henry Newsom, daughter of Elizabeth George, a Freeborn woman of colour, about thirty two years old, of a tolerably light complexion ... said Polly & her mother are coloured persons of free parentage [DB 8:433]. Henry was head of a Franklin Township, Owen County, Indiana, household of 7 "free colored" in 1840 [IN:25]. He called himself Henry A. Newsom on 12 December 1835 when he speculated in corn futures, contracting with the inhabitants of Township Nine of Owen County to deliver 350-3/4 bushels of corn three years from that date [DB 8:433]. He probably profited from this trade since he offset this obligation by contracting with other parties to supply this corn in January 1838 after the price of corn fell 30-40% in Cincinnati as a result of the Panic of 1837 [Circuit Order Book 13:148-149; Buley, R.C., The Old Northwest Pioneer Period, 1815-40, 2 vol. Indianapolis: n.p. (1850):273]. In 1845 he and his son Dred O. Newsom were sued in Owen County for $36 in corn and pork which they failed to deliver on 29 May 1843 [Orders 4:120].

 

Other members of the Newsom family were

i. Stephen, born say 1758, a "Negro" taxable in Southampton County from 1787 to 1790 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-92, frames 643, 765].

10      ii. Hannah, born say 1768.

iii. Aaron, born about 1772, taxable in Greensville County from 1799 to 1804 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1807, frames 247, 266, 276, 289, 305, 323], a "Free Negro" taxable in Meherrin Parish, Brunswick County, Virginia, from 1810 to 1815 [Personal Property Tax List 1799-1815, frames 477, 520, 559, 637, 675, 730]. Thomas Stewart left him 10 pounds by his 14 October 1790 Greensville County will [WB 1:181-3]. Molly Stewart charged him with breach of the peace, but the case was dismissed by the Greensville County court on 10 May 1802 [Orders 1799-1806, 217]. He and his wife Christian of Brunswick County, Virginia, sold his part of the Greensville County estate of Jesse Jones to Henry Stewart on 13 October 1806 [Greensville County DB 3:507]. He registered in Petersburg on 30 August 1794: a dark brown man, five feet ten inches high, twenty two years old, appears to have been born free & raised in Greensville County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 89] and recorded the certificate in Brunswick County, Virginia court in January 1826. He was married to Susan Newsom by January 1826 when she registered in Brunswick County: Wife of Aaron Neusum, a free bright mulatto woman, about 27 years old, 5 feet 4 inches high with long bushy hair [Wynne, Register of Free Negroes, 81-2]. He was head of a Freetown, Brunswick County, Virginia household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:769] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:664].

11      iv. Sarah, born before 1776.

v. James3, born before 1776, head of a Botetourt County household of 9 "free colored" in 1820.

vi. Nathan3, born about 1776, registered in Southampton County on 25 June 1802: age 26, Mulatto, 6 feet high, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 229]. He recorded his free papers in Norfolk County, Virginia [Freed Negro Papers, Chesapeake County courthouse loose papers].

vii. Nelson, head of a Northampton household 1 white male over the age of 16 in 1790 [NC:75] and 3 "other free" in Sampson County, North Carolina, in 1800 [NC:521].

viii. Henry2, born about 1787, head of an Owen County, Indiana household of 2 "free colored" in 1840 (a man and woman over fifty-five years of age) [IN:24] and a sixty-three-year-old man living in Harrison Township, Vigo County, Indiana, in 1850 [IN:542].

ix. Elias, born about 1791, registered in Southampton County on 25 August 1818: age 27, Mulatto, 5 feet 5-1/2 inches, free born. His wife Winny registered on 26 April 1819: age 32, wife of Elias Newsom, 5 feet 3-1/2 inches high, rather of a bright complexion, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 1157, 1177].

x. Etheldred2, born about 1793, registered in Southampton County on 13 August 1816: age dark complection, 5 feet 6 1/2 inches high, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 1023].

xi. Carter, born about 1794, registered in Southampton County on 13 January 1817: age 23, Black, 5 feet 6 inches high, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 1044].

 

10.    Hannah Newsom, born about 1768, was living in the lower district of St. Luke's Parish on 22 May 1798 when the Southampton County court ordered the overseers of the poor to bind out her illegitimate son Anthony Newsum [Minutes 1793-99, 347]. She registered in Southampton County on 19 November 1831: bright (Colour), 5 feet 1/4 inch high, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 1931]. Hannah was the mother of

i. Anthony, born about 1785, a 16-21 year old taxable in Greensville County in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 26:191], taxable in James Wilinson's household in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in 1805, listed in his own household in 1807 and 1811 [Personal Property Tax List 1792-1806, frame 823; 1807-21, 54, 173, 198] and head of a Southampton County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:88]. He registered in Southampton County on 2 August 1810: age 25, yellow, 5 feet 9 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 813].

 

11.    Sarah Newsom, born before 1776, was head of a Northampton County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:463] and 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:248]. She may have been the mother of

i. Felson, born about 1806, bound an apprentice farmer to Samuel Stancell by the 8 September 1813 Northampton County court [Minutes 1813-21]. He was listed as a forty-four-year-old blacksmith in the 1850 Northampton County census in household number 484.

 

Endnotes:

1.    In May 1763 another Amos Newsom signed a petition to the North Carolina Assembly to repeal the law which placed additional tax on free Negroes [Saunders, Colonial Records of North Carolina, VI:982-3]. He was probably the (white) brother of Moses1 Newsom [Genealogy of Virginia Families IV:499].

2.    Harwood Dukes was head of a Northampton County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:435]. Howell Wade was head of a Northampton County household of 7 in 1800 [NC:485], 7 in 1810 [NC:751], and 8 "free colored" in Halifax County in 1820.

3.    There was also a Jinny Byrd who received her Northampton County, North Carolina, "free papers" on 14 March 1835 and registered in Logan County, Ohio: Jinny Newson, wife of Everett Byrd, bright complexion, 37 years old, was free... [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto, and Poor Persons, 11].

 

NEWTON FAMILY

1.    Abraham Newton, born say 1700, was a "Mulatto" slave who was purchased by his wife Elizabeth Young, "a free Mulatto" woman of Norfolk County. She died in November 1743 and left a will (not recorded) which gave him his freedom. The Legislative Council ordered him set free [Hall, Executive Journals of the Council, V:196, 215]. Their children were probably

i. Henry, born say 1723, taxable head of a Norfolk County household with Benjamin and William Newton in Western Branch District in 1759 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1751-65, 133].

2        ii. Benjamin, born say 1725.

3        iii. William1, born say 1730.

 

2.    Benjamin Newton, born say 1725, was taxable in the household of (his brother?) Henry Newton in 1759 and was head of a Norfolk County household in 1761: taxable with (his wife?) Elizabeth Newton and (brother?) William Newton. He was taxable with Elizabeth in 1765 and 1767 and taxable by himself until 1774 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1751-65, 133, 167, 190; 1766-80, 15, 72, 88, 106, 150, 213, 228]. Benjamin and Elizabeth may have been the parents of

i. Sarah, born say 1752, a tithable in Richard Carney's household in Norfolk County on the north side of Western Branch in 1770 (called Sary Neowton) [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1766-80, 107].

ii. James, born about 1754, a "Mulatto" apprenticed to Josiah Deans of Norfolk County to be a carpenter on 10 December 1769 [DB 25:52]. He was one of eight tithables in William Deans' Norfolk County household in 1770: William Deans, Sr., Josiah Deans & negroes James, Neowton, Dempo, Will, Sam & Lead - 8 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1766-80, 107]. He was taxable in Norfolk County from 1795 to 1812: called a "M"(ullato) starting in 1798; a labourer living on Western Branch in a "List of Free Negroes and Mulattoes" in 1801 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1812, frames 144, 255, 359, 384, 467, 650, 728, 778].

4        iii. Thomas, born say 1770.

iv. Wilson, a "free Mulatto" bound by the Princess Anne County court as an apprentice to John Williams on 10 August 1772 to learn the trade of blacksmith [Minutes 1770-3, 298].

v. William2, born say 1784, a "M"(ulatto) taxable in Norfolk County from 1802 to 1817, a "B.M." (Black Man) living on Western Branch and taxable on a "free Negro" tithe in 1816 [PPTL, 1791-1812, frames 434, 486A, 581, 694, 746; 1813-24, frames 105, 145, 263]. On 19 December 1804 he purchased 13 acres in Portsmouth Parish at the head of the Western Branch of the Elizabeth River which had formerly belonged to Andrew Mackie, adjoining Lydia King's, from Robert and Pheraby Cox for $130, with Thomas Newton (signing) as a witness [Orders 1804-5, 88a], and he married Margaret Nickens, 30 March 1805 Norfolk County marriage [Ministers' Returns, 1787-1840, 34].

 

3    William1 Newton, born say 1730, was tithable in Henry Newton's household in 1759, in Benjamin Newton's household in 1761 and tithable in Richard Carney's household with Sary Newton in Norfolk County on the north side of Western Branch in 1770 (called William Neowton), taxable on 2 tithes in the same district as the Bass family in 1774 and taxable on 1 tithe in the same district as the Bass and Hall families in 1778 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1751-65, 133, 167; 1766-80, 107, 237, 267]. He may have been the father of

5        i. James2, born about 1773.

 

4.    Thomas Newton, born say 1770, was taxable in Portsmouth and Elizabeth River Parishes in Norfolk County from 1789 to 1817: called a "M"(ulatto) starting in 1798; a labourer living on Western Branch in a "List of Free Negroes and Mulattoes" in 1801; a "B.M." (Black Man) taxable on a horse and 4 cattle in 1815 [PPTL, 1782-1791, frames 647; 1791-1812, frames 87, 231, 255, 359, 384, 434, 564, 694; 1813-24, frames 105, 263]. On 15 December 1795 he purchased 1 acre from Andrew Mackie for 3 pounds in Norfolk County at the head of the Western Branch of the Elizabeth River adjoining the main road and John Cooper's land and another acre from Mackie adjoining this on 18 December 1798 with James Newton (signing) as witness. In November 1805 he purchased 7 acres adjoining Richard David's Mill and Thomas Archer's land from John Cooper for $100, and on 12 December 1810 he sold this land to Thomas Archer for $105 [DB 36:40; 37:168-9; 42:173; 45:113-4]. He was head of a Norfolk County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:820]. On 21 July 1823 the Norfolk County court granted him and Willis Bass, "free mulattos," permission to keep a firelock, powder and shot [Minutes 18 (1822-1823): 165]. He may have been the father of

i. Mary, born about 1801, registered in Norfolk County on 17 May 1824: age 22 years, 5 ft 4-3/4 in, a mulatto woman, Born free [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 293]. She married Richard Anderson (free blacks), 4 December 1824 Norfolk County bond, Isaac Fuller security. She registered again as Mary Anderson on 19 August 1833 shortly after the "not Negro" law was passed: age 32 years, 5 ft 4, Indian complexion, Indian descent [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 906].

ii. Elizabeth, born about 1803, registered in Norfolk County on 17 May 1824, the same day as (her sister?) Mary: age 20 yrs, 5 ft 2-3/4 in, a mulatto woman, Born free [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 294]. She was called a "free woman of colour," when she married Benjamin Godwin, 10 September 1830 Norfolk County bond, Samuel B. Browne security [Marriage Bonds, 1829-33, 64]. Benjamin Godwin, born about 1780, registered in Norfolk County on 30 June 1815: 5 feet 8 Inc. and an half, Of a Dark Complexion, 35 Years of age, freed by Robert Godwin of Nansemond County. Elizabeth Godwin registered again on 19 August 1833 the same day as (her sister?) Mary Anderson: age 30, 5 ft 1-3/4, Indian complexion, Indian descent [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, nos. 100, 905].

 

5.    James2 Newton, born about 1773, was taxable in Portsmouth and Elizabeth River Parishes in Norfolk County from 1795 to 1812: called a "M"(ulatto) from 1798 to 1802, a laborer on Western Branch in the list of Free Negroes and Mulattoes in 1801 [PPTL, 1782-91, frames 144, 176, 231, 255, 303, 359, 378, 384, 432, 467, 486a, 564, 581, 650, 694, 728, 746, 778]. In November 1805 he leased land in Norfolk County in Portsmouth Parish near Hall's Mill for ten years from John Cooper for $8 the first two years, $10 the third year and $15 the remaining seven years [DB 42:173]. He registered in Norfolk County on 15 July 1833: 60 years, 5 ft 9 in, Indian complexion, Indian Descent [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 898]. On 19 August 1833 the Norfolk County court certified, "upon satisfactory evidence of white persons," that Frances the wife of James Newton was not a free Negro or Mulatto but of Indian descent [Minutes 24: 43-4]. He (making his mark) left a 13 May 1837 Norfolk County will, proved 18 September 1837, by which he lent all his property to his wife Frankey Newton and at her death to be equally divided between his eight unnamed children [WB 6:35]. James and Frances may have been the parents of

i. Sally, born about 1801, registered in Norfolk County on 15 July 1833: 32 yrs, 5 ft 4 in, Indian complexion, Indian descent [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 899].

ii. Mary, born about 1802, registered in Norfolk County on 17 May 1824: 22 yrs, 5 ft 4-3/4 in, a mulatto woman, Born free [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 293].

iii. Eliza, born about 1804, registered in Norfolk County on 17 May 1824: 20 years, 5 ft 2-3/4 in, a mulatto woman, Born free [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 294].

iv. Henry2, born about 1805, registered in Norfolk County on 26 July 1828: 5 ft 5-1/2, 23 years, a dark mulatto, Born free, registered again on 22 January 1833: 28 years, 5 ft 6-1/2, Born free and registered again six months later on 15 July 1833 after the "not Negro" law was passed: 28 years, 5 ft 7 in, Indian complexion, Indian descent [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 415, 882, 900].

v. Allen, born about 1807, registered in Norfolk County on 15 July 1833: 26 yrs, 5 ft 9-3/4, Indian complexion, man of Indian descent [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 894]. He leased 14 acres from Willis Bass by deed proved in Norfolk County court on 15 November 1830 [Minutes 22:87]. He ("a free man of color"), signing, married Fanny Bass ("a free woman of color") in Norfolk County on 24 April 1841, with Stephen Manning making oath as to Fanny's age and Joshua Livesay minister [Marriages 1840-53, 4; Marriage Bonds, 1840-43, 54].

 

Other members of a Newton family in Virginia were

i. Isaac, born say 1752, head of a Richmond County, Virginia household of 3 "other free" and 2 slaves in 1810 [VA:411], a levy free "free black" in 1813 with (his wife?) Judith Newton who was above the age of sixteen [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List].

ii. John, born about 1756, the runaway servant of William Brown on 13 July 1776 when Brown advertised for his return in the Virginia Gazette: about 20 Years of Age, 5 feet 5 or 6 Inches high, slender made, is an Asiatic Indian by Birth, has been twelve Months in Virginia, but lived ten years (as he says) in England, in the service of Sir Charles Whitworth. He wears long black Hair, which inclines to curl, tied behind, and pinned up at the Sides; has a very sour Look, and his Lips project remarkably forward ... He has been at Richmond, Williamsburg, and in other Parts of the Country, in the Service of Mr. George Rootes of Frederick, and Col. Blackburn of Prince William, of whom I had him; and as he is a good Barber and Hair-Dresser, it is probably he may endeavor to follow those Occupations as a free Man. Whoever takes up said Servant ... shall have eight dollars reward; and if delivered to me at Westwood, in Prince William, further reasonable Charges [Virginia Gazette (Dixon & Hunter edition)].

 

NICHOLS/ NICHOLAS FAMILY

1.    Margaret Nicholas, born say 1690, was presented by the Princess Anne County court on 2 February 1708/9 for having a "Mullatto" child. On 7 February 1710/11 the court ordered that she pay a fine of fifteen pounds or be sold by the churchwardens for five years. On 6 March 1710/11 the court ordered the sheriff to search for her because she had escaped from the churchwardens when they were endeavoring to sell her. On 9 May 1712 her master Tully Smyth sued Lewis Purvine for keeping his servant for twenty-one days, but the jury accepted Purvine's excuse that she was his servant at the time. On 2 April 1714 she was convicted by the court for having another "Molatto" child. The court ordered that she serve her master Tully Smyth three months for absenting herself from his service and also for having a child in his house and ordered that she be sold for five years for the benefit of Lynhaven Parish after her service was completed. The sheriff sold Margaret before 1 November 1721 when the sale was recorded in court [Minutes 1691-1709, 491; 1709-17, 48, 53, 92, 151; 1717-28, 115, 121, 124]. She was apparently the mother of

i. Samuel, born say 1714, a "free mullatto" who sued Henry Chapman for trespass in Princess Anne County court on 2 June 1742. He was called a "free Negro" when he recorded his livestock mark in Princess Anne County on 30 April 1746. He was called Sam Nichols when he won a judgment for twenty-three shillings against Lewis Thelaball in Princess Anne County court on 18 July 1750. On 22 November 1752 the court ordered John Chapman to post fifty pounds security for his good behavior towards Sam, and on 19 June 1753 the court ordered Sam to post fifty pounds bond for his good behavior towards John Chapman. On 16 October 1759 the court bound "free Mullatto" Nanny Duncan to him as an apprentice [Minutes 1737-44, 174; 1691-1709, 17; 1744-53, 214, 341; 1753-62, 25, 365]. He was probably the ancestor of Sam Nichols, head of a Norfolk County household of 1 "other free" and 3 slaves in 1810 [VA:913].

 

NICKENS FAMILY

1.    Richard1 Nickens, born say 1660, was called Black Dick when he and his wife Chriss were freed "after the finishing of the Crop that is now on the Grounde" by the 4 June 1690 Lancaster County will of John Carter, proved 11 December the same year. Carter gave each of them a cow and calf, three barrels of corn and peas, and allowed them to farm some of the land he had purchased from Nicholas Wren for their lifetimes. Chris's unnamed youngest daughter was also freed as were slaves Diana and "little Chriss" when they reached the age of eighteen years [WB 8:5]. Dick and Chris were free by July 1691 since they were not included in the inventory of Carter's estate, and six barrels of corn and peas paid to them were charged against the estate. "Chrisses boy Robbin" was still a slave since he was listed in the inventory [Inventories & Wills No. 8, 3-5, 22-8, 33]. Dick was taxable on 1 tithe in Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County, in 1699 (Black Dick), 4 in 1700 (Black Dick, listed next to Colonel Robert Carter), 3 in 1701 and 1702 (Free Dick), 4 in 1703 (Free Richard), 2 in 1704 (Richard Yoconohawcon), and 4 in 1706 (Free Dick). On 11 July 1706 in a suit titled "free dick v. Gilchrist," Richard Yockenahawken sued Thomas Gilchrist for 4 pounds, 16 shillings Sterling. He may have been infirm or deceased by 2 Apirl 1707 when the suit was titled Criss Yockenahawken against Thomas Gilchrist. And Elz Yockohoc was taxable that year on 2 tithables in Christ Church Parish. Thomas Gilchrist's suit against Chris Yockenhawken was dismissed by the Lancaster County court on 2 February 1706/7 when neither party appeared, and her suit against Gilchrist was dismissed on 13 August 1707 for the same reason. The court ordered her to pay Benjamin George for attending seven days as her witness. She was called Negroe Criss Yockenawken when she petitioned the court on 11 February 1707/8, and she may have been identical to "Criss a free negroe woman" who was owed 200 pounds of tobacco by the estate of William Flinston, deceased, for funeral charges on 10 March 1708. She was called Christian Yocconhockon, executor of the last will of Thomas Harvey, deceased, on 13 January 1708/9 when Robert Gibson sued her for 1,800 pounds of tobacco, and the court attached her effects to secure the debt: one feather bed and furniture, two iron pots, a brass kettle, three old chests, two trays, three pewter dishes, an iron pot, one old gun, one pewter plate, two brass candlesticks and two cows. On 9 March 1708/9 she was called a "free negroe woman" when she confessed to the court that she had received into her dwelling house divers goods stolen by several of the Honorable Robert Carter's white servants. The court ordered that she receive thirty lashes, but the punishment was remitted when she begged for clemency and made a promise of good behavior towards Carter in the future. Carter's servants were ordered to serve him an additional year. Robert Gibson's case against her as executor of Thomas Harvey's estate continued until 15 June 1710 when Gibson sued Isaac Rowden as executor of the estate for the same debt of 1800 pounds of tobacco. The case against Rowden was dismissed on 13 February 1711/2 when a jury found that Rowden had never been the executor. Cris Yockenhawken was again called executrix of the last will of Thomas Harvey on 9 June 1714 when Robert Gibson's suit against her was dismissed by the court. On 8 April 1713 Dick was called Richard Nicken, when his son Edward Nicken made oath that he had died without leaving a will. (A separate sheet of paper was inserted in the court order book after Edward's appointment as administrator of Richard Nicken's estate which was a copy of the attachment of Christian Yockenhawken's estate on 2 March 1708/9). Chris died before 10 April 1717 when the court bound her eight-year-old orphan Martha Yockenhocken to Mrs. Elizabeth Pasquett [Orders 1696-1702, 93, 128, 153; 1702-13, 12, 55, 108, 151, 159, 162, 167, 169a, 171, 174a, 177, 179a, 183, 185, 202a, 205a, 206, 214, 229a, 243a, 279, 302, 302a; 1713-21, 3, 38, 56, 185]. The children of Richard and Chris Nicken were

2        i. Edward1, born say 1680.

3        ii. Elizabeth1, born say 1685.

4        iii. Christian1, born say 1687.

iv. Martha1, born about 1708, brought a successful suit against Elizabeth Pasquet for her freedom and freedom dues in Lancaster County on 13 July 1726 [Orders 1721-9, 214]. She paid 5 shilings to the estate of John Hutchings in 1727 [Deeds & Wills 1726-36, 56].

 

2.    Eward1 Nicken (Richard1), born say 1680, was called Edward Yockenhawken in 1709 when he was a Christ Church Parish taxable on 1 tithe. He was called Edward Nicken on 12 December 1712 when he was sued in Lancaster County court by David Williams, and he was called the son of Richard Nicken on 8 April 1713 when he made oath that his father died without making any will and gave security for the administration of his father's estate. He returned the inventory of the estate to court on 13 May 1713. He was taxable as Edward Nicken from 1715 to 1719: "a negro" in 1716 and 1717 when he was taxable on 1 tithe, and called Edward Nicken in 1720 when he was taxable on 2 tithes. He was called a "free negroe" on 9 November 1715 when he was presented by the grand jury for selling cider at his house. He was found not guilty [Orders 1702-13, 231, 293, 298, 301, 302; 1713-21, 3, 115, 118, 137, 168, 223, 258, 302, 335]. He purchased 50 acres in Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County, from Peter Kilgore for 4,000 pounds of tobacco on 6 March 1713/4 and sold this land to Charles Burges, merchant, for 20 pounds currency on 20 March 1722. On 2 November 1722 he purchased 40 acres bounded on the west side by the mouth of a small creek on the Corrotoman River adjoining the house of John Yerby and purchased another 50 acres adjoining his land and the land of Colonel Robert Carter on 13 September 1726. On 5 March 1730 he sold 80 acres on the southside of the eastern branch of the Corrotoman River adjoining Colonel Carter's and Robert Schofield's land to Charles Burges for 20 pounds with Simon Showcraft as a witness [DB 9:478-9; 11:212-5, 222-3; 305-6; 12:147-9, 169-70]. On 18 July 1723 Abraham Shoecraft acknowledged in Northumberland County court that he was indebted to him for 1,500 pounds of tobacco [Orders 1719-29, 109]. He was involved in over twenty court cases in Lancaster County between 1713 and 1731: sued by Eliza Denton, Nicholas Terkleson, John Tarpley, Patrick Chalmers, Richard Ball (Gentleman), Thomas Wilson (mariner), Maurice Jones (Gentleman), Ezekiel Gilbert, Thomas Edwards, John Taylor, Matthew Zuill and William Rauken. He sued Laughley Brannan, Richard Harrison, William Wright, Francis Wright, Thomas Wells, John Yerby, John Nichols, and Arthur Howard. He sued Thomas Pinson for 6,400 pounds of tobacco due by account and Pinson sued him for 2,950 pounds of tobacco due by account. The court appointed Captain Thomas Carter to settle the accounts [Orders 1713-21, 10, 84, 131; 1721-9, 23, 100, 106, 111, 116, 122, 126, 149, 159, 176-8, 191-2, 201, 207, 220, 231, 233, 236, 241, 264, 271, 316; 1729-43, 6, 8, 33, 40]. His 21 September 1735 Lancaster County will was proved 12 November the same year, Richard and Elizabeth Weaver and Simon Shewcraft witnesses. The will (which he signed) left his estate to his wife Mary during her widowhood, but if she remarried the estate was to go equally to his son Tun, daughter Sarah, sons John, Robert and Aner Nicken. And he left 5 shillings each to his sons Edward, Richard and James Nicken. He appointed his wife and John Yerby executors [Deeds & Wills 1726-1736, 355]. On 12 November 1742 the Lancaster County court presented Mary for living in fornication with James Donnellane's servant John Holmes, but the case was dismissed. She owed James Donnellan's Store 299 pounds of transfer tobacco on 11 April 1747 when merchant David Galloway obtained a judgement against the store in Lancaster County court [Orders 1729-43, 364, 369; 1743-52, 127-128]. Edward's children were

i. Tun.

ii. Sarah.

5        iii. John1, born say 1720.

6        iv. Robert1, born say 1721.

v. Aner, born say 1723.

7        vi. Edward2, born say 1725.

8        vii. Richard3, born say 1727.

9        viii. James1, born say 1729.

 

3.    Elizabeth1 Nickens (Richard1), born say 1685, may have been the unnamed daughter of Chris (Nickens) who was freed by the 4 June 1690 Lancaster will of John Carter. She was called Elizabeth Yockohoc when she was taxable on 2 tithes in Lancaster County in 1707 [Orders 1702-13, 179a]. She may have been identical to "Black Betty, a free negroe woman" who bound her daughter "Cris a negroe girle" to Thomas Yerby in Lancaster County until the age of twenty-one to read the bible on 14 April 1711 [Orders 1702-13, 281a]. On 9 October 1709 Elizabeth Nicken "free Negro" consented to the indenture of her son "Richard Nicken Negro" to John Pledge to serve until the age of twenty four, with Robert Schofield (Edward Nicken's neighbor) as one of the witnesses [Deeds, Etc. 1700-15, 417-8]. She was called Elizabeth Nigings of Lancaster County on 16 May 1711 when she bound her son Richard Niggins as an apprentice carpenter to Henry and Ann Tapscott in Northumberland County "of her own free & Voluntary will" [Record Book 1710-13, 21]. She was called "Elizabeth Nicken a free negroe woman" on 9 November 1715 when the Lancaster County court presented her for having an illegitimate child [Orders 1713-21, 115, 137]. Elizabeth was the mother of

10      i. Richard2, born in August 1705.

ii. ?Murrough, born say 1708, sued Robert Scofield for trespass, assault and battery in Lancaster County court on 9 June 1731. The jury awarded her six pence and costs [Orders 1729-43, 40, 44, 90].

11      iii. ?Catherine /Kate, born say 1710.

iv. ?Mary, presented by the Lancaster County court on 12 November 1742 for living in fornication with James Donnelane's servant John Holmes and having illegitimate children. The case was dismissed [Orders 1729-43, 364, 369].

v. ?Thomas, born say 1720, living in Northumberland County when he made his 22 April 1778 will, proved 14 September the same year. He left a cow and a colt to his wife's grandchild Ann Weaver Kelly and the remainder of his estate to his wife Ann [RB 10:375]. His estate was valued at 159 pounds [Orders 1776-80, 494]. His wife was Ann Weaver, mentioned in the 30 November 1777 Lancaster County will of her brother Isaac Weaver [WB 20:120]. She was taxable on 5 cattle and a horse in Northumberland County in 1782 [PPTL, 1782-1812, frame 232]. Anne Nicken was taxable on a horse and 5 cattle in Northumberland County in 1782 [PPTL 1782-1812, frame 235].

12      vi. ?William1, born say 1725.

 

4.    Christian1 Nicken (Richard1), born say 1687, may have been identical to "little Chriss," a slave freed by John Carter's 4 June 1690 Lancaster County will when she reached the age of eighteen. She and Dinah were listed in the inventory of Carter's estate, "till they be free 18 years of age" [Inventories & Wills No. 8, 5, 27]. She was called "Young Criss a free negroe woman" on 10 August 1709 when the Lancaster County court bound out her son Robin to Edward Carter until the age of twenty-one. She was called Christian Nicken when she was presented by the Lancaster County court on 11 November 1713 for bearing an illegitimate child. She confessed to having another illegitimate child on 9 August 1727, refused or was unable to pay her fine and received twenty-five lashes [Orders 1702-13, 218; 1713-21, 26; 1721-9, 252]. Her children were

i. Robin, born say 1707, perhaps identical to "free Robin a Mulatto" who was in company with Valentine Bell and Robert Scofield when Bell killed a heifer that had wandered into his cornfield according to Bell's testimony in Lancaster County court on 19 December 1728 [Orders 1721-9, 310-1].

13      ii. Elizabeth2, born about 1711.

iii. Christian2, born say 1727, released by the Lancaster County court from serving Thomas Burnet on 9 June 1749 [Orders 1743-52, 189].

 

5.    John1 Nicken (Edward1, Richard1), born say 1720, purchased three turkeys and three Dunghill hens at the sale of the Lancaster County estate of Robert Hill on 18 February 1763 [DW 1758-63, 251-2]. He was a taxable head of household in Lancaster County in 1775 and 1776 with James Nicken and taxable with (his son?) John Nicken, Jr., from 1777 to 1781 [Tithables 1745-95, 14, 18, 20, 35, 42, 51]. He was taxable in Northumberland County on 9 cattle and a horse in 1782 [PPTL 1782-1812, frame 235] and head of a Lancaster County household of 7 "white" (free) persons in 1783 [VA:55]. He was taxable in Lancaster County from 1783 to 1801: taxable on 2 free males in 1790, 3 in 1791, taxed on Benjamin and Bartley Nicken's tithes in 1794 and 1796 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 16, 74, 86, 121, 144, 216]. On 16 February 1790 his suit against George Phillips for debt was submitted by the Lancaster County court to referees who awarded him 3 pounds, 14 shillings. He received a certificate of freedom from the Lancaster County court on 19 April 1796 stating that he had been a servant until the age of twenty-one. On 17 April 1798 he was exempted by the Lancaster County court from paying levies for the future on his person [Orders [Orders 1789-92, 107, 125, 256, 347; 1792-9, 12, 423]. He was the father of

i. John2, Jr., born say 1756, taxable in the Lancaster County household of (his father?) John Nickens, Sr., from 1777 to 1781 [Tithables 1745-95, 51, 57]. He was head of a Lancaster County household of 1 "white" (free) person in 1783, listed next to John, Sr. [VA:55]. He may have been the John Nicken whose suit against Amos Nicken for trespass, assault and battery was dismissed by the Northumberland County court on 16 June 1784 [Orders 1783-5, 187]. He was called John Nickens, Jr., when he married Ann Mills, 17 September 1791 Lancaster bond. He was taxable in Lancaster County from 1783 to 1813, in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 16, 276, 230, 319, 350, 385]. He was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [VA:990].

ii. ?Robert2, born say 1762, served as a soldier in the Revolution from Lancaster County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41]. He was taxable in Lancaster County in John McTire's household in 1779, in John Davis' household in 1787, and taxable in his own household in 1794 and 1795, called Robert Nickens, Junr. [Tithables 1745-95, 33, 51, 57] and taxable from 1796 to 1804 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 144, 189, 216, 256]. He was granted a certificate of his free birth by the Lancaster County court on 16 February 1796 [Orders 1792-9, 256]. He posted bond to marry Elizabeth Gray, 12 August 1786 Lancaster bond but married Nancy Howe (spinster over 21), 5 March 1793 Lancaster bond. Nancy registered in Lancaster County on 19 September 1803: Age 31, Color mulatto...born free. Elizabeth Gray registered on 21 January 1811: Age abt. 42, Color mulatto...born free [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 1, 5].

iii. Bridger, called the son of John Nicken in Lancaster County court on 26 September 1789 when his father suggested to the court that he was insane (and thus not subject to be taxed) [Orders 1789-92, 71]. He was taxable in Lancaster County from 1786 to 1788, in 1805, and from 1813 to 1816, in a list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 36, 53, 274, 385, 421].

iv. Benjamin2, born about 1772, taxable in Lancaster County in 1794, adjoining John and Bartley Nickens [Tithables 1745-95, 51]. He married Mary Nickens, daughter of Amos1 Nickens, 11 April 1796 Northumberland County bond. Benjamin was taxable in Northumberland County in the same district as his father-in-law Amos Nickens, Sr., from 1797 to 1803 [PPTL, 1782-1812, frames 465, 472, 487, 501, 524, 532, 546]. He registered in Lancaster County on 20 June 1803: s/o Jno., Age 31, mulatto, rather dark [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 1].

v. Bartley, born say 1774, taxable in Lancaster County from 1792 to 1803 [PPTL 1782-1839, frames 98, 203, 242]. His 20 December 1804 Lancaster County will, proved 16 April 1805, gave Uriea? Nicken, son of Robert Nicken, his house "where my father now lives" and named Elizabeth Nicken, daughter of John Nicken. Richard Nicken was one of the executors [WB 28:89].

 

6.    Robert1 Nicken (Edward1, Richard1), born say 1721, was presented by the Lancaster County Court on 18 May 1763 for not listing his wife as a tithable, but the case was dismissed the following month [Orders 1756-64, 483]. He purchased 3 acres on the east side of the eastern branch of the Corrotoman River in Lancaster County from William Stamps on 21 October 1763 [DW 17:24]. He was sued in Lancaster County court by Thomas Pollard on 16 March 1769 for 4 pounds, 10 shillings due by promissory note, sued by Mungo Harvey on 16 December 1773, and on 19 January 1777 the grandjury charged him with adultery [Judgments, 1768-78, frames 745-8; Orders 1768-70, 8, 9; 1770-78, 371, 421, 439]. He was head of a Lancaster County household of 3 "Blacks" in 1783 [VA:55] and taxable in Lancaster County from 1782 to 1800 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 5, 29, 74, 98, 174, 189, 203]. He may have been the father of

14      i. James3, born say 1743.

15      ii. Nathaniel1, born say 1745.

16      iii. Amos1, born say 1750.

iv. Benjamin1, born say 1760, taxable in Prince William County from 1782 to 1813, called a "yellow" man in 1809 and 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1810, frames 27, 52, 77, 142, 236, 274, 315, 368, 444, 510, 598, 709]. He and his wife Betsy, "formerly Betsy Lucas" obtained certificates of freedom in Prince William County on 5 August 1805 [Orders 1804-6, 204]. He was head of a Prince William County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:506].

v. Daniel, born say 1780, taxable in Prince William County from 1796 to 1813, called a "yellow" man in 1809 and 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1810, frames 315, 441, 444, 578, 667, 709]. He was head of a Prince William County household of 3 "other free" [VA:506].

 

7.   Edward2 Nicken (Edward1, Richard1), born say 1725, and his wife Susannah sued George Miller for trespass, assault, and battery in Lancaster County court on 22 June 1754. Miller delayed the case until 17 April 1756 when it was dismissed because Nickens failed to prosecute [Orders 1752-56, 233, 254, 288, 317, 435]. He was deceased by 18 February 1757 when his son Edward Jones Nicken was bound apprentice in Lancaster County with the consent of his mother. And on 17 February 1758 she bound their daughter Lucy to Henry Tapscott. Sussanah's petition against John Mott was dismissed by the court on 10 May 1751 [Orders 1756-64, 40, 118, 247]. Perhaps Susannah was related to Elizabeth Jones, a white woman, who confessed to bearing mixed-race children in Lancaster County court in 1716, 1719 and 1721 [Orders 1713-21, 140, 142, 300, 311, 346; 1721-9, 2]. Two of Edward and Susannah's children were

17      i. Edward Jones Nicken, born say 1748.

ii. Lucy, born say 1752.

 

8.    Richard3 Nickens (Edward1, Richard1), born say 1727, was head of a Northumberland County household of 4 "black" persons in 1782 [VA:37] and taxable on himself and 4 cattle in Northumberland County in 1782 [PPTL, 1782-1812, frame 232]. He was taxable in Lancaster County from 1784 to 1786 [PPTL 1782-1839, frames 23, 30]. He may have been the father of

18       i. Limas, born say 1752.

ii. Moses, taxable in Lancaster County in 1786 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frame 36], a "Black man" taxable on a horse in Augusta County from 1791 to 1796 [PPTL 1782-95, frames 387, 462, 499, 539; 1796-1810, frame 32], and a "free Negro" taxable on 2 horses in the west district of Rockingham County from 1797 to 1799 [PPTL 1795-1813, frames 161, 236, 257].

iii.Edward, sued Ezekiel Tapscott in Lancaster County on 21 July 1785 for 2 pounds due by account and Charles Purcell on 17 August 1786 [Orders 1783-5, 111; 1786-9, 18; Judgments 1702-1785, frame 395]. He was taxable in Lancaster County in 1786 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frame 36] and a "Black man" taxable in Augusta County in 1795 [PPTL 1782-95, frame 539]. He was granted a certificate of freedom by the Lancaster County court on 16 January 1797 [Orders 1792-9, 327]. He was a "free Negro" taxable in Rockingham County, Virginia, in 1798 and 1799 [PPTL 1795-1813, frames 236, 257] and a "B.M." taxable in Augusta County, Virginia, in 1800 [PPTL 1796-1810, frame 201]. He was "a coloured man," who brought David Nickins, a Baptist Minister, to Ross County, Ohio, in 1804 or 1805 to the farm of Benjamin M. Kerrin (Kern) [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto, and Poor Persons, 25, 27]. David Nickens was head of a Washington Township, Pickaway County, Ohio household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 and 11 in Ross County, Ohio, in 1830.

iv. Abraham, born say 1760, a "Black man" taxable on a horse in Augusta County from 1793 to 1803, listed with 3 horses in 1802 [PPTL 1782-95, frames 462, 499, 539; 1796-1810, frames 32, 70, 107, 152, 201, 246, 298, 343]. He moved to Ross County, Ohio, where he resided on the farm of Benjamin Kerns in the Fall of 1805 with his wife Polly and children: Rachel, Kissy, Betsey, Nathaniel, Bill, James, Sam, and Palt [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto, and Poor Persons, 16].

v. Jacob, a "Black man" taxable in Augusta County from 1794 to 1796 [PPTL 1782-95, frames 499, 539; 1796-1810, frame 32], a "free Negro" taxable in the western district of Rockingham County from 1797 to 1799 [PPTL 1795-1813, frames 161, 236, 257], a "black" taxable in the 2nd district of Augusta County from 1800 to 1803, in 1807 and in 1813 [PPTL 1796-1810, frames 201, 246, 298, 343, 539].

vi. Isaac, born about 1772, a "Black man" taxable in Augusta County from 1794 to 1796 [PPTL 1782-95, frames 499, 539; 1796-1810, frame 32], a "free Negro" taxable in Rockingham County in 1798 [PPTL 1795-1813, frame 236], registered in Orange County, Virginia, on 27 August 1799: Isaac Nickins, a negro, 27, black complexion, 5'5", born free in Northumberland County; a "B.M." taxable in the 2nd district of Augusta County in 1801, 1803, and 1805 [PPTL 1796-1810, frames 246, 343, 442]. On 5 November 1816 he purchased "three negroes, a woman Jean, a boy Owins, and a girl Dicy" (his wife and children?) in Jackson County, Tennessee, and recorded the purchase in Ross County Ohio [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto, and Poor Persons, 21].

 

9.    James1 Nickens (Edward1, Richard1), born say 1729, "orphan of Edward Nicken," was bound as an apprentice shoemaker to John Hubbard in Lancaster County until the age of twenty-one on 11 February 1736 [Orders 1729-43, 161]. He and his wife Margaret received 200 acres on the east side of Potecasi Creek in Society Parish, Bertie County, North Carolina, by deed of gift from her parents Edward and Margaret Carter on 10 May 1750 [DB G:354]. James and Margaret were taxed as "fr. Muls." in the 1750 Bertie County summary filed with the central government [CCR 190], and in the 1757 list of John Brickell [CR 10.702.1 Box 1]. This part of Bertie County became Hertford County in 1759, and James was taxed there on 2 persons in 1768, 3 in 1769, 2 in 1770, and on 200 acres, 3 horses, and 3 cattle in District 3 in 1779 [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book, 35; GA 30.1]. He was head of a Hertford County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:27]. Perhaps his children were

i. Carter, born say 1748, taxable in Hertford County on 1 person in 1768 and 1769, on 2 persons in 1770, and taxable on 2 horses and 2 cattle in the 1779 Hertford County property tax list filed with the central government [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book, 13; GA 30.1]. He was paid for services to the Revolution [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, vol. I, Book 4:232].

ii. William2, born say 1750, died in Wilson County, Tennessee, in 1820 leaving ten children [Wilson County Quarterly Court Minutes 1830, 34]. In 1833 his sons Marcus, Andrew and Calvin presented a petition to the General Assembly of Tennessee stating that their parents were from Portugal, had settled in the United States many years since and that "their colour is rather of the mixed blood by appearance." They asked to have the same rights as other citizens of the state. One supporting statement said that their grandfather was from Portugal and another that their father bore the name "of a desent of the Portagee" [Tennessee Legislative Petition 77-1831]. In the 1880 census two of their siblings listed North Carolina as the place of birth of their parents.

iii. Richard5, born say 1763, taxable on 1 poll in Captain Joseph Bridgers' Hertford County Company in 1784 adjacent to James Nickens [L.P. 64.1]. His field adjoining Thomas Cotten was mentioned in Cotten's 18 April 1787 Hertford County will [P.C. # 122.2 by NCGSJ XI:251]. He was head of a Hertford County household of 8 "other free" in 1800. He may have been the Richard Nickens who was taxable in Princess Anne County in 1794 and 1795 [PPTL, 1790-1822, frames 91, 121]. He sued Powers Etheridge in Norfolk County court for trespass, assault and battery on 11 March 1796. The case was dismissed at defendant's costs [Orders 1797-9, 19b, 66b].

iv. Malachi, born about 1765, living in Hertford County in 1781 when he enlisted as a private in Colonel Armstrong's North Carolina Regiment. He was about fifty-six years old on 13 November 1821 when he testified in Hertford County court that he was a common laborer living with his wife Margaret and a seventeen-month-old child (his grandson?) Manuel Murfee. James Smith testified on his behalf [M805, frame 0198]. Malachi was head of a Hertford County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:26], 3 in 1800, and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:190]. He was one of the "Sundry persons of Colour of Hertford County" who petitioned the General Assembly in November- December 1822 to repeal the act which declared slaves to be competent witnesses against free African Americans [NCGSJ XI:252].

v. Jonathan, born say 1780, married Kesiah Blizzard, 18 January 1803 Duplin County bond, Solomon Carter bondsman. He purchased 146 acres in Duplin County on the east side of the Northeast Cape Fear River and the north side of Matthews and Juniper Branches from Alexander Carter on 10 November 1811 [DB 4A:392]. He was head of a Duplin County household in 1810 (counted as white) [NC:690] and 8 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:189]. He sold land by deed registered in Dobbs County between 1810 and 1819 [DB 24:98; 26:370].

 

10.    Richard2 Nickens (Elizabeth1, Richard1), born in August 1705, was "6 years old next August" on 16 May 1711 when he was apprenticed by his mother Elizabeth Nigings of Lancaster County to Henry and Ann Tapscott in Northumberland County to be a joiner carpenter [Orders 1710-13, 21]. He was probably the Richard Nickens who was number 37 in the Muster Roll of Major William Shergold's Regiment of Currituck County, North Carolina Militia in the 1750's, in the same list as Simon Shewcraft, a witness to Edward1 Nicken's 1735 Lancaster County will [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 657-8]. He was called "Richard Nickins of Currituck County Tailor" on 26 March 1751 when he purchased 70 acres in Pasquotank County on the south side of Great Swamp near the Great Swamp Bridge on 26 March 1751 [DB B:144]. This land is located in present-day Camden County. He purchased 50 acres adjoining this land near the Great Swamp in adjoining Currituck County on 19 April 1768, another 50 acres adjoining this land a year later on 1 September 1769, and another 120 acres on 1 June 1771 [DB 2:44, 135, 318]. His 2 February 1774 Currituck County will was proved 20 June the same year. His wife Rachel and son Edward were his executors. His estate consisted of several hundred acres of land, a slave woman named "Sooke," and four guns. He left land "near the great swamp" in Pasquotank County to his daughters and his shoemaking tools to Edward. The will mentioned his children and grandchildren: Philip, Edward, Roland, and Proskate Nickens [WB 1:92-94]. His children were

19      i. Edward3, born say 1730.

ii. Leah Rael.

iii. Margaret Nickens, head of a Currituck County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 (called Margaret Mekins) [NC:22]. Margaret Nickens was awarded 30 pounds by the Norfolk County court on 17 May 1787 in her suit for debt against Simeon Smith and Thomas Williams [Orders 1786-7, 97a].

iv. Rachel Hall, who received the use of her father's land in Pasquotank County near the Great Swamp Bridge. She was probably related by marriage to Lemuel Hall, head of a Pasquotank County household of 9 other free in 1810 [NC:902].

 

11.    Catherine /Kate Nicken (Elizabeth1, Richard1), born say 1710, "a negro woman named Kate Nicken," was living in Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County on 8 May 1728 when the court presented her for having a bastard child. Valentine Bell was security for the payment of her fine [Orders 1721-29, 270, 275, 278]. Her children may have been

i. Stephen, born say 1732, obtained an attachment against the estate of Thomas Loney for about 2 pounds on 10 July 1753 in Northumberland County court. On 14 April 1789 the court exempted him from paying taxes due to his old age and infirmity [Orders 1753-56, 21; 1786-90, 480]. He was taxable on himself and a horse in Northumberland County from 1787 to 1798: taxable on a slave from 1791 to 1798, exempt in 1793 and 1794 [PPTL, 1782-1812, frames 322, 330, 352, 367, 381, 395, 411, 425, 447, 479]. On 9 May 1796 the Northumberland County court certified that he was a "mulatto man" residing in the county who was born free [Orders 1796-7, 26].

ii. Hannah, born say 1735.

20      iii. Frances, born say 1750.

 

12.    William1 Nicken (Elizabeth1, Richard1), born say 1725, was presented by the Lancaster County court on 20 May 1763 for not listing his wife as a tithable, but the case was dismissed the following month. He was sued by David Galloway in Lancaster County for a 6 pound debt on 1 July 1765. He was not found, so the sheriff executed the judgment on his securities Peter Rouse and Mary Nicken [Judgments, 1764-5, frames 386-93]. Thomas Pollard sued him for 3 pounds on 16 March 1769 and William Schofield, Jr., sued him in a case of trespass upon the case for 15 pounds in April 1769. He was not found, so the sheriff reported that he had left the summons at William's "mansion house." On 17 August 1769 he sued James Hill for trespass, assault and battery and was awarded 20 shillings. John Heath won a case against him for 8 pounds, 19 shillings on 16 April 1771. Jesse Crowther won a case against him for 306 pounds of tobacco on 19 September 1771, and he won a case against Crowther for 21 pounds of tobacco and 76 Shillings for his costs in defending Crowther's suit against him. He was sued by George Brown on 15 October 1772 and by Charles Carter, Esquire, on 19 November 1772. He was charged with breaking and entering the house of John Mason and stealing meat on 29 June 1772 but the court ordered him discharged on hearing the evidence. On 22 January 1773 he was charged with breaking into the store house of Anthony McQuhan and stealing 30 pounds in currency. He was sent to Williamsburg for trial. Robert Nicken was one of the state's witnesses against him [Orders 1770-78, 4; 1756-64, 483; 1764-7, 145, 199, 213; 1768-70, 8, 46, 55; 1770-78, 4, 53, 67, 96, 112, 122, 136, 156, 230, 277, 284, 295, 303; 1778-83, 4-6, 5b; Court Papers, 1771-1774, frames 697-8, 788; Judgments, 1767-9, frames 582-3; 1768-78, frames 102-4, 221-2]. He was acquitted by the Grand Jury at Williamsburg according to a notice in the 22 April 1773 issue of the Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon edition, p.3, col. 1]. His children James, Mary Ann, Dick and William Nicken were named by the Lancaster County court on 21 January 1772 when it ordered them bound apprentices while he awaited trial. The court bound out Mary Ann, William, James, Leroy, and Sarah Ann as apprentices on 18 February 1773 [Orders 1770-78, 292, 299-300]. He was taxable in Lancaster County in 1775 [Tithables 1745-95, 15]. An indictment by the Commonwealth against him was dismissed by the Lancaster Count court on 16 June 1780 [Orders 1778-83, 57]. He may have been the William Nicken who enlisted early in the Revolutionary War as a drummer, was in a short time made drum major, and returned to Northumberland County at the close of the war [Hopkins, Virginia Revolutionary War Land Grant Claims, 39]. His children were

i. Richard4, born about 1751, served in the Revolution aboard the galley Hero and received 1,000 acres on 2 August 1783 for serving three years. He was listed as William Brent's Lancaster County tithe in 1775, and listed as John Clayton's tithe in 1776 [Tithables 1745-95, 14, 18]. He was in the personal property tax lists in Lancaster County from 1784 to 1794: taxable on 3 slaves in 1787, taxable on taxable on Philip Boyd's tithe in 1792 and 1793 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 23, 45, 62, 97 109, 121, 157; Tithables 1745-95, 51]. He registered in Lancaster County on 17 October 1803: Age 52, Color mulatto...born free [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 1]. He married Elizabeth Hamilton, 20 August 1806 Lancaster bond and was head of a Lancaster County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:355]. He was said to be eighty-two years old when he applied for a pension in Lancaster County court on 17 December 1832 [M805, reel 0615, frame 0187], and his age was estimated at eighty years on 7 January 1834 when he testified for John Jackson's pension application [Hopkins, Virginia Revolutionary War Land Grant Claims, 119]. His 17 January 1835 Lancaster County will, proved 16 March 1835, mentioned his niece Zelia Nicken and her children Assenath and Nancy Nicken [WB 28:329].

ii. James5, born about 1759, bound to Thomas Pollard on 18 February 1773, tried in Lancaster County court for felony on 2 February 1790. He consented to corporal punishment rather than be tried at the district court in Richmond. The court ordered that he receive twenty-five lashes, leave the county within five days, and never return [Orders 1789-92, 101]. He was taxable in Prince William County from 1796 to 1798 and from 1806 to 1813: called a "Dark" man in 1805 and 1806, a "yellow" man in 1809 and 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1810, frames 315, 341, 368, 598, 645, 709]. He was head of a Prince William County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:506]. He was about fifty-nine years old and living in Falmouth when he applied for a pension on 27 April 1818. He was a sixty-two-year-old "Free Man of Color" living alone in Stafford County on 16 August 1820 when he applied for a pension. He testified that he enlisted in Lancaster County where he served aboard the ships Tempest, Revenge, and Hero, and then served in the army for two or three years [M805, reel 615, frame 0192].

iii. Mary Ann, born say 1760, bound to Bridger Haynie in Lancaster County on 18 February 1773 [Orders 1770-78, 299].

iv.?Leroy, bound with William Nicken to Thomas Pollard in Lancaster County on 18 February 1773 [Order 1770-78, 300]. Leroy was charged with felony in Lancaster County on 12 January 1786. The principle witness against him failed to appear, but he being "conscious to himself that he is guilty" consented to receive thirty-nine lashes and an hour in the pillory rather than be tried in the General Court. On 2 November 1789 the Lancaster County court found him guilty and sent him to Richmond for further trial for breaking and entering the store of John Digges at night and stealing goods valued at 20 shillings [Orders 1786-9, 1; 1789-92, 75-6]. He was a "free Mulatto" laborer of Saint Anne's Parish, Essex County, on 26 March 1791 when he was accused of entering the house of Mace Clements in the town of Tappahannock and stealing a hat, coat and breeches, but the proof against him was not sufficient to send him for further trial [Orders 1790-4, 22]. He was a "free negro" charged on 25 June 1791 by the Hustings court in Fredericksburg with stealing 15-20 pounds in cash from the house of Elizabeth King Allason. He was sent to the district court for trial [Orders C, 1787-180, 152].

v.  William, bound to Richard Hutchings in Lancaster County on 18 February 1773 [Orders 1770-78, 300].

vi. ?Sarah Ann, bound apprentice to Thomas Pollard on 18 February 1783 [Orders 1770-78, 300].

 

13.   Elizabeth2 Nicken (Christian, Richard1), born about 1711, called "Betty a negro child the Daughter of Criss, a free negro woman" (no surname mentioned), was five years old on 19 September 1716 when she was bound apprentice to Charles Craven in adjoining Northumberland County [Orders 1713-19, 180]. She may have been identical to "Black Betty" whose suit against John Yerby for her freedom was dismissed on 14 June 1721 because she failed to prosecute [Orders 1713-21, 350]. And she may have been identical to Elizabeth Nicken who was presented by the Lancaster County court on 19 November 1764 for concealing three tithables. The case was dismissed on 17 December 1764 [Orders 1764-7, 76; Judgments, 1765-7, frames 41, 54]. Betty Nicken was a blind woman living in Wiccomoco District, Northumberland County on 14 October 1788 when the court allowed her 400 pounds of tobacco for her support [Orders 1786-90, 442]. She may have been the mother of

i. Martha2, born say 1735, mother of Rhoda Nickens, who was bound apprentice to (her grandmother?) Betty Nickens on 21 October 1765 in Lancaster County [Orders 1764-7, 168].

21      ii. James2, born say 1737.

 

14.    James3 Nickens (Robert1, Edward1, Richard1), born say 1743, sued Peter Marsh in Lancaster County court on 21 May 1764 [Orders 1764-7, 39]. He was the father of Jemima Bass, widow of Willis Bass. She was sixty-six years old on 10 April 1835 when she deposed that she was the only child of James Nickens who served as a seaman in the Revolution [Hopkins, Virginia Revolutionary War Land Grant Claims, 166; M805-0615, frame 0192]. Willis was deceased on 19 May 1834 when the Norfolk County court certified that she was his widow and only heir of her father James Nickens and his brother Nathaniel Nickens. James served aboard the Caswell [Court Minutes 24:139]. He was the father of

i. Jemima, born about 1769, married Willis Bass.

ii. ?Margaret, married William Newton, 30 March 1805 Norfolk County marriage [Ministers' Returns, 1787-1840, 34].

 

15.    Nathaniel1 Nickens, born say 1745, was a Lancaster County seaman who served in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41] and head of a Lancaster County household of 3 "Blacks" in 1783, listed next to Robert Nickens [VA:55]. He was taxable in Lancaster County from 1782 to 1786: listed with 2 tithables in 1784, charged with Moses Cook's tithe in 1786 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 7, 23, 38]. He was sued in Lancaster County by Hillery Curtis for debt on 17 August 1786 with Nathaniel Nicken, Jr., as his security [Orders 1786-9, 19]. He was the father of

i. ?Nathaniel2, Jr., born say 1763, sued by Hillery Curtis for a debt of 800 pounds in Lancaster County court on 17 August 1786 [Orders 1786-9, 19].

ii. Elizabeth3, born about 1764 according to the affidavit of her father Nathaniel Nickings when she married George McCoy, 10 March 1788 Orange County, Virginia bond, 11 March marriage by Rev. George Eve.

 

16.    Amos1 Nicken (Richard3, Edward1, Richard1), born say 1750, purchased a spinning wheel at the sale of the Northumberland County estate of William Lattimore on 2 May 1771 [RB 1770-2, 386]. He was a "free" head of a Northumberland County household of 4 "Black" persons in 1782 [VA:37]. On 10 November 1783 he was presented by the Northumberland County court for failing to list himself as a tithable [Orders 1783-5, 107, 423]. He was taxable in Northumberland County from 1782 to 1807: listed with 2 tithes in 1794, 1795, 1797, 1800 and 1801; called Amos, Sr., starting in 1802 [PPTL, 1782-1812, frames 234, 249, 264, 279, 295, 314, 336, 344, 359, 374, 388, 402, 419, 433, 453, 465, 487, 501, 524, 532, 546, 586, 595, 614]. He purchased 25 acres in Northumberland County in the Parish of Great Wicomico adjoining the Church yard for 23 pounds on 20 February 1772 and 10 acres adjoining this land on 7 December 1793 [RB 9:3-4; 14:723]. His 6 April 1807 Northumberland County will, proved 8 June the same year, named his wife Sally and grandson Darius and left his land and personal estate to his son and executor Amos Nicken [RB 17:529]. Sally was probably the sister of John Pinn who mentioned her in his 9 July 1785 Northumberland County will [Northumberland County Wills and Administrations, 80]. Amos was the father of

i. Amos2, born about 1775, registered in Northumberland County on 12 June 1809: blackman, about 34 years old, 5 feet 8-1/2 Inches high [Register of Free Negroes and Mulattos, #43, Northumberland County courthouse]. He was probably first taxable in Northumberland County in 1794 when he was one of 2 unnamed tithables in the household of his father Amos1 Nickens. He was taxable in his own household, called Amos Nickens, Jr., adjoining Amos Nickens, Sr., in 1802; listed as a "Blk" taxable from 1809 to 1812 [PPTL, 1782-1812, frames 419, 532, 641, 658, 673, 687]. He was called A. Nickens when he married Elizabeth Causey, "daughter of William Causey," 5 July 1800 Northumberland County bond, Joseph Mott security; and called Amos Nickens when he married, second, Caty Griffin, 6 March 1810 Northumberland County bond, Joseph Weaver security. He was head of a Northumberland County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:990]. He and his wife Catherine sold 40 acres "being the land his father left near Wiccomoco Church" on 25 June 1813 and another 10 acres on 16 December 1815 [DB 19:275; 20:113]. He purchased 27 acres in Lancaster County on 13 May 1819 [DB 14:723]. On 22 May 1843 he testified for Fortunatus Pittman's Northumberland County application for a Revolutionary War pension [Hopkins, Virginia Revolutionary War Land Grant Claims, 175]. His Northumberland County will was written on 15 October 1850 [WB A:25].

ii. Mary, born say 1778, "daughter of Amos Nicken," married Benjamin Nicken, 11 April 1796 Northumberland County bond, Asa Swanson security.

 

17.    Edward Jones Nicken (Edward2, Edward1, Richard1), born say 1748, was called "son of Edward Nicken, deceased" when he was bound an apprentice shoemaker to John Nicholds in Lancaster County on 18 February 1757 [Orders 1756-64, 40]. His children may have been

i. Polly Armstead Nickens, born about 1767, married Charles Lewin, 1 January 1805 Lancaster County bond.

ii. Armstead, born about 1781, registered in Lancaster County on 16 September 1805: Age 24, Color mulatto [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 2]. He married Polly Weaver, 21 January 1819 Lancaster County bond.

 

18.    Limas/ Elimaleck1 Nickens, born say 1752, was head of a Northumberland County household of 5 "black" persons in 1782 [VA:37]. He was taxable in Northumberland County in 1782 and 1783 [PPTL, 1782-1812, frames 232, 250] and was presented by the Northumberland County court for failing to list himself as a tithable on 10 November 1783 [Orders 1783-5, 107, 423]. Elimas/ Elimaleck was taxable in Lancaster County in 1785 and 1786 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 30, 36]. Limick was a "B.M." (black man) taxable in the 2nd district of Augusta County in 1796 [PPTL 1796-1810, frame 32]; Limlick/ Elimelick/ Emlick/ Limas was a "free Negro" taxable in the west district of Rockingham County, Virginia, from 1797 to 1799 and in 1802 [PPTL 1795-1813, frames 161, 236, 257, 372]; and Amalik/ Emilick was a "B.M" taxable in Augusta County on 2 tithes in 1800, 2 tithes and a horse in 1801 and 3 tithes and a horse in 1802 in the same list as Moses, Isaac, Abraham, Edward and Jacob Nickens [PPTL 1782-95, frame 539; 1795-1810, frames 201, 246, 298]. On 23 November 1801 the Orange County, Virginia court certified that he and Moses Nickens were free and allowed them to hire themselves out [Orders 1801-3, 179]. Amlick and his wife Sarah and their children: James, Agnes, Lot, Easter, Amlick, and Moses resided in Ross County, Ohio, on the farm of Benjamin Kerns in 1804 according to a certificate of residency he obtained from Kerns on 18 August 1812 and recorded at the Ross County courthouse [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto, and Poor Persons, 17]. Amlick and his wife Sarah were the parents of    

i. ?William3, born say 1775, a "Black" taxable in Augusta County in 1803 and 1804 [PPTL 1796-1810, frames 343, 391], "a black man," and his wife Rose and four or five unnamed children living in Ross County, Ohio, about 1807 according to a certificate of residency signed by William Lewis and recorded at the Ross County courthouse [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto, and Poor Persons, 17]. Rosan was head of a Ross County household of 11 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. James, born after 1775, head of a Ross County household of 12 "free colored" in 1830.

iii. Agnes.

iv. Lot, born after 1775, head of a Ross County household of 5 "free colored" in 1830.

v. Easter.

v. Amlick2.

vi. Moses.

 

19.    Edward3 Nickens (Richard2, Elizabeth1, Richard1), born say 1730, was probably a shoemaker like his father since he was required by his father's will to make his mother's shoes. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary War who was deceased by 5 December 1792 when a petition by his son and heir Richard Nickens was placed before the North Carolina General Assembly [LP 117 by NCGSJ IV:174]. His oldest children: Philip, Edward, Roland, and Proskate were mentioned in his father's Currituck County will [WB 1:92-94]. His children were

i. Philip, born say 1762.

ii. Edward5, born say 1765, perhaps the Edward Nickins who was head of a Hertford County household in 1810 [NC:96].

iii. Roland, born say 1767.

iv. "Proskate"/ Prescott, born say 1768. On 27 June 1791 he purchased from John and Dolly Northern for 5 pounds 25 acres near the Great Swamp Bridge which had been devised to his sister Leah Rail, and on 5 January 1793 he sold for 200 pounds the 25 acres he purchased from the Northerns as well as 25 acres he was devised in his grandfather's will near Moyock Mill [DB 6:155, 260]. He was head of an "other free" household in Captain Lewis' District of Hertford County in 1800.

v. Richard6, born say 1770, not mentioned in the will of his grandfather Richard Nickens, but named as the son of Edward Nicken in his own petition to the General Assembly. On 27 June 1791 he purchased from John and Dolly Northern 100 acres of land in Currituck County "which Richd Nickin Decesd Give to his Son Edward Nickin by his will." On 13 February 1793 he and his wife Elizabeth sold 10 acres of their land and another 160 acres near the Great Swamp about a year later. And in 1794 he sold land near the Great Swamp Bridge which his grandfather Richard Nickens had devised to his father Edward Nickens [DB 6:167; 7:18, 46-48]. He was head of a Currituck County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 (called Richard Mekins) [NC:22] and 8 "other free" in Captain Lewis' District of Hertford County in 1800. Perhaps his wife Elizabeth was identical to the Betsy Nickens who was head of a Pasquotank County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:916].

 

20.    Frances Nicken (Christian, Elizabeth1, Richard1), born say 1750, a "free Mulattoe, was living in Lancaster County on 17 March 1785 when she asked the court to bind her daughter Charlotte to Hannah Nicken [Orders 1783-5, 94]. Frances was head of a Stafford County household of 2 "free colored" in 1830. She was the mother of

i. Charlotte, born say 1780.

ii. Polly Nicklens, born say 1793, married William Balfour, "free persons of colour," 26 December 1812 Fredericksburg bond with the consent of her mother Frances Nicklens.

iii. ?Sarah, born say 1799, married William Skinker, "both free persons of colour," 19 October 1820 Fredericksburg bond. William Skinker was head of a Stafford County household of 5 "free colored" in 1830.

 

21.   James2 Nicken (Elizabeth2, Christian, Richard1), born say 1737, sued Edward Ingram for freedom from his indenture on 11 September 1764 in Northumberland County court. He was called James Nicken alias Bateman when the court ordered him to serve Ingram for four more years [Orders 1762-66, 411, 435]. He was taxable in Lancaster County in John Nicken's household in 1775 and 1776, taxable in his own household in 1781 [Tithables 1745-95, 14, 18, 37] and was taxable there from 1782 to 1786 [PPTL 1782-1839, frames 5, 16, 23, 38]. He was head of a Lancaster County household of 9 "Blacks" in 1783 [VA:55] and a "Mulatto" living on North River and taxable on 2 tithes and a horse in Culpeper County from 1789 to 1796, listed with James Nickens, Jr., in 1794 and 1796 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 305, 335, 416, 433, 495, 528, 566, 608]. On 24 July 1789 he leased for 5 pounds currency annually 100 acres from William Allason of Fauquier County by Culpeper County deed during the natural life of himself, his wife Sarah and his son James who was then under twenty years of age. He also agreed that within two years he would build a twenty foot square house, sixteen foot square kitchen, twenty by sixteen foot stable, thirty by twenty foot barn, and plant fifty apple and fifty pear trees. (Moses Watkins and his wife Judie rented 100 acres on the west side of the Hatyman River from Allason under the same terms eleven days prior to this on 13 July 1789) [DB P:243, 249]. He was called James Nickens, Sr., when he was taxable in Fauquier County in 1797, listed as a "free Negro" there in 1807, called James Nickens, Sr., in 1809, a "Molatto" in 1810, taxable on a horse in 1812, 1814, and 1815 [PPTL 1797-1807, frames 13, 116, 137, 819: 1809-1819, frames 117, 285, 405, 481]. He and James Nickens, Jr., were sued for debt in Fauquier County court by William Allason on 22 May 1797. They acknowledged they still owed him 4 pounds of an original debt of 49 pounds, 15 shillings from 5 November 1796 [Orders 1797-8, 97]. He obtained a certificate of freedom for himself, his wife and children in Lancaster County on 4 December 1786 which he recorded in Fauquier County on 29 April 1806. Included with the papers were a pass for himself and son James to travel unmolested and a pass for himself and two of his grandchildren Elizabeth and John Watkins to travel to Alexandria in 1806. They also certified that his wife Sarah was free and born of a free woman in Northumberland County [DB 16:380]. He was a "F. Negroe" head of a Fauquier County household of 8 "other free" in 1810, called James Nickens, Sr. [VA:368]. On 3 September 1834 James Nickens, Elizabeth Nickens, and Judy Watkins appeared in Frederick County court to apply for the survivors' pension of their father James Nickens and their brother Hezekiah Nickens, a seaman in the Virginia State Navy who died during the war. They testified that their father died about 1825 and their mother Sally was also deceased, and they were their only heirs [Court Minutes 1834-38, 61]. His children named in his pension file were

i. Hezekiah1, born say 1758, served as a seaman in the Revolution from Lancaster County.

ii. Elizabeth2, born say 1762, a "free Negro" taxable on a horse in Fauquier County in 1807 [PPTL 1797-1807, frame 819].

iii.James5, Jr., born say 1764, taxable in Culpeper County from 1794 to 1796 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 528, 566, 608], taxable in Fauquier County from 1797 to 1807: listed as a "free Negro" in 1807, a "F. Negro" listed next to Richard Nickens, "F. Negro," in 1810, a "F. Negro" taxable on Barney/ Barnett Nickens in 1811 and 1812 in Enoch Withers' district [PPTL 1797-1807, frames 13, 116, 137, 211, 359, 819; PPTL 1809-1818, frames 94, 165, 262, 405, 481], head of a Fauquier County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [VA:368]. He married Mary Peggy Berden (Burden), 17 July 1793 Culpeper County bond. He may have been the James Nickens who registered in Fauquier County on 28 November 1827: age _4, 5'6", dark Mulattoe man, born free [Register of Free Negroes, 1817-65, no. 97].

iv. Judy Watkins, born say 1766.

 

They were apparently the ancestors of

i. Patsey, born about 1793, registered in Fauquier County on 28 August 1829: age 36, 5'2-1/2", a Mulatto Woman [Register of Free Negroes, 1817-65, no. 110].

ii. Hezekiah2, born about 1799, registered in Fauquier County on 28 November 1827: age 28, 5'10-1/2", dark Mulattoe man, born free [Register of Free Negroes, 1817-65, no. 98].

 

Other members of the Nickens family were

i. William, confessed in York County court on 17 May 1773 that he owed 10 pounds to Thomas Mason, Esquire [Judgments & Orders 1772-4, 266], perhaps the William Nickens who was found not guilty by the Richmond City court of robbing James Spruce, a slave the property of Thomas Davidson, of 5 pounds, 14 shillings while they were on board the schooner Polly Sly [Hustings Court Orders 1787-92, 519].

ii. Nelly, sued John Cottrell in Northumberland County court for debt on 9 June 1789. The case was referred to referees who awarded Nelly 55 shillings for her account on 11 July 1791 [Orders 1786-90, 530, 537, 567, 571; 1790-5, 34, 38, 101, 152].

iii. Edward4, born say 1760, served as a seaman aboard the Gloucester in the State Navy for which he received bounty land on 9 February 1784. He moved to New Kent County where he lived near James Lafayette [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41]. He was taxable in the lower end of New Kent County on the south side of Warrenny Road from 1782 to 1815: taxable on a slave named Roger in 1785; taxable on a slave in 1792; removed to Richmond in 1794; taxable in New Kent County on a slave in 1796 and 1804; called a "FN" in 1806; taxable on 2 free males in 1809; listed as a "Person of Colour" with his unnamed wife in 1813. His children may have been Edward Neekins, Jr., and Bartholomew Neekins who were taxable in New Kent County in 1820 [PPTL 1782-1800, frames 36, 100, 190, 213; 1791-1828, frames 372, 409, 432, 455, 476, 491, 503, 516, 574].

iv. Julius Nickern, born say 1761, married Susanna Prewit, 20 June 1782 Pittsylvania County bond. She was probably related to Samuel Prewet, head of a Campbell County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:882].

v. Susan/ Suckey, born say 1768, taxable on "f.N." Abraham Nickings' tithe in North Farnham Parish, Richmond County, from 1805 to 1809 [PPTL 1789-1829, frames 234, 270, 292], and head of a Richmond County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [VA:408]. She may have been the mother of Suckey, Sally and Lucy Nickings who were listed as "free blacks" in Richmond County in 1813 [PPTL 1789-1829, frame 356]. Abraham was probably the Abraham Nicken who registered in Middlesex County on 20 September 1827: age 39, Black complexion, Born Free [Register of Free Negroes 1827-1860, pp. 1, 17]. He registered in Fairfax County on 16 June 1834: a black man about forty five years of age, five feet nine and a half inches high, this day produced a certificate of register from the county of Middlesex from which it appears he was born free in the county of Northumberland [Register of Free Negroes, 1822-61, no. 250].

vi. James, taxable in Essex County in 1795 [PPTL, 1782-1819, frame 266].

vii. William, taxable on a horse in Essex County from 1802 to 1813 when he was counted in a list of "Free Negroes & Mulattoes" over the age of sixteen in St. Ann's Parish [PPTL, 1782-1819, frames 348, 483, 510].

viii. Walker, listed as a "Free Negro & Mulatto" in Essex County in 1814 [PPTL, 1782-1819, frame 547].

ix. Martha2, born say 1774, married Nathan Mackling (Maclin), 10 February 1790 Halifax County, Virginia bond, Robert Hill surety, 11 February marriage.

x. Bridget, head of a Lancaster County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:355].

xi. Nancy, a "Free Mulattoe" charged by the Hustings court in Fredericksburg on 17 September 1807 with stealing a hat belonging to Charles Wardell but found not guilty [Orders F, 1807-11, 14-15, 24].

xii. Elizabeth4/Betsy, married Thomas Spriddle, 11 August 1817 Northumberland County bond, Joseph Weaver security.

xiii. Catherine Nigenes, head of a Washington, D.C. household of 1 "other free" in 1800.

 

Endnotes:

1.    Many of the "Negros" listed in John Carter's inventory had descriptive names such as "Arromack Dick...Black Franck...Barbados Dick...Mandingo Nanny...new Ned...Black Will" [Inventories & Wills No. 8, 24].

2. Perhaps Elizabeth Nickens failed to list the female members of her household as tithables. No free women were listed as tithables in Lancaster County in the surviving colonial tax lists of 1745 and 1746 [Tithables 1745-1795], so this may have been the first time the court was enforcing the 1723 amendment which made female members of African American and Indian households tithable.

3.    Valentine Bell was charged with felony in Lancaster County court on 19 December 1728. He testified that, in company with Robert Scofield and "free Robin a Mulatto," he killed a heifer that wandered into his cornfield. Bell was sent to the General Court in Williamsburg for trial [Orders 1721-9, 310-1].

4.    Benjamin Kerns was probably related to Henry Kern, head of a white Lancaster County household in 1783 [VA:55].

5.    Perhaps Leah Rael/ Rail was the wife of Jesse Rowals, head of a Hertford County household of 11 "other free" in 1790 [NC:25].

6.    The Hall family also originated in Lancaster County. A Joshua Hall was listed in the Currituck County Muster Roll with Richard Nickens in the 1750s [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 658].

 

NORMAN FAMILY

1.    Elizabeth Norman, born say 1695, was the servant of Benjamin Belt on 23 August 1715 when the Prince George's County, Maryland court ordered him to keep her and her "Mallatoe" child until the November court. The court sold her and her child to Richard Keene, the constable for Patuxent Hundred, for 3,600 pounds of tobacco later that year on 22 November. Five years later on 22 November 1720 she confessed to the court that she had an illegitimate child by a "Mullato man of William Digge's." The court sold her to her master for seven years and sold the child to William Maccoy until the age of thirty-one. On 28 August 1722 she confessed to having another "Malatto" child, and the court ordered her sold to Richard Keene for seven years and gave her child to William Harris until the age of thirty-one. In March 1749/50 the court allowed her 200 pounds of tobacco a year for her support [Court Record 1710-5, 693, 721, 790; 1715-20, 4; 1720-2, 20-1, 84, 622-3; 1748-9, 133]. She was the mother of

2        i. Jane, born say 1715.

 

2.    Jane Norman, born say 1715, was called "a Mallatto woman named Jane (no last name) Living at Mr. Richard Keen's" on 23 August 1737 when she confessed to the Prince George's County, Maryland court that she had an illegitimate child by a "free Mallatto." The court ordered that she receive twenty lashes and serve her master an additional year and one-half and sold her two-month-old son James to Edward Swann until the age of twenty-one. She had another child by a free person before 28 November 1738 when the court ordered that she receive fifteen lashes and serve her master twelve months for the trouble of his house, bound her male child to Keene until the age of twenty-one years, and ordered Keene to give the boy a year of schooling and a decent suit of clothes at the end of his indenture. She was called "Jan Molato Norman" on 26 November 1745 when the court bound her son Joseph to her master until the age of twenty-one. On 28 June 1748 and 28 March 1748/9 she was convicted of having illegitimate children by a free person. On 27 November 1750 she confessed to having another child named Basil who was bound to her master until the age of twenty-one [Court Record 1736-8, 497, 505; 1738-40, 192, 200; 1744-6, 248, 279; 1747-8, 168; 174; 1748-9, 181; 1749-50, 244]. She was the mother of

i. James, born in June 1737.

ii. ?Catherine, head of a Montgomery County, Maryland household of 6 "other free" in 1790.

iii. Joseph1, born about 1745.

iv. Bazil1, born in 1750,

3        v. Phebe1, born say 1752.

vi. ?George, head of a Washington County, Maryland household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

 

3.    Phebe1 Norman, born say 1752, was a "free negroe" living in Frederick County, Virginia, on 7 September 1784 when the court bound her children Ralph (six), Loise (eight), James (four) and Elizabeth (two) to Gerard Briscoe [Orders 1781-4, 573]. She was the mother of

i. ?Bazil2, born say 1772, "son of Phebe a free negroe," bound by the Frederick County, Virginia court to Gerard Briscoe on 7 September 1784 [Orders 1781-4, 570], probably the Bazil Norman who was head of a Frederick County, Virginia household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:569] and 4 "free colored" in Randolph County in 1830.

ii. Loise, born about 1776.

iii. Ralph, born about 1778.

iv. James, born about 1780, head of a Hampshire County, Virginia household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:770].

v. Elizabeth, born about 1782, head of a Frederick County, Virginia household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:575].

vi. ?Phebe2, born 16 April 1783, a "Negro child" bound by the Frederick County, Virginia court to Robert Glass on 6 December 1791 [Orders 1791-2, 308].

 

Other members of the Norman family were

i. John, born say 1765, bound his "Negro" son John to Robert Mitchell in Richmond City, Virginia, on 20 June 1793 [Hustings Court Deeds 1792-9, 69 by Gill, Apprentices of Virginia, 186-7].

ii. James, a "free Negro" taxable in Richmond City from 1788 to 1796 [PPTL 1787-99].

ii. Lilly, born say 1773, a "Mulatto" living in Hamilton Parish on 22 August 1774 when the Fauquier County court ordered her bound to Judith Neale Grant [Orders 1773-80, 203].

iii.  Joseph2, head of a Frederick County, Virginia household of 4 "free colored" in 1830.

iv. Delpha, "Mulo." head of a King and Queen County, Virginia household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:172].

v. Reuben, head of a Warren County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:822].

vi. Samuel, head of a Warren County, North Carolina household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:].

vii. Polly, head of a Chowan County, North Carolina household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:129].

 

NORRIS FAMILY

1.    Ann Norris, born say 1740, confessed to the Fairfax County court on 17 June 1760 that she had a "base born Mulatto child." On 15 July the court ordered her sold for five years and bound (her son) Samuel Norris to her mistress Ann Jenkins [Orders 1756-63, 474, 489]. She was the mother of

2        i. Samuel1, born in January 1760.

ii. ?William1, born say 1774, taxable in Hampshire County on two horses from 1791 to 1795 and in 1799 in the same district as Samuel Norris (no race indicated) [PPTL 1782-99, frames 243, 255, 327, 343, 594], perhaps the William Norris "Negro" who was taxable in Loudoun County from 1810 to 1821 in Cameron district, the same area as members of the Newman, Kennedy, Hill and Gowins families [PPTL 1798-1821].

 

2.    Samuel1 Norris, born in January 1760, a "base born Mulatto child," was bound out by the churchwardens of Trinity Parish, Fairfax County. On 19 June 1764 the court ordered that the churchwardens of Truro Parish bind him to Ann Jenkins [Court Minutes 1763-5, n.p.]. He was taxable on his own tithe and a horse in Hampshire County from 1787 to 1805: called a "Mulat" in 1801 [PPTL 1782-99, frames 106, 136, 167, 181, 243, 255, 327, 343, 408, 426, 500, 520, 594; 1800-14, frames 59, 200, 222, 310]. On 17 September 1796 he was summoned by the Hampshire County court to show cause why his children should not be bound out [Horton, Hampshire County Minute Book Abstracts, 1788-1802, 24]. He was taxable in Randolph County from 1809 to 1820: called a "Mulo," "Cold," or "man of Colour" starting in 1813, listed with two tithes in 1814 and 1815, called "Sr." starting in 1818 [PPTL 1787-1829, frames 387, 402, 414, 422, 437, 448, 466, 484, 494, 505, 536]. The Male, Norris and Cook "other free" families were counted in the Randolph County census as white in 1810, so he was listed as over the age of 45, with a woman (his wife?) also over 45, two male and two female children under 10 and a woman age 26-45 [VA:428]. He was head of a Randolph County household of 9 "free colored" in 1830 [VA:130] and 1 "free colored" in 1840 [VA:272]. He was probably the father of

i. William2, born say 1791, taxable in the same district as Samuel in Randolph County in 1812 and from 1816 to 1829: called "Cold" in 1817, a "man of Colour" or "free Mulatto" thereafter [PPTL 1787-1829, frames 422, 484, 494, 505, 536, 584, 639]. He was age 36-55 when he was head of a Randolph County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:272], 8 "free colored" in 1840 [VA:272], a fifty-nine-year-old "Mulatto" stonemason with $1,500 real estate counted in the 1850 census for Barbour County, West Virginia, with (wife) Anna [family no. 283].

ii. Samuel2, born about 1793, a "Cold" or "free Mulatto" taxable in Randolph County from 1817 to 1829 [PPTL 1787-1829, frames 484, 505, 519, 536, 584, 615, 639, 655, 701, 720], head of a Randolph County household of 7 "free colored" in 1840 [VA:272], a fifty-seven-year-old "Mulatto" counted in the 1850 Barbour County, West Virginia census with (wife?) Phebe [family no. 279].

iii. James, say 1804, a "free Mulatto" or "free Negro" taxable in Randolph County in 1820, 1821, 1828 and 1829 [PPTL 1787-1829, frames 536, 556, 655, 701, 720], head of a Randolph County household of 4 "free colored" in 1840 [VA:273].

iv. Isaac, born 1804-1814, head of a Randolph County household of 6 "free colored" in 1840 [VA:272], a forty-four-year-old "Black" counted in the 1850 Barbour County census with $400 real estate [VA:22a].

 

NORTON FAMILY

1.    Elizabeth Norton, born about 1734, registered in Petersburg on 20 August 1794: a brown Mulatto woman, five feet one inches high, sixty years old or upwards, born free and raised in Chesterfield County near Petersburg [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 72]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Jacob, born say 1760, a "man of colour" who died in Revolutionary War service and left no heirs according to a deposition by Charles Hood in Orange County, North Carolina, in 1820 [The North Carolinian, p. 2578].

ii. Thomas, a "free" taxable head of household with David Norton and Nick Harris in the Dinwiddie County list of Braddock Goodwyn from 1793 to 1796 [Personal Property Tax List, 1791-99 (1793 A, p.10), (1794 B, p.10) (1796 A, p.10].

iii. Sealer, born about 1768, registered in Petersburg on August 19, 1794: a dark brown Mulatto woman, five feet eight inches high, twenty six years old, born free & raised in Chesterfield County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 54].

iv. Sarah, head of a Randolph County, North Carolina household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:99].

v. William1/ Willie, head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:330] and 4 in 1810 [NC:39].

vi. William2, a cooper, counted with his wife Elizabeth in a list of "free Mulattoes" living on Bears Element Creek in Lunenburg County with Eppes Allen and Betsy Hobson in his household in 1802 and 1803 [Lunenburg County Free Negro & Slave Records, 1802-3, LVA].

vii. Aaron, counted in a list of "free Mulattoes" in James and Ritter Stewart's household on Beaver Pond in Lunenburg County in 1802 [Lunenburg County Free Negro & Slave Records, 1802-3, LVA].

viii. Polly, mother of Mima Norton who married Isham D. Valentine, "free persons of color," 4 March 1812 Chesterfield County bond, Nathaniel Stewart and Moses Nash securities. Isham, Nathaniel, and Moses were counted in the Chesterfield County list of "Free Negrows of Colour" in 1813 [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List].

ix. Peter, a "Molatto" taxable in Chesterfield County in 1805 [Personal Property Tax List, 1786-1811, frame 620].

 

NORWOOD FAMILY

1.    Theophilus1 Norwood, born say 1700, was the Carteret County Deputy Marshall and kept the ferry at the head of North River in 1728 [Minutes 1723-47, 8a, 10b]. He married Elizabeth Johnson, a daughter of William1 Johnson, and was named in her father's 5 November 1726 Carteret County will [SS Wills 1722-35, 140]. He and Elizabeth's brother, Jacob Johnson, purchased 130 acres in Carteret County on Core Sound on the east side of North River from (Jacob's uncle?) Richard2 Johnson on 2 October 1724. He sold his half of this land to Jacob on 6 June 1727. He purchased 160 acres on the west side of the head of North River on 3 June 1727 from William Russell, and he and his wife Elizabeth signed over their right to this land to Richard Russell on 3 September 1729 [DB C:113, 171; D:20-23]. He was listed in the muster roll of Colonel Gabriel Powell's Battalion of South Carolina Militia in the 1759 Cherokee Expedition, Captain John Hitchcock's Company [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 896, 917, 930]. Theophilus and Elizabeth's children were

i. William, born before 5 November 1726 when he was mentioned in the will of his grandfather William Johnson.

2        ii. ?Ann Norwood, born say 1730.

 

2.    Ann1 Norwood, born say 1730, a "Woman of Mixt blood," appeared in Carteret County on 5 March 1750 requesting that her children Ann and Sampson be bound to James Shackleford. Her children were

i. Sampson, born about 1748, bound to James Shackleford on 5 March 1750 with the consent of his mother [Minutes 1747-64, 181].

ii. Ann2, born about 1749, ordered bound to James Shackleford on 5 March 1750 with the consent of her mother. She was head of a Carteret County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:129].

iii. Esther, born about 1752, eighteen years old in June 1770 when the court ordered her bound to James Shackleford [Minutes 1764-77, 388].

iv. Theophilus2/Foy, born about 1753, a six-year-old "Molato" boy of Nan Norwood, a "Molato" woman, ordered bound to Keziah Shackleford on 6 September 1759 [Minutes 1747-64, 251]. His age was estimated at fifteen years in June 1770 when he consented to his indenture to William Fulford [Minutes 1764-77, 388]. He was twenty-seven years old in 1778 when he was listed in the Carteret County Militia Returns [The North Carolinian VI:728].

v. Sophia/Phias, born about 1755, a "Molato" girl of Nan Norwood, ordered bound to Keziah Shackleford on 6 September 1759 [Minutes 1747-64, 259]. She was fifteen years old in June 1770, called Sophia Norwood, when she was ordered bound to William Fulford [Minutes 1764-77, 388].

vi. Obed, born about March 1758, a "Molato" boy of Nan Norwood, ordered bound to Keziah Shackleford on 6 September 1759 [Minutes 1747-64, 259]. His age was estimated at thirteen years in June 1770 when James Shackleford asked that he be bound to him as a cooper [Minutes 1764-77, 388]. He was called Obid Norward in the 1778 Carteret County Militia Returns [The North Carolinian VI:728]. He married Nelly Neale, 3 August 1810 Craven County bond.

vii. Betty, born about 1760, ordered bound to Keziah Shackleford on 5 March 1761 [Minutes 1747-64, 259].

viii. ?Tabitha, born about 1765, five years old in June 1770 when the court ordered her bound to James Shackleford (no parent named) [Minutes 1764-77, 388]. She was head of a Portsmouth, Carteret County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 (called Tabitha Nored) [NC:440] and 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:128].

ix. ?Alice, born about 1768, one year and nine months old in June 1770 when the court ordered her bound to James Shackleford (no parent named) [Minutes 1764-77, 388]. She was head of a Carteret County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 (called Alice Nored) [NC:435].

 

NUTTS FAMILY

Members of the Nutts family were

i. William, born say 1750, an Indian living in Accomack County on 25 October 1774 when he and Nathan Addison's slave Jacob were charged with felony [Orders 1774-7, 270, 277].

ii. Daniel, born December 1760, a four-year-old "Mulattoe" bound to Major Joyne by the Northampton County, Virginia court on 11 September 1765 [Minutes 1765-71, 11]. He was head of an Accomack County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:45].

iii. Edmund, born Christmas 1774, bound by the Northampton County court to Margaret Addison on 12 February 1782 [Minutes 1777-83, 336]. He was a "free Negro" taxable in Northampton County from 1798 to 1803 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 251, 270, 312, 353]. He married Mary Bibbins, 18 June 1800 Northampton County bond, Southy Collins security, consent of Nanny Bibbins. He was head of an Accomack County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:45]. He was called an Indian when his wife Mary was counted as a "free negro" in Accomack County in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1814, frame 833].

iv. Thomas, head of an Accomack County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:158].

v. Bridget, married Toby Stephens, 7 September 1804 Northampton County bond, Ben Dunton security.

vi. Sabra, married Isaac Stephens, 16 August 1809 Northampton County bond, Isaac Stevens, Sr., security.

vii. Ariena, born say 1779, married Peter Beckett, 10 January 1800 Accomack County bond, Babel Major, surety. Babel Major was head of an Accomack County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:43]. Ariena may have been the Arena Becket who married Thomas Bibbins, 2 August 1800 Accomack County bond, Peter Bibbins surety.

 

OATS FAMILY

Members of the Oats family were

i. Charles, born say 1752, called Charles Oats alias Jackson when he was presented by the York County court on 15 November 1773 for failing to list himself as a tithable in Bruton Parish [Judments & Orders 1772-4, 436, 442]. He was a "free negro" who was accused of breaking into a cellar in Williamsburg which belonged to James Smith. On 9 August 1776 Smith placed an ad in the Virginia Gazette offering a reward for his capture, stating that Charles had a wife in Back River [Virginia Gazette. 16 August 1776. Supplement (Purdie edition)].

ii. William, a seaman in the Revolution from Northumberland County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41]. He was taxable in Northumberland County from 1810 to 1812, called William P. Oats in 1811 [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 658, 673, 688] and a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:991].

iii. John, head of a Dauphin County, Pennsylvania household of 1 "other free" in 1790.

 

OKEY FAMILY

The Okey family probably descends from Mary Vincent, wife of John Okey, an early resident of Sussex County, Delaware. Before marrying John Okey (a white man), Mary had a son named Aminadab Hanser by a slave in Accomack County, Virginia, about 1664. (See the Okey and Hanser family histories in Free African Americans of Maryland and Delaware). A mixed-race man named Aminadab Okey appeared in the Sussex County, Delaware, records in 1713. Perhaps he was another mixed-race child of Mary Okey.

 

1.    Aminadab Okey, born say 1680, may have been the "strang Child ... which is not Certainly known Whose it is" who was living at John Okey's house in March 1682 when the Sussex County court bound him to Henry Bowman. Aminadab Okey was sued by Aminadab Hanser in Sussex County court on 3 May 1704 [Horle, Records of Sussex County, 155, 1191]. He and Aminadab Hanser were apparently neighbors because on 9 April 1713 he was required to give 100 pounds security to Aminadab Handsor in Sussex County court to guarantee that he would abide by the arbitrators' decision regarding the removal of a fence. And Aminadab Hanser's wife Rose mentioned Aminadab Okey's land adjoining hers in her 8 December 1725 deed of sale [DB D-4:225-6; F-6:220-2]. Aminadab Okey died before 1734 when the account of his estate was recorded in Sussex County court. The account totalled 44 pounds and included 22 pounds for the sale of land [Orphans Court 1728-44, 65]. He was most likely the ancestor of

i. Robert1, born say 1698, living on land adjoining Samuel and Ann Hanser on 20 May 1733 when they sold 124 acres near Rehoboth Bay, Sussex County. He was mentioned in the 11 June 1742 Sussex County, Delaware deed of his son Samuel who sold land which had formerly belonged to Aminadab Okey and Robert Okey [DB G-7:34-5; H-8:14]. He died before 3 September 1745 when his daughter Sabria and her husband John Parsons petitioned the Sussex County court to divide his land among his heirs [Orphans Court 1744-51, 17].

2        ii. Joseph, born say 1725.

iii. Saunders, born say 1750, and his wife Mary, "melattoes," registered the 20 October 1771 birth of their daughter Rhoda at St. George's Protestant Episcopal Church, Indian River [Wright, Vital Records of Kent and Sussex Counties, 101]. He was taxable in Lewes and Rehoboth, Sussex County in 1774 and a delinquent taxable in 1787. He married, second, Johannah Hansor, widow of Nehemiah Hansor about 1786.

iv. Robert2, born say 1752, taxable in Lewes and Rehoboth Hundred, Sussex County, in 1774. He was called a tanner on 2 February 1789 when he and Jennett Okey, spinster, purchased as tenants-in-common four acres in Lewes and Rehoboth Hundred on the edge of the Rehoboth Road [DB O-14:161]. He was head of a Sussex County household of 9 "other free" in 1800 [DE:438] and 11 in 1810 [DE:462].

v. Thomas, Jr., born say 1757, taxable in Lewes and Rehoboth Hundred in 1774.

vi. Jonathan1, born say 1757, perhaps the John Okey, Jr., who was taxable in Lewes and Rehoboth Hundred in 1774. Jonathan was head of a Little Creek Hundred, Kent County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [DE:41].

vii. William1, born say 1763, and his wife Sarah registered the 5 April 1785 birth of their daughter Polley at St. George's Protestant Episcopal Church, Indian River Hundred, Sussex County, Delaware [Wright, Vital Records of Kent and Sussex Counties, 106]. He was taxable in Indian River Hundred, Sussex County in from 1784 to 1790.

viii. Jonathan2, head of a Saint Jones Hundred, Kent County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [DE:45] and 3 in Sussex County in 1810 [DE:416].

ix. Robert3, head of a Little Creek Hundred, Kent County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [DE:40] and 9 in Sussex County in 1810 [DE:468].

x. Robert4, born 1776-1794, head of a Sussex County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [DE:415] and 8 "free colored" in Lewes and Rehoboth Hundred in 1820 [DE:306].

xi. William2, born 1776-1794, head of a Lewes and Rehoboth Hundred, Sussex County household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [DE:306].

xii. Levin, taxable in Broadkiln Hundred, Sussex County, in 1784.

xiii. Betty, head of an Accomack County household of 4 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [VA:117].

 

2.    Joseph1 Okey, born say 1725, purchased 212 acres in Broadkill Hundred, Sussex County, Delaware, from the sheriff on 5 August 1762 [DB I-9:390]. He was a "Molatto" taxable in William Burford's District, Granville County, North Carolina, in 1765. He was taxable on two tithes in 1769 and 1771 and was taxed on an assessment of 329 pounds in Nap of Reeds District, Granville County, in 1780. In 1786 he was called Joseph Oakey, Sr., in Nap of Reeds District of Granville County when he was head of a household of 2 "white" men over sixty or under twenty-one years and 4 "white" women in the state census. He was taxable on 250 acres from 1786 to 1804 and taxable on one poll in 1786 but not free from poll tax by 1790. He was called Joseph Oakley in 1800 when he was head of a Granville County household of 8 "other free." Perhaps his widow was Sarah Oakey who was taxable on 50 acres in Ledge of Rock District, Granville County, from 1805 to 1808 [Tax List 1803-1811, 142, 199, 212, 268]. Joseph was probably the father of

3        i. Joseph2, Jr., born say 1750.

ii. Micajah, head of a household of 1 "white" male under twenty-one years of age and 2 "white" females in Nap of Reeds District in the state census for Granville County in 1786. Administration of his Granville County estate was granted to Joseph Okey in February 1791 on 200 pounds security [Minutes 1789-91, n.p.].

 

3.    Joseph2 Okey, born say 1750, was taxable on an assessment of 1,810 pounds in Granville County in 1780. He was called Joseph Oakey, Jr. in 1790 when he was taxable in Dutch District, Granville County, North Carolina, and called "Joseph Oakley, Jr." in 1800 when he was head of a Granville County household of 8 "other free." He was taxable on 447 acres Dutch District, Granville County from 1786 to 1796 and taxable on 250 acres from 1802 to 1804. His 8 August 1804 Granville County will was proved by his wife Elizabeth in August 1805. He (signing) left 100 acres to his son Aaron, 150 acres to his son Willie and daughter Selah, and named his other children: Joseph, Susanna, Elizabeth, and Deborah [Original at N.C. Archives, CR.044.801.29]. His widow Elizabeth Okey was taxable on 250 acres in Ledge of Rock District in 1805 [Tax List 1796-1802, p.283; 1803-1811, 89, 142, 199, 212], and head of a Ledge Neck, Granville County household of 3 "free colored" women in 1820 [NC:18]. They were the parents of

i. Aaron.

ii. Selah.

iii. William4/ Willie.

iv. Joseph3.

v. Susanna.

vi. Elizabeth.

vii. Deborah.

 

OLIVER FAMILY

1.    Mary Oliver, born say 1692, was living in St. Stephen's Parish, Northumberland County, on 18 December 1712 when the grand jury indicted her for having a "Mulatto" child the previous May. She did not appear in court until 18 November 1713 when she was ordered to pay a fine of 500 pounds of tobacco [Orders 1699-1713, 812; 1713-19, 6]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. William1, head of a Westmoreland County household of 12 "other free" in 1810 [VA:781].

ii. William2, head of a Lancaster County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:355].

iii. James, "free negro" head of a Gloucester County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:665].

iv. Benjamin, "free Negro" taxable in Hanover County in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 29:105].

 

OTTER/ AUTER FAMILY

1.    Betty Otry, born say 1730, was living in Cumberland County, Virginia, on 27 July 1752 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Southam Parish to bind out her children Sarah and Ballard [Orders 1752-8, 25]. She was the mother of

2        i. Sarah, born say 1748.

ii. Ballard, born say 1750.

 

2.    Sarah Otter, born say 1748, was called Sarah Otway and was living in Cumberland County, Virginia, on 28 August 1775 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Littleton Parish to bind out her "mulattoe" children Kitty and Billy to Benejah Thompson. She was called Sarah Otry on 25 March 1776 when the court bound her "mulattoe" children Kitty, Billy, and Nancy to Bartlet Thompson. And she was called Sarah Otrey on 28 July 1777 when the court bound her "mulattoe" son James to Bartlet Thompson [Orders 1774-8, 339, 364]. She was called Sarah Otter in Chesterfield County on 7 May 1779 when the court ordered her children James and John Otter bound out [Orders 1774-84, 224]. She was called Sally Auter in Henrico County on 5 January 1793 when she consented to the marriage of her daughter Nancy Auter to William Moss. She purchased a lot of about 1-3/8 acres in Swansboro, Chesterfield County, in 1799 and was called Sally Allen alias Otter when she was taxable on the land until 1820 when it was divided among Royal (1/2 lot), Milley (1/2 lot), and Kittey Auter (32/40 lot) [Land Tax List 1791-1822, B lists]. She was counted in a list of "Free Negroes" in Chesterfield County in 1813 with two women in her household over the age of sixteen [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List]. She was the mother of

3        i. Kitty, born about 1772.

ii. Billy, born say 1774, bound apprentice in Cumberland County on 28 August 1775.

iii. Nancy, born say 1775, bound to Bartlet Thompson on 25 March 1776, called Nancy Otter, a "poor orphan," when the Cumberland County court ordered the churchwardens of Littleton Parish to bind her to Benjamin Martin on 25 November 1782 [Orders 1779-84, 289]. She married William Moss, 5 January 1793 Henrico County bond.

iv. James, bound to Bartlet Thompson on 28 July 1777.

v. ?Henry, born say 1778, a "F. Negroe" taxable on one tithe and two horses in Chesterfield County in from 1801 to 1804, a "Mulatto" taxable from 1805 to 1807, died before 1809 when his estate was taxable on a horse [Personal Property Tax List, 1786-1811, frames 470, 506, 583, 620, 717, 753].

vi. John Auter, born 13 December 1779, registered in Petersburg on 26 July 1805: a brown Mulatto man, born 13 December 1779, five feet four and a half inches high, born free and raised in the County of Chesterfield [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 345]. He was called Jack Otter when he was taxable in Chesterfield County from 1802 to 1804 [Personal Property Tax List, 1786-1811, frames 506, 583].

vii. ?Patty, born about 1783, obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 26 August 1818: thirty five years old, yellow complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 263].

 

3.    Kitty Otter/ Auter, born about 1772, obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 16 March 1814 (and on 12 July 1819 and 11 June 1827): forty two years old, brown complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, nos. 216, 340, 580]. She may have been the mother of

i. Royall Otter, born about 1793, obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 16 March 1814: twenty one years old, yellow complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 211].

ii. Betsey Otter, born about 1795, obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 16 March 1814: nineteen years old, yellow complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 214]. She married Ned Bowman, 7 March 1815 Chesterfield County bond, Martin Bowman security.

iii. Milly, married Watt Logan, "free persons of color," 27 May Chesterfield County bond, Royal Otter security.

 

OVERTON FAMILY

1.    Sarah Overton, born say 1713, a "Mallatto Woman," was freed from her indenture to Edmund Chancey after being allowed by the October 1745 Pasquotank County court to "go up the river to see for her age in a Bible there" [Minutes 1737-46, 179-186]. She was the mother of three "Mallatto Children" Bob, Jack Spaniard, and Spanial Bow who were bound to Edmund Chancey until the age of twenty-one by the Pasquotank County court on 12 July 1738. Chancey left a Pasquotank County will on 15 March 1753 by which he bequeathed the remainder of the service of "Jack Spanyerd boe and Spanyoll Boe" to his son Daniel Chancey and left the remainder of the service of Bob Boe, Rachel Boe, and Frank Boe, and her two children to his daughter-in-law Rachel Chancey [Grimes, Abstract of North Carolina Wills, 114-7]. Her children were

i. Robert Bow, born 10 December 1729(?), a "Mulatto" head of a Pasquotank County household in 1769 [SS 837]. See further the Bow history.

ii. Frank Bow, born say 1731.

iii. Rachel Bow, born say 1733.

iv. Jack Spaniard Bow, born November 1734.

v. Spanial Bow, born May 1738.

2        vi. ?Parthenia1 Overton, born say 1740.

3        vii. ?Titus Overton, born say 1742.

4       viii. ?Samuel Overton, born say 1744.

 

2.    Parthenia1 Overton, born say 1740, was head of a Perquimans County household of 10 "other free" in 1790 [NC:31], 12 in 1800 [NC:657], and 2 in 1810 [NC:917]. She may have been the mother of

5        i. Jonathan, born about 1754.

6        ii. Rachel, born say 1760.

7        iii. Lemuel1, say 1762.

 

3.    Titus Overton, born say 1742, was taxable with his wife in Bladen County in 1763, was taxable on 2 "Mulatto" tithes in Cumberland County in 1767, was taxable with his wife ("Mulatoes") in Bladen County from 1770 to 1776 and was taxable in Bladen County on 500 acres, 3 horses, and 3 head of cattle in 1779 [SS 837; N.C. Genealogy XXI:3136; Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:32, 89, 123; II:90, 146]. He lived on the east side of the Northwest River according to a 3 February 1770 Bladen County deed from John Johnston to Silvanus Wilson for sale of 100 acres in Cumberland County where Titus Overton formerly lived [DB 23:227-8]. He received 2 pounds, 2 shillings for twenty-one days service in the Bladen County Militia between 1775 and 1776 under Captain James Council [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, Journal "A", 22]. He was called Titus Overton, cooper of Bladen County, on 12 April 1783 when he purchased 100 acres in Cumberland County on the Northwest Branch of Cape Fear River on Locks Creek which Peter Shaver patented on 2 March 1754. The size of this plot was corrected to 125 acres by deed of 13 August 1804. On 28 February 1786 he sold 150 acres in this same area of Cumberland County on Harrison's Creek which had been conveyed to him by William Anderson by an unrecorded deed. He was called Titus Overton, planter, on 19 September 1792 when he sold 100 acres on the northeast side of the Northwest River near Beaverdam Pond which had been conveyed to John Johnston and his wife on 27 April 1767 and on which they were buried, and he sold 111 acres of his land on Locks Creek on 25 August 1804 [Cumberland County DB 11:66; 12:326; 20:245, 252; 28:151]. On 16 July 1791 he was appointed administrator of the Cumberland County estate of John Overton, a soldier in the North Carolina Line [NCGSJ XIV:115-6]. He was head of a Cumberland County household of 11 "other free" in 1790 [NC:31], 7 in 1800, and 1 in 1810 [NC:600]. Titus' children were most likely

i. John1, died before 16 July 1791 when Titus Overton was granted administration on his Cumberland County estate on security of 60 pounds [Minutes 1791-97, Saturday, 16 July 1791].

ii. Dyer, born before 1776, head of a Cumberland County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [NC:570], and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:181]. On 28 December 1811 he purchased 40 acres in Cumberland County on the northwest side of Cape Fear River [DB 26:540].

iii. Isom, who purchased 133 acres adjoining Titus Overton on 26 July 1804 [DB 20:253]. His 20 November 1807 Cumberland County will, proved 18 December the same year, mentioned his wife Charity, her unnamed child she was then pregnant with, and his sister Betsy Howard [WB A:109].

iv. Elizabeth, married William Howard according to the will of her brother Isom. William was head of a white Cumberland County household in 1810 [NC:602].

 

4.    Samuel Overton, born say 1744, was a "Molatto" Perquimans County taxable in 1771 [CR 77.701.1]. His freedom papers issued in Edenton in 1783 stated that he was a

Mulatto, Free man and is entitled to all the rights, privileges Immunities of a Citizen of the State of North Carolina [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 33].

He was head of a Pasquotank County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:31], 4 in 1800 [NC:634], and 13 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:277]. He was called a "free man of Colour" on 8 March 1825 when he made a declaration in Pasquotank County court to obtain a Revolutionary War pension. He claimed that he was ninety-six years old, the father (grandfather?) of a five-year-old boy, David, and that he had lost all his property by a fire in July 1824 [M804-1854, frame 0826]. He may have been the father of

i. Susannah, head of a Pasquotank County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 (Susanna Everton) [NC:28] and 5 in 1810 [NC:917].

 

5.    Jonathan Overton, born about 1754 in Perquimans County, was the apprentice of John Bateman of Chowan County when he entered the service as a substitute for him under Colonel Lytle. He was at sea for a while and then returned to Edenton [M805, reel 626, frame 0017]. He was head of a Chowan County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [NC:535] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:129]. He was about 79 years old on 19 December 1832 when he made a declaration in Chowan County court to obtain a pension for three years service [M804-1854, frame 0788]. He was described in a 1849 newspaper account as: a colored man, a soldier in the Revolution ... at the advanced age of 101 years [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 101]. He may have been the father of

i. Benjamin, born say 1774, head of a Perquimans County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [NC:961].

ii. James, born say 1775, head of a Pasquotank County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:918] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:285]. He married Nancy Bowe, 19 January 1809 Pasquotank County bond. He was called "James Overton Freeman of color" when he purchased 3 acres in Pasquotank County about a half mile below Nixenton on 11 February 1839 [DB DD:89].

iii. David, born say 1778, head of a Chowan County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 NC:118], 1 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [NC:118] and 1 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:114].

iv. Jesse, born about 1780, a "Mulato" house carpenter apprenticed to Isacha Branch in Perquimans County on 14 February 1792 [CR 77.101.6] and head of a Pasquotank County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [NC:918].

v. Betsy, head of a Chowan County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:535].

 

6.    Rachel Overton, born say 1760, was head of a Perquimans County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:31] and 6 in Pasquotank County in 1810 [NC:917]. Her children were bound out in Perquimans County in 1819 and 1821 [CR 077.101.6]. They were

i. John3/ Jack, bound to James Leigh on 10 February 1819. He registered in Pasquotank County about 1831: about Twenty Years of Age ... black Complexion ... Son of Rachel Overton, a free Person of Colour [Byrd, In Full Force and Virtue, 193].

ii. Livinia, "of color," bound to Sophia Barker on 10 February 1819.

iii. William, bound to James Leigh on 10 February 1819.

iv. Alexander, "colored son of Rachel," bound to Myles Elliot on 14 August 1821.

v. Miley, bound to Edward Wood on 14 August 1821.

vi. Parthenia2, bound to Jesse Murden on 14 August 1821.

 

7.    Lemuel1 Overton, born say 1762, was head of Perquimans County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:31]. He was the husband of a slave named Rose and children John and Burdock who were emancipated by order of the North Carolina General Assembly. They were probably his slaves since the owner's name was not stated [Byrd, In Full Force and Virtue, 298]. He was living in Pasquotank County on 10 July 1820 when he appointed James Freeman his attorney to obtain a land warrant for his services as a soldier in the 10th Regiment of the North Carolina Line [NCGSJ VII:93]. He was deceased on 12 February 1822 when his son Lemuel was bound apprentice in Perquimans County [CR 77.101.6]. His children were

i. John2, son of Lemuel and his wife Rose, registered as a "free man of Colour" in Pasquotank County on 26 October 1830. His wife Abby (daughter of Tully and Betty Bowe) registered the same day [In Full Force and Virtue, 191-2].

ii. Braddock, son of Rose and Lemuel, registered as a "free born" person in Pasquotank County on 1 November 1830. His wife Molly, daughter of Lemuel and Jenny Hall, registered the same day [Byrd, In Full Force and Virtue, 191, 193].

iii. William, "son of Lemuel" bound to Benjamin Jones in Perquimans County on 10 May 1819 [CR 77.101.6].

iv. Lemuel2, bound to Jesse Murden on 12 February 1822.

 

Virginia

1.    Mary Overton (Ovaton), born say 1728, was the servant of Alexander Waugh of Orange County, Virginia, in August 1746 when the court presented her for having a "malatto bastard" child [Judgments, August 1746, frames 0463-4, 0477-8, LVA microfilm reel 101].

i. Ben, "free Negro" taxagble in Albemarle County on a slave and a horse in 1807 and 1809 [PPTL, 1800-13, frames 349, 395], perhaps the "cold" Ben Overton who was a "Fn" taxable in Richmond City in 1814 [PPTL 1799-1834].

ii. John, "Free negro" taxable on a horse in Caroline County in 1815 [PPTL, 1812-20].

iii. Isaac, "free negroe" taxable on a horse in Hanover County in 1814 [PPTL, 1804-24], perhaps the Isaac Overton who was a "Fn" taxable in Richmond City in 1814 [PPTL, 1799-1834].

iv. Marcia, "FN" taxable on a slave over the age of 12 in Richmond City in 1813 [PPTL, 1799-1834].

 

OWEN FAMILY

1.    Sarah Owen, born say 1744, gave consent to the Petersburg marriage of her daughter Anne Owens to James Valentine, 10 December Petersburg Hustings Court bond, William Cypress surety, 11 December 1785 marriage. She was the mother of

i. Anne, born say 1764.

ii. ?Dilcey, born about 1768, registered in Petersburg on August 19, 1794: a brown Mulatto woman, five feet one and a half inches high, twenty six years old, born free & raised in the County of Prince George [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 64].

iii. ?James, born about 1775, registered in Petersburg on 19 July 1817: a free man of colour, five feet four and a half inches high, forty two years old, dark brown complection, born free in Dinwiddie County, a carpenter [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 853].

iv. ?Polly, born about 1784, registered in Petersburg on 9 June 1810: a dark brown Mulatto woman, five feet three & a half inches high, twenty six years old, born free in Dinwiddie County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 580].

 

Other members of the family were

i. William, born about 1782, registered in Petersburg on 13 June 1807: a Brown Mulatto man, five feet two inches high, twenty five years old, raised in Sussex County with Mason Harwell, by trade a shoe maker, born free. He registered again on 29 May 1812 [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, nos. 408, 706].

ii. James Owens, head of a Burke County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [NC:349].

iii. Polly, born about 1776, registered in Brunswick County, Virginia, on 23 June 1823: about forty seven Years old, five feet five & a half Inches high ... born free from the evidence of David B. Stith [Wynne, Register of Free Negroes, 55].

iv. Nathaniel, "m" head of a Brunswick County, Virginia household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:726].

 

OXENDINE FAMILY

1.    John1 Oxendine, born say 1694, was called "John Figrow (Mallatto)" on 18 November 1719 when Judith Bowling, servant of Ann Hould, came into Northumberland County, Virginia, court and swore that he was the father of "the child she was lately brought to bed with."(1) He was called "John Oxendine alias Figro" on 20 January 1724/5 when he brought a successful suit against Ann Hould and William Wildey and his wife Elizabeth in Northumberland County, Virginia, for his freedom from any service due to them [Orders 1713-19, 347; 1719-29, 167]. He was living in Northumberland County in the 1730's when the birth dates were recorded for his children Benjamin, Jenne, Clark, and John [Fleet, Northumberland County Births, 112]. He was living in Bladen County, North Carolina, on 27 August 1753 when John Johnson, Jr., entered 100 acres whereon John Oxendine was living. He was called John Oxendine, Senr., when his improvements on the east side of Drowning Creek were mentioned in the 5 March 1759 Bladen County land entry of his son John Oxendine [Philbeck, Bladen County Land Entries, nos. 805, 1126]. On 28 November 1758 the Bladen County court recommended him to the General Assembly as a person to be excused from paying his taxes [Saunders, Colonial Records of North Carolina, V:1045]. His wife may have been Sarah Oxendine who was a white head of household in Bladen County in 1770, taxable on William Taner, a white man [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:35]. John's children were

i. Benjamin1, born 12 April 1733, sued in Cumberland County, North Carolina court by William Hodges on 18 April 1758 [Minutes 1755-59, 34].

ii. Jenne, born 14 February 1735.

iii. Clark, born 28 November 1736.

iv. John2, born 10 June 1739, entered 100 acres on the east side of Drowning Creek on 5 March 1759 which included the improvements of John Oxendine, Senr. He was living in South Carolina on 25 February 1773 when he was presented by the Court of General Sessions for retailing liquor without a license [Journal of the S.C. Court, p.229]. He was taxable in Christ Church Parish, South Carolina, from 1786 to 1795, on two slaves in 1786 and on six slaves in 1794 [Tax Returns 1783-7, frames 112, 189; 1787-1800, frames 39, 153, 172, 194]. He was head of a Christ Church Parish, Charleston, South Carolina household of 2 white males and 3 slaves in 1790 [SC:558].

2        v. ?Charles1, born say 1741.

vi. ?Cudworth, a taxable "Mulato" in Bladen County in 1768 and 1769 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:5, 14], head of a Liberty County, South Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [SC:806] and a Marion District household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [SC:83]. He was living in Georgetown District, South Carolina, near the Great Pee Dee River on 6 April 1792 when John Sanders recorded a plat for land adjoining his [South Carolina Archives series S213212, vol. 1, p. 260].

 

2.    Charles1 Oxendine, born say 1741, received a patent for 150 acres northeast of Drowning Creek in Bladen County on 23 October 1767 [Hoffman, Land Patents, II:450]. He was a "mixt Blood" taxable in Bladen County from 1766 to 1768 and a "Molato" taxable in 1770 and 1771 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:7, 35, 59]. He entered a further 200 acres in Robeson County bordering his land by two land entries of 100 acres each on 22 January and 23 September 1793 [Pruitt, Land Entries: Robeson County, I:70, 85]. On 23 November 1797 he made an unsuccessful claim for payment for three steers he provided the army commanded by General Rutherford [NCGSJ II:151]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 11 "other free" in 1790 [NC:49] and 10 in 1800 [NC:409]. By his 7 September 1808 Robeson County will he left 150 acres to his son David and 200 acres and a grist mill to his daughters [WB 1:206]. His children were

i. Benjamin2, executor of his father's will, head of a Robeson County household of 1 "other free" in 1790 [NC:50], 1 "other free" and 1 white woman in 1800 [NC:409], 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:228], and 1 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:313]. The county sold 150 acres of his land for debt on 4 January 1809 [Minutes II:128].

ii. John3, head of a Robeson County household of 1 "other free" in 1790 [NC:48]. He entered 100 acres on the north side of Drowning Creek on 18 June 1794 [Pruitt, Land Entries: Robeson County, I:96] and sold land by deed proved in Robeson County on 1 January 1810 [Minutes II:174]. He was head of a Cumberland County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 and 9 in 1810 [NC:620]. He married Margaret Mainor, 30 October 1810 Cumberland County bond.

iii. Charles2, head of a Robeson County household of 1 "other free" in 1790 [NC:48], 3 in 1800 [NC:409], 4 in 1810 [NC:232], and 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:301]. He was probably the Charles Oxendine who was indicted for assault and battery and fined fifteen dollars by the Robeson court in 1837. Since he was unable to pay his fine, as a "free negro" he was liable to be hired out by the sheriff. He fought this judgment in the Supreme Court of North Carolina on the grounds that the law unconstitutionally discriminated against free persons of color. He had the help of two eminent Fayetteville lawyers, Robert Strange, a U.S. senator, and George E. Badger, later Secretary of the Navy and a Whig senator [Franklin, Free Negro in North Carolina, 86]. He was an eighty-one-year-old "Mulatto" counted in the 1850 census for the Upper District of Robeson County with eighty-year-old (wife?) Priscilla, a farmer with $130 real estate [NC:661, family no. 262].

iv. Jesse, entered 100 acres east of Drowning Creek and north of Mill Branch in Robeson County on 22 January 1793 [Pruitt, Land Entries: Robeson County, I:70]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [NC:409] and 8 in 1810 [NC:232]. He purchased land by deed proved in Robeson County on 7 July 1801 [Minutes I:158].

3        v. Moses.

vi. Aaron, born after 1775, head of a Sumter District, South Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [SC:224a], 9 "free colored" in 1820 and 11 in 1830.

vii. David, head of a Robeson County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 [NC:409], 6 in 1810 [NC:230], and 6 "free colored" in Jackson County, Tennessee, in 1820.

viii. Nancy, born about 1765, living in South Carolina in 1795 when the 25 July issue of the North Carolina Central and Fayetteville Gazette offered a: $10 reward to deliver to the subscriber in Georgetown, a mustie servant woman named Nancy Oxendine, she is a stout wench, of a light complexion about 30 years old. It is supposed she has been ??elks away by her brother and sister, the latter lives in Fayetteville [Fouts, Newspapers of Edenton, Fayetteville, & Hillsborough, 81]. Her brother John3 and sister Betsy lived in Cumberland County.

4        ix. Betsy, born say 1766.

x. Mary, perhaps the Polly Oxendine who was a 36-45 year old head of a Cumberland County household of 3 "free colored" in 1820.

xi. Catherine.

xii. Sarah.

 

3.    Moses Oxendine was head of a Robeson County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:232] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:311]. His 20 September 1856 Robeson County will was proved in August 1857. He left 31 acres to his daughter Sylvanah and mentioned her son Archibald [WB 2:122]. His daughter was

i. Sylvanah, mother of Archibald Oxendine.

 

4.    Betsy Oxendine, born about 1766, was living in Cumberland County in October 1786 when the court ordered that her child Nance Oxendine be bound out. She was the mother of

i. ?John4, born about 1782, "a Mullattoe Base Born Child," no parent named when he was ordered bound to Neil McRainy by the 28 October 1786 Cumberland County court [Minutes 1784-7, n.p.].

ii. Nance, born about 1787, a "mulato" girl about eighteen months old who was ordered bound to James Dyer, Esq., by the 28 October 1788 Cumberland County court [Minutes 1787-91, n.p.].

 

5.    Henry Oxendine, born say 1765, was head of a Richmond County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:46]. On 22 June 1790 he entered 100 acres in Richmond County on Powells Branch of Rockey Fork of Hitchcock Creek [Pruitt, Land Entries: Richmond County, no. 544]. The April 1792 Richmond County court called him Henry Auxendine when it ordered the sheriff to sell his land to satisfy a judgment against him by Thomas Dockery, Esquire [Minutes 1779-92, 226]. And he was called Henry Auxendine when he married Sarah Collins in Richmond County between 1 December 1788 and 31 December 1789 [NCGSJ XII:168 (T&C Co. Sett., Box 75)]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:308]. He may have been the father of

i. Charles3, head of a Marion District, South Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [SC:83].

 

6.    Hector Oxendine was killed by the White Home Guard in Robeson County near the end of the Civil War in May 1865. He was suspected of helping General Sherman when his army marched through Robeson County [Blu, The Lumbee Problem, 52-53].

 

Other members of the family were

i. Archibald, born before 1776, head of an Overton County, Tennessee household of 8 "free colored" in 1820.

ii. David2, head of a Robeson County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:305].

iii. Hector, killed by the White Home Guard in Robeson County near the end of the Civil War in May 1865. He was suspected of helping General Sherman when his army marched through Robeson County [Blu, The Lumbee Problem, 52-53].

 

Endnotes:

1.    Margaret Mainor was probably the daughter of John Manor, head of a Sampson County household of 1 "other free" in 1790 [NC:53], and 4 in Cumberland County in 1810 [NC:603]. Jesse Maner (born about 1786), Isaac Maner (born about 1791), and Stephen Manor (born 19 October 1812) were "Mulatto" or "coloured" children bound apprentices in Cumberland County [Minutes 1801-4, 17 April 1801; Minutes 1823-7, 12 June 1824].

 

PAGE FAMILY

Several members of the Page family, perhaps siblings, were taxables in Norfolk County in the 1750s. They were

i. Sam, born say 1728, taxable in Norfolk County near Tanner's Bridge in 1752 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1751-65, 31].

1        ii. Ann, born say 1730.

iii. Abraham, a "Free Negro" who was indentured to William Denby when Denby made his 2 September 1749 Norfolk County will [McIntosh, Brief Abstracts of Norfolk County Wills, 300].

iv. Rachel, born say 1734, a taxable "free negro" head of her own Norfolk County household in the District of the Borough of Norfolk on the South Side of Tanner's Creek to Spratt's Bridge between 1757 and 1765 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1751-65, 122, 145, 217].

v. Margaret, born say 1736, a taxable "free negro" head of her own Norfolk County household in the District of the Borough of Norfolk on the South Side of Tanner Creek to Great Bridge in 1759 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1751-65, 145].

vi. Sarah, born say 1745, a taxable in the east side of the borough of Norfolk in 1765 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1751-65, 217].

 

1.    Ann Page, born say 1730, was taxable in Ann James' household in 1754 in Norfolk County near Tanner's Creek and head of her own household from 1754 to 1765, called "free negro" in some years and "Mollata" in others [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1751-65, 92, 122, 145, 182, 217]. She may have been the mother of

i. Thomas, born say 1759, a "free Negro" ordered bound apprentice by the churchwardens of Elizabeth River Parish in Norfolk County court on 16 May 1760 (no parent named) [Orders 1759-63, 36].

ii. James, born say 1765, head of a Bertie County, North Carolina household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:14].

 

Their descendants were most likely

i. Maria, head of a Richmond City household of 2 "other free" and 2 slaves in 1810 [VA:345].

ii. Nathaniel, head of a Richmond City household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:345].

iii. John, head of a Henrico County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:996].

 

PAGEE FAMILY

1.    Nanny Pagee, born say 1770, won freedom for herself and her children from a family named Hook by a judgment confirmed in the Virginia Court of Appeals in 1814. The jury in the case found that she was brought to Virginia from North Carolina by Thomas Jones illegally if she was a slave and that, from inspection, she was a white woman [Catterall, Judicial Cases, I:121]. She was probably identical to Nancy Pegee, a spinster counted in "A List of Free Negroes & Mulatters" in Botetourt County in 1804 [Orders 1800-4, Loose Papers, no. 48]. She was apparently the mother of

i. Polly, born about 1795, registered in Botetourt County on 7 August 1823: age 28, Bright Mulatto, 5 feet 5 inches high, Free as per certificate from Court of Bedford [Free Negroes &c Registered, no. 39].

ii. Daniel, born about 1798, registered in Bedford County on 7 August 1823: age 25, dark Mulatto, 5 feet 8 inches high, free as per copy Judgt. of Court of appeals and registered again on 9 June 1834: age 39, Dark Mulatto, five feet eight Inches high a Barber by trade, free as per Copy of Judgment of Court of appeals, by a Certificate from Charlotte County [Free Negroes &c Registered, nos. 40, 91].

iii. Celia, registered on 9 September 1828, age --, Mulatto, 5 feet 6 inches high, free by a decree of the Court of Appls Dated 22 June 1811 [Free Negroes &c Registered, no. 46].

iv. Judy, born about 1808, registered in Botetourt County on 9 June 1836: age 28, bright Mulatto, five feet 2 or 3 inches high, Born free [Free Negroes &c Registered, no.92].

 

PALMER FAMILY

1.    Ann Palmer, born say 1706, was the servant of Michael Gilbert of Cople Parish, Westmoreland County, Virginia, on 24 July 1724 when she acknowledged having a "Mulatto" child "begott of her body by a negro Man" [Orders 1721-31, 70a]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. John, head of a Loudoun County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:313].

ii. Betty, head of a Queen Anns County, Maryland household of 2 "other free" in 1790.

iii. Samuel, head of a Kent County, Maryland household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [MD:165].

 

Members of the family in North Carolina were:

i. William, head of a Pasquotank County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [NC:635] and 6 in 1810 [NC:919].

ii. David, head of a Pasquotank County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:635].

iii. Jerry, head of a Pasquotank County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [NC:919].

iv. Henry, head of a Pasquotank County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:919].

 

Another Palmer family:

1.    Priscilla Palmer, born say 1702, a single white woman of Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County, Virginia, had a male child by Robert Carter's slave named "Mullatto Billy" on 26 March 1723 [Orders 1721-9, 98-100].

 

PARKER FAMILY

Members of the Parker family were

1        i. Elisha, born about 1752-1759.

ii. Samuel, born before 1776, head of a Nansemond County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:71].

iii. Milley, born before 1776, head of a Nansemond County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:74A].

 

1.    Elisha Parker, born about 1752-1759, a "man of color," was about eighty years old on 20 November 1832 when he made a declaration in Gates County, North Carolina, to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he was born in Nansemond County, Virginia, near the North Carolina line about 1752. He was said to have been about seventy-five years old on 10 February 1834 when he made a similar declaration in Nansemond County court, stating that he entered the service in Gates County about 1779 as a substitute for Francis Speight and had been a resident of Nansemond County for the previous forty-five years [M804-1871, frame 0787]. He was head of a Gates County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:23] and 3 "free colored" in Nansemond County in 1820 [VA:79]. He may have been related to

i. Thomas, head of a Cumberland County, North Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [NC:605].

 

PARR FAMILY

1.    Anne Parr, born say 1732, was the servant of Archibald Stewart on 30 April 1754 when the Augusta County court adjudged that her bastard child was a "Mulato" and bound the child to her master [Orders 1753-5, 192]. She was probably the mother or grandmother of

i. Will, head of an Augusta County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:373].

 

PARROT FAMILY

Members of the Parrot family were

i. William, born say 1725, presented by the York County court on 20 November 1749 for failing to list himself as a tithable [Judgments & Orders 1746-52, 256, 277, 284], perhaps identical to William Parrot, "a slim negro man," who was taken up as a runaway and jailed in Norfolk County according to the 27 October 1775 issue of the Virginia Gazette. He cliamed to have been free born about a mile from Williamsburg [Headley, 18th Century Newspapers, 258].

ii. Sarah, born say 1727, presented by the York County court on 20 November 1749 for failing to list herself as a tithable [Judgments & Orders 1746-52, 256, 277, 284].

iii. Susan Jarvis, born say 1727, a "Poor Mulatto" woman living in York County on 17 December 1759 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Yorkhampton Parish to bind out her children because she was unable to provide for them [Judgments & Orders 1759-63, 103]. She was head of a York County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:876]. She was called Susanna Parrott alias Susanna Jarvis when she was sued by Thomas Fauntleroy in a case heard in York County court between May 1801 and May 1802. James Trice, Thomas Trice (of King and Queen County) and John Bowden (of James City County), and Thomas Drewry were witnesses. The case was discontinued with each party paying their own costs [Orders 1795-1803, 457, 482, 483, 498, 516-8, 522].

 

PATRICK FAMILY

1.    Ezekiel Patrick, born say 1730, was head of a Georgetown District, Prince George's Parish, South Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1790 and 7 in Liberty County in 1800 [SC:785]. He may have been the father of

i. David, head of a Bladen County, North Carolina household of 7 "other free" in 1800.

ii. "Luke & John," heads of a Colleton District household of 10 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [SC:617].

iii. Sam, head of a Colleton District household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [SC:591].

iv. Right, head of a Colleton District household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [SC:591].

v. Jeremiah, head of a Colleton District household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [SC:617].

 

PATTERSON FAMILY

1.    Anne Patterson, born about 1732, was described as a "free mulatto woman" on 29 July 1750 when she registered the birth of her daughter Elizabeth in St. Peter's Parish, New Kent County, Virginia [NSCDA, Register of St. Peter's Parish, 100]. On 7 October 1765 the Henrico County court ordered the churchwardens of Henrico Parish to bind out her "Mulatto" children John, Sall, and Iris [Orders 1763-7, 525]. She was a fifty-year-old "mulatto" living in Ward 3 of Richmond, Virginia, in 1782 [VA:114]. Her children were

i. Elizabeth1, born 29 July 1750.

ii. John, bound apprentice in Henrico County on 7 October 1765. He may have been the John Patterson who was a "F.B." head of a Bedford County, Virginia household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:469].

iii. Sall, bound apprentice in Henrico County on 7 October 1765.

iv. Rice (Iris?), born about 1762, a twenty-year-old "Free mulatto" listed in Anne Patterson's Richmond City household in 1782 [VA:114].

 

2.    Susannah Patterson, born say 1740, perhaps a sister of Anne Patterson, was living in New Kent County, Virginia, in 1758 when the birth and baptism of her daughter were recorded [NSCDA, Register of St. Peter's Parish, 98, 171]. She was head of a household with no whites, one dwelling, and one other building in the Upper Precinct of New Kent County in 1785 [VA:92]. She was taxable in New Kent County from 1783 to 1810: taxable on a slave named Sam, 2 horses and 7 cattle in 1783; taxable on her son Jesse in 1784 and 1785, and taxable on a horse from 1797 to 1800; taxable on a free male tithable, 2 slaves aged 12-16 and a horse in 1804; taxable on a free male tithable from 1805 to 1809; taxable on a slave aged 12-16 in 1810 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1800, 19, 55, 73, 75, 101]. children were

i. Mary, born 12 February 1758 and baptized 4 September the same year, "daughter of Susannah Patterson" (no race stated). She was living in New Kent County on 31 December 1776 when she registered the birth of her daughter Elizabeth2 (Betsey) Patterson (no race stated) [NSCDA, Register of St. Peter's Parish, 171, 174].

ii. Jesse, born say 1763, taxable in New Kent County from 1790 to 1820: called son of Susannah Patterson in 1784; a "Mulatto" taxable from 1790 to 1792 [PPTL 1782-1800, 55, 73, 150, 170, 191, 314; 1791-1828, frames 397, 409, 421, 433, 444, 456, 477, 491, 503, 516, 579]. He was head of a New Kent County, Virginia household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:765] and 2 "free colored" in 1830.

iii. ?Moses, born say 1762, taxable in New Kent County adjacent to Susannah Patterson in 1783 and taxable from 1786 to 1794 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1800, 19, 89, 101, 149, 170, 191, 215].

iv. ?Randolph, a "M"(ulatto) taxable in New Kent County in 1811 [Personal Property Tax List 1791-1828, frame 466].

v. ?Dandridge, a "M"(ulatto) taxable in New Kent County from 1805 to 1820 [Personal Property Tax List 1791-1828, frames 409, 421, 433, 444, 456, 491, 503, 516, 579].

 

Their descendants may have been:

i. Elizabeth2, a "free born Mulatto" apprenticed to Willoughby Old by the Princess Anne County court on 5 July 1770 [Minutes 1770-3, 12].

ii. Nancy, head of a Henrico County, Virginia household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:1015].

iii. Joseph, born before 1776, head of a Granville County, North Carolina household of 6 "other free" in 1810 and 11 "free colored" in Guilford County in 1820 [NC:113].

iv. Jacob, head of a Currituck County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:88].

v. Lucy, born before 1776, head of a Surry County, North Carolina household of 11 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:722].

vi. George, head of a Buckingham County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:815].

vii. Squire, head of a Buckingham County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:815].

 

PAVEY/ PEAVEY FAMILY

1.    Joshua1 Pavey, born say 1725, was called Joshiah Pavee on 20 June 1745 when he made a successful appeal to the Craven County, North Carolina court [Haun, Craven County Court Minutes, III:463]. He was listed in the 27 November 1752 muster of the Wilmington Company commanded by Captain George Merrick [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 683]. He was called "Pavey" in the 1755 New Hanover List of Taxables in which he was taxable on 4 "Negro Males" [N.C. Archives File T.O. 105]. He purchased 200 acres on the east side of the mouth of Nichols Creek and the sound in New Hanover County on 28 April 1764, and sold half this land to Daniel Webb on 1 October 1764 [DB E:272, 274]. He was called a "Mulatto" and Daniel Webb was called a "free Negro" when the deed was proved in New Hanover County on 2 September 1766 [Minutes 1738-69, 274]. He was taxable in Bladen County (in the list next to John Webb) on four "Mixt Blood" males and one female in 1774 and taxable on four "Black" taxables (his wife and two sons) in 1775 and 1776 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:124; II:36, 47, 90]. He was head of a household of one male "Molatto" 21-60 years of age in the state census for New Hanover County in 1787. He was probably the ancestor of

i. Charles Peavy, taxable in Bladen County on one male and one female "Mixt Blood" in 1774 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:124], head of an Onslow County household of 11 "other free" in 1790 (abstracted as Charles Perry) [NC:197] and 14 "other free" in Brunswick County in 1800 [NC:13A].

ii. James Pevee, head of a Fayetteville, Cumberland County household of one "other free" in 1790 [NC:42].

iii. Caleb/ Calop Peavy, entered 200 acres on the west side of Slap Arse Swamp in Bladen County on 11 November 1771 [NC Archives, SS call no. S.108.494, location 863-9, file no. 774]. He was head of an Onslow County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 (abstracted as Colop Perry) [NC:197], 3 "other free" in Brunswick County in 1800 [NC:13], and probably the C. Peavy who was head of a Brunswick County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [NC:236]. Administration of his Marlboro County, South Carolina estate was granted to Ephraim Sweat on 3 April 1818 on $500 bond [Minutes of the Court of Ordinary, 125].

iv. Thomas Peavey, head of a New Hanover County household of one "Molatto" 21-60 years old with three "Molatto" females for the state census in 1787, probably the T. Peavy who was head of a Brunswick County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:234].

v. J. Peavy, head of a Brunswick County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:234]. This was probably Reverend Joshua2 Peavy, born 3 July 1784 in Brunswick County, North Carolina. Although he was scarcely able to read, he started preaching in South Carolina and was ordained by Bishop Enoch George in 1821 in Alabama. He was described as being of "very dark complexion" (for a white man) [West, Rev. Anson, History of Methodism in Alabama, Nashville (1893): 206-9]. He married Martha Smith [Owen, Thomas McAdory, History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography, Chicago (1921): IV:1334], probably a daughter of H. Smith, head of a Brunswick County, North Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [NC:234].

vi. N. Peavy, head of a Brunswick County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:236].

 

In June 1856 a member of the Peavey family in North Carolina accused an election inspector of refusing to receive his vote. He claimed that his mother and grandmother were white women and that: his father was a dark colored man with straight hair, his grandfather a dark red-faced mulatto, with dark straight hair. He lost his case [Catterall, Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery II:198].

 

PAYNE FAMILY

1.    Francis1 Payne, born say 1620, was a slave called "Francisco a Negroe" when Philip Taylor claimed him as a headright in 1637 [Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers I:74]. The relationship between some masters and their slaves before slavery became institutionalized is illustrated by an agreement between Taylor and one of his slaves who stated in Northampton County court that

Now Mr. Taylor and I have divided our corne and I am very glad of it now I know myne ... owne ground I will work when I please and play when I please [Orders 1640-45, 457].

Thomas Yeoman, a poor white Northampton County planter, called him "Frank Capt. Taylor's Negro" in 1646 when he bequeathed him his estate consisting of 400 pounds of tobacco, 3 barrels of corn, and a shirt in gratitude for Francis looking after him while he was sick [DW 1645-51, 20].

Taylor died the same year and left Francis to his widow Jane who remarried and moved to Maryland with her husband William Eltonhead [DW 1645-51, 14 by Deal, Race and Class, 310-321]. On 13 May 1649 Jane called him "Francis Payne my Negro servant" when she gave him the right to a crop he was raising and the "power from tyme to tyme to make use of the ground and plantation" in return for 1,500 pounds of tobacco and six barrels of corn after the harvest [DW 1651-4, fol. 118]. This land was in Northampton County on Old Town Neck [Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore, 281-2]. A few months afterwards she agreed to sell him his freedom in exchange for three male servants with six to seven years to serve [DW 1651-54, fol. 118]. Still later that year Jane's husband wrote a letter to him about his progress in helping him acquire these three servants:

After my love to thee etc. I cannot heare of any servants in Yorke ... But if you doe get your tobacco in caske, I question not but to gett them, when I come downe againe ... I will bringe downe some caske with mee ... your lovinge mayster [DW 1651-54, fol. 174].

A few months later Eltonhead received a bill for two servants "which is for the use of Francis Payne Negro towards his freedom," and within a year Payne completed the payments. He was free by 1651 when he successfully sued Joseph Edlowe of Maryland for a debt of 300 pounds of tobacco for a heifer Edlowe purchased from him, and he had to pay Randall Revell a 400 pound debt later that same year [DW 1651-54, 119, p.38, fol.50, p.69]. He purchased a mare in June 1655 and sold its colt to Anthony Johnson on 31 January 1660 [DW 1655-68, fol. 19; 1657-66, fol. 74]. His former mistress confirmed his freedom in the July 1656 Northampton County court

I Mrs Jane Eltonhead ... have hereunto sett my hand that ye aforesd Payne (a negro) shall bee discharged from all hinderances of servitude (his child) or any that doth belong to ye sd Payne [DW 1654-55 fol.100].

By September 1656 he had married Amy, a white woman, who he gave a mare by deed of jointure. Later that year he sued John Gussall for failure to pay him rent [Orders 1665-56, 15; DW 1654-55, fol. 138; DW 1655-68, fol. 19, 21]. In 1665 he and Emmanuel Driggus were security for Hannah Carter when she was manumitted by her master, Francis Pigot [DW 1665-68, pt.2, 15]. He was called "Francis Pane Negro" in the Northampton County tithe lists on which he was taxable on two tithes in 1663 and only one tithe from 1664 to 1668. He left a 9 May 1673 Northampton County will, proved 29 September 1763 leaving all his estate to Agnes Pane, stating that Devrox Dregushe (Driggers) was to have nothing [Orders 1657-64, 176, 198; 1664-74, fol.14, p.42, fol.54, 217, 220-1]. The only evidence that Francis Payne ever had any children was the mention of a child in Jane Eltonhead's 1656 confirmation of his freedom. However, the following may have been his descendants:

2        i. Rebecca, born say 1720.

ii. William, born say 1750, a "Mulatto" boy bound to William Hancock, then to Robert Wooding, Gent., who then sold the indenture to Joseph Gill in May 1764. The Halifax County, Virginia court ordered him returned to Wooding [Pleas 4:266, 279]. He may have been the "Mulatto" William Payne who was taxable in Culpeper County from 1787 to 1802: taxable on 2 slaves in 1789, 1 in 1792, 2 in 1793, 1 from 1795 to 1801, perhaps the father of John Paine who was a "Mulatto" taxable in Culpeper from 1796 to 1802 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 194, 305, 434, 566, 608, 609, 648, 692, 693, 742, 785, 823, 867].

iii. Francis2, head of a Gloucester County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:666]. He and his unnamed wife were "Mulattoes" living in Gloucester County in 1813. He was over the age of forty-five in 1815 [Personal Property Tax List 1800-20].

iv. Evan, born say 1757, a "mulatto" listed among fourteen deserters from Lieutenant John Tankersley's troops. Tankersley offered a reward for their delivery to King George courthouse in the 3 October 1777 issue of the Virginia Gazette [Purdie edition, p. 3, col. 1].

v. Benjamin, born say 1760, Benjamin, born say 1760, a "yellow" complexioned soldier from Buckingham County listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Court House [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 152]. He enlisted in Goochland County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41].

vi. Joshua, born say 1760, a man of color born in Westmoreland County who was living in King George County when he was listed in a register of soldiers who served in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 152]. He was head of a Rockingham County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:491].

vii. Sarah, head of a Accomack Parish, Accomack County household of 2 "other free" and 3 slaves in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:13].

viii. Thomas, head of a Prince William County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:510].

ix. Joanna, "Free Negroe" head of a Fauquier County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:375].

x. Molly, head of a Queen Ann's County, Maryland household of one "other free" in 1790.

xi. Ben, a "Mulatto" head of a 96 District, Abbeville County, South Carolina household of one "other free" in 1790 [SC:57].

 

2.    Rebecca Paine, born say 1720, was living in Westmoreland County, Virginia, on 1 April 1741 when the court presented Francis Chandler for cohabiting with her. He was the husband of Margaret Chandler, a "Mulatto" woman. Rebecca was called a "Molatto" on 12 May 1746 when she agreed to serve William Bayley for four years to pay a ten pound debt she owed him [Orders 1739-43, 100; 1743-7, 137]. She may have been the mother of

3        i. Virgin, born say 1745.

4        ii. Lawrence, born 4 October 1748.

 

3.    Virgin Payne, born say 1745, was the mother of Rice and John Payne whose births were recorded in St. Paul's Parish, King George County (no race indicated) [St. Paul's Parish Register]. She was the mother of

i. Rice, born 28 August 1766, registered in King George County on 25 November 1800: a dark mulatto man, aged about thirty two years, five feet seven inches high ... Slender make ... born in this County of a free Woman [Register of Free Persons, no.18]. He was head of a Prince William County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:515].

ii. Jack, born 13 October 1772, registered in King George County on 5 February 1804: a dark mulatto man, aged about twenty eight years, short and curled hair, five feet ten Inches high, well set, though not corpulaent, born of a free mother of this County [Register of Free Persons, no.38].

iii. ?Polly, born about 1793, registered in King George County on 3 September 1818: a Black woman about 25 years of age, about 5 feet, stout made, born free [Register of Free Persons, no.52].

 

4.    Lawrence Payne, born 4 October 1748, registered in King George County in November 1794: a mulatto man born October the 4th 1748 about five feet nine inches high, was bound by indenture to Langhern Dade to serve the term of thirty one years. And his wife Susannah, born about 1742, registered the same month: the wife of Laurence above, is about fifty two years old, about four feet six inches high, of a dark yellow colour, served to the age of thirty one years & is now free [Register of Free Persons 1785-1799, no.1, 5]. He was head of a Rockingham County household of 4 "other free' in 1810 [VA:36]. Their children may have been Elizabeth, Alice, and Lett (no last name) who registered at the same time as Lawrence and Susannah. They may have been the parents of

i. Charles, born about 1766, registered in King George County on 10 November 1801: a dark mulatto man aged about thirty five years, about five feet six inches high, rather spare...born in this County of free parents [Register of Free Persons, no.36]. He died before 5 Augsut 1802 when Lawrence Payne was granted administration on his King George County estate with Henry Brandican as security [Orders 1799-1805, 346].

ii. Alice, born about 1768, registered in November 1794: a mulatto woman, twenty six years old, about four feet six inches high, was bound by indenture to Townshend Dade, Gent., of this County to serve till eighteen years old & is now a free woman [Register, no.3].

iii. Elizabeth, born about 1770, registered in November 1794: a mulatto woman, twenty four years old & about five feet high, was bound to William Lord & his wife of this County to serve till the age of eighteen years, & is now a free woman [Register, no.2].

iv. Lett, born about 1773, registered in November 1794: of a dark yellow colour, twenty one years old 7 about five feet high, was born free & of course is a free woman [Register, no.4].

v. Lawrence, Jr., head of a King George County household of one "other free" in 1810 [VA:212].

 

PEACOCK/ POE FAMILY

1.    Mary Peacock, born say 1693, was a white servant with three years and three months to serve when she was listed in the 20 July 1712 inventory of the Richmond County, Virginia estate of Colonel Samuel Peachey [Wills & Inventories 1709-17, 170-2]. She was called the servant of Samuel Peachey on 5 August 1713 when the Richmond County court ordered her to serve him or his assigns an additional year for having an illegitimate "Mulatto" child. The court also ordered that upon completion of her service, she pay ten pounds to the churchwardens of North Farnham Parish or be sold by them for five years [Orders 1711-6, 123]. She may have been the ancestor of

2        i. Jane, born say 1710.

ii. William Peacock, head of a Kent County, Maryland household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [MD:164, 165].

 

2.    Jane Peacock/ Poe, born say 1710, was a "Molatto" presented by the York County court for not listing herself as a tithable on 20 November 1727 (called Jane Peacock) and on 17 November 1735 (called Jane Poe). She was called "Jane Po alias Peacock" on 20 August 1744 when Landon Carter, Esq., sued her in York County for a cow and a calf of the value of 40 shillings. The court ruled that they were her property and dismissed the suit [OW 16:489; W&I 18:237, 245; 19:302, 317]. She was the ancestor of

i. William Poe, head of a York County household of 4 "other free" in 1810.

 

PENDARVIS FAMILY

1.    Joseph1 Pendarvis, born say 1675, was a white planter of Colleton County, South Carolina, who wrote a will on 11 February 1735, proved 17 March the same year, leaving 1,009 acres near Green Savanna and a plantation on Charleston Neck to the "children of a Negro woman named Parthena deceased that lived with me." Their children, underage when Pendarvis wrote his will, were James, Brand, William, John, Thomas, Mary, and Elizabeth [Moore, Wills of the State of S.C. 1670-1740, I:300]. Their daughters Mary and Elizabeth married white planters, and their descendants were considered white [Koger, Black Slaveowners, 13]. Joseph and Parthena were the parents of

2        i. James, born say 1718.

ii. Brand, born say 1720, married Ursetta Jennings in Orangeburgh in 1748.

iii. William1, head of a South Orangeburgh District, South Carolina household of 5 "other free" and a slave in 1790 [SC:102].

iv. John, head of a South Orangeburgh District, South Carolina household of 4 "other free" and a slave in 1790 [SC:102].

v. Thomas.

vi. Mary.

vii. Elizabeth.

 

2.    James Pendarvis, born say 1718, married Catherina Rumph (a white woman) on 3 September 1741 in Orangeburgh. He was taxable on 3,250 acres and 113 slaves in St. Paul's Parish, Charleston District, Colleton County, from 1785 to 1787 and taxable on 4,710 acres and 123 slaves in 1792. He died about 1797 when his estate was taxed on 4,709 acres and 151 slaves [South Carolina Tax Returns, microfilm AD 941, frames 100, 179; AD 942, frames 19, 67, 82, 146, 218, 231, 288]. He was the father of

i. William2, a minor whose estate was taxable on 39 slaves in St. Paul's Parish in 1785 and 59 slaves in 1799.

 

Other members of the family were

i. Joseph2, taxable in Winton County on 100 acres and 44 slaves in 1788 [South Carolina Tax Returns, microfilm AD 942, frame 33] and head of a household of 6 "other free" and 41 slaves in 1790 in the south part of Orangeburgh District [SC:102].

ii. Joseph3, Jr., head of a Colleton District household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [SC:618].

 

PENDERGRASS FAMILY

1.    Richard1 Pendergrass, born say 1755, was called "Negro Richd Pendegrass" on 17 March 1781 when he was listed as one of General Cornwallis' prisoners at his Guilford Courthouse headquarters [NCGSJ V:81]. He was taxable in St. Lawrence District of Caswell County in 1790 [NC:83]. He died before 25 December 1817, leaving a Caswell County nuncupative will which made bequests to his daughters Sally Roe of Person County and Nancy Curtis of Caswell County and stated that he had already provided for his other children [WB H:132]. He was the father of

i. ?Richard2, born before 1776, married Elizabeth Curtis, 6 December 1798 Person County bond, Richard Pendergrass (Sr.?) bondsman. He was head of a Person County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 (called Richard, Jr.) [NC:601]. He married, second, Mary Roberts, 26 November 1800 Person County bond, Julius Justice bondsman. He was head of a Sumner County, Tennessee household of 10 "free colored" in 1820 and 4 "free colored" in Clinton County, Illinois in 1830.

ii. Nancy ("colored"), married James Curtis, 19 February 1800 Person County bond with Byrd Rogers bondsman.

iii. Sarah, married John Roe, 2 March 1802 Person County bond.

 

PERKINS FAMILY

1.    Esther1 Perkins, born say 1710, was in Accomack County on 8 December 1730 when Thomas Blair, Gentleman (her master?), paid her fine for having a bastard child [Orders 1724-31, 201, 115a]. Esther died before 1 June 1748 when her son Jacob was bound apprentice in Accomack County: "Mulatto Boy Son of Esther Perkins, deced" [Orders 1744-53, 273]. Esther's children were

2        i. ?Ann, born say 1726.

3        ii. ?Darky, born about 1728.

4        iii. ?Joshua1, born about 1732.

5        iv. ?George1, born say 1735.

v. Jacob1, born December 1745, a "Mulatto Boy Son of Esther Perkins, deced," aged two years last Christmas, bound as an apprentice shoemaker to George Bundick, Jr., on 1 June 1748 and then bound instead to James Gibson [Orders 1744-53, 273, 280].

vi. ?Arcadia, born about 1746, a six-year-old "Mulatto" bound to George Hoyetil on 29 January 1752 [Orders 1744-53, 570].

 

2.    Ann Perkins, born say 1726, was granted a patent for land in Bladen County, North Carolina, on 25 April 1767. She sold 50 acres on a branch of Raft Swamp on 12 December 1768 and sold another 100 acres on Beaver Dam Branch of Raft Swamp to William Lowry, son of James Lowry, on 18 February 1775 [DB 23:71, 481]. She was taxable in Bladen County on two "Mulatoes" in 1771: her son Jordan Perkins and Thomas Sweat [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:60]. She was the mother of

i. Jordan1, born say 1758.

ii. ?Olive, born say 1762, married Ephraim Sweat according to the 18 April 1811 Opelousas, Louisiana marriage bond of their son Gideon Sweat [Opelousas license no.6].

iii. ?Nancy, born before 1776, head of a St. Landry Parish household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [LA:108].

 

3.    Darky (Dorcas) Perkins (Esther1), born about 1728, was six years old in September 1734 when she was bound apprentice to James Gibson in Accomack County court [Orders 1731-36, 133]. Dorcas or another daughter of Esther may have been the mother of the members of the Perkins family who remained in Accomack County. They were

i. Jemmy (James), born about 1748, a four-year-old "Mulatto" bound as an apprentice shoemaker to George Hoyetil in Accomack County in 1752 [Orders 1744-53, 571].

ii. Joshua2, born about 1752, a member of Captain Windsor Brown's Virginia Company of troops when Brown advertised in the 6 June 1777 issue of the Virginia Gazette that he had deserted. Brown described him as: a mulatto, about 5 feet 6 or 7 inches high, 24 or 25 years old, and is a straight made fellow; had on a short striped jacket, a felt hat bound round with French lace [Virginia Gazette, Purdie edition, p. 3, col. 3]. His only heir Sally Perkins applied for his pension in Accomack County on 29 March 1834 for Revolutionary War service as a seaman [Orders 1832-36, 21, 313].

iii. Nimrod, born say 1755, bound an apprentice shoemaker to William Sacker James in Accomack County on 28 August 1765 [Orders 1764-65, 489]. He was taxable in Accomack County in 1785 and 1790 [PPTL, 1782-1814, frames 154, 347], a "Mulatto" taxable in Northampton County in 1787 and 1788 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 74, 81], and head of an Accomack County household of 2 "other free" and one white woman in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:13]. He was about seventy-two years old on 31 July 1832 when he testified in Accomack County court that he enlisted as a drummer on board the galley Diligence from 1777 until 1781 and that he had received a Virginia Military Land Warrant for 100 acres [Orders 1828-32, 537].

6        iv. Cady, born say 1758.

v.Abraham, born say 1760, a "free Negro" taxable in Accomack County from 1798 to 1812 [PPTL, 1782-1814, frames 363, 499, 698, 732, 796], head of St. George's Parish, Accomack County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:159] and 8 in 1810 [VA:48].

7        vi. Adam, born say 1765.

vii. Esther2, born about 1773, ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Accomack Parish in Accomack County to Leah James on 30 May 1775 [Orders 1774-7, 352], head of an St. George's Parish, Accomack County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:159]. She registered in Accomack County about 1832: born about 1773, yellow complexion, 5'5-3/4" high, born free in Accomack County [Register of Free Negroes, 1785-1863, no. 593].

viii. Oliver, a "free Mulatto" ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Accomack Parish in Accomack County to Shadrack Bayly on 30 May 1775 [Orders 1774-7, 354].

ix. Comfort, head of a St. George's Parish, Accomack County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:160].

 

4.    Joshua1 Perkins (Esther1), born about 1732, was two years old (no parent or race indicated) on September 1734 when he was bound to James Gibson in Accomack County court [Orders 1731-36, 133]. He was probably one of the mixed-race sons of Esther Perkins since her son Jacob was also bound to James Gibson. Joshua owned land in Bladen County, North Carolina, on the province line adjoining land entered by Benjamin Davis before 20 October 1761 [Philbeck, Bladen County Land Entries, no. 1210 (called Joshua Parkins)]. He purchased 125 acres in Bladen County on Wilkerson Swamp, a branch of the Little Pee Dee River, on 1 November 1768 and sold this land on 26 April 1770. This was part of a tract of 250 acres, the other half owned by Robert Sweat in 1754 and sold by Philip Chavis in 1768. And he was granted 100 acres on Wilkerson Swamp on 22 Dec 1769 [Bladen DB 23:80, 121, 104-5, 424-5, 147-8]. These lands are on the present-day border of Robeson County near the county line of Dillon and Marlboro Counties, South Carolina. He was a "Mulato" taxable in Bladen County with his wife and sons George and Isaac in 1768 and 1769 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:7, 17]. He was taxable in Washington County, Tennessee, in 1787 (called Joshua Perkins, Sr.) but not in 1788, perhaps because he was over age [Creekmore, "Early East Tennessee Taxpayers," East Tennessee Historical Society's Publications, (1963):108; Tennessee Ancestors, 5:37].

Joshua and his children's race and color were described in detail in an 1858 Johnson County, Tennessee trial in which his great-grandson, Jacob F. Perkins, sued John R. White for slander because he called him a "free Negro." The race of Joshua's great-grandchildren was not self evident since Joshua and his descendants had married white or light-skinned women. Eighteen elderly deponents, many who had known the family when they lived near the Pee Dee River in South Carolina (where Joshua had apparently moved after selling his Bladen County land), deposed that they had known Joshua/ Jock and his children: George, Jacob, Joshua, Isaac, Lewis, and Polly. He kept race horses and a ferry by Roan's Creek and associated with "decent, respectable" white people like Landon Carter. He married Mary/ Polly Black in 1753. She was fair skinned, called a Scotch woman. He moved back to North Carolina in 1785 (Washington County?) and died on 10 April 1801 [The Perkins File in the T.A.R. Nelson Papers in the Calvin M. McClung Collection at the East Tennessee Historical Center, depositions of Anna Graves and John J. Wilson].

The Johnson County court decided that Jacob F. Perkins was indeed a "free Negro" [Johnson County, Tennessee, Circuit Court Minutes 1855-58, July 17, 1858, 427], but it considered depositions from fifty-nine persons before making this decision. The depositions provide the physical descriptions of many members of the family as well as a description of their life in the white community. Sixteen of twenty-two elderly deponents who had actually seen old Joshua Perkins said he was of African descent:

Can't say whether ... full blooded. The nose African. Believe they were Africans ... always claimed to be Portuguese. All married white women [The Perkins File, deposition of John E. Cossen].

as black as any common mulatto. Hair short and curled and kinky ... [The Perkins File, deposition of Larkin L. White].

He was a very black and reverend negro ... [The Perkins File, deposition of Reuben Brooks].

black man, hair nappy ... Some called Jacob (his son) a Portuguese and some a negro ... I helped Jock shell corn. He was said to be a hatter [The Perkins File, deposition of John Nave, 88 years old].

Knew old Jock (Joshua) in North Carolina on Peedee ... right black or nearly so. Hair kinky ... like a common negro [The Perkins File, deposition of Abner Duncan, 86 years old].

However, six persons who had seen old Joshua Perkins said he was dark-skinned but not African. They seem to have argued in their depositions that the Perkins family must have been something other than African - Portuguese or Indian - since they were relatively affluent and had good relations with their white neighbors:

dark skinned man ... resembled an Indian more than a negro. He was generally called a Portuguese. Living well ... Kept company with everybody. Kept race horses and John Watson rode them [Ibid., deposition of Thomas Cook, 75 years old].

mixed blooded and not white. His wife fair skinned ... They had the same privileges [Ibid., deposition of Catherine Roller, 80 years old].

Hair bushy & long - not kinky. Associated with white people ... Associated with ... the most respectable persons. Some would call them negroes and some Portuguese [Ibid., deposition of John J. Wilson, about 70 years old].

He was known of the Portuguese race ... Four of his sons served in the Revolution ... Jacob and George drafted against Indians ... they came from and kept a ferry in South Carolina [Ibid., deposition of Anna Graves, 77 years old].

They kept company with decent white people and had many visitors [Ibid., deposition of Elizabeth Cook, about 71].

I taught school at Perkins school house ... they were Portuguese ... associated white peoples, clerked at elections and voted and had all privileges [Ibid., deposition of David R. Kinnick, aged 77].

Some who testified in favor of the Perkins family had never seen Joshua Perkins and seem to have been genuinely confused about the family's ancestry:

I was well acquainted with Jacob Perkins (one of Joshua's sons). A yellow man - said to be Portuguese. They do not look like negroes. I have been about his house a great deal and nursed for his wife. She was a little yellow and called the same race. Had blue eyes and black hair. Was visited by white folks [Ibid., deposition of Mary Wilson].

One of the deponents, seventy-seven-year-old Daniel Stout, explained very simply how people of African descent could have been treated well by their white neighbors:

Never heard him called a negro. People in those days said nothing about such things [Ibid., deposition of Daniel Stout].

According to the depositions, Joshua and Polly's children were

8        i. George2, born 22 March 1754 in Liberty County, South Carolina.

9        ii. Jacob2, born say 1756.

10        iii. Isaac2, born say 1758.

11      iv. Joshua3, born in November 1759.

v. Lewis1, born say 1762, perhaps the Lewis Perkins who was taxable in Carter County, Tennessee in 1805 [1805 Carter County Tax List]. He was said to be a dark-skinned man with red complexion [The Perkins File, deposition of John J. Wilson]. A sixty-five-year-old woman deposed in 1858 that she had known Lewis, and that Lewis [had] kinky hair [Ibid., deposition of Sarah Oaks], and a sixty-nine-year-old man deposed that Lewis [was] dark and bushy headed [Ibid., deposition of Goulder Hicks].

vi. Polly, perhaps identical to Mary Perkins, born before 1776, head of a St. Landry Parish, Louisiana household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [LA:105], mother of Eady Perkins according to the 10 October 1825 Opelousas license for her daughter's marriage to James F. Carr [Opelousas license no.42]. She was called Polly Perkins when her daughter Edith Perkins married Stephen Goin of South Carolina on 17 November 1826 in Opelousas [License no.78]. James Carr, born 1776-94, was head of a St. Landry Parish household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [LA:101].

 

5.    George1 Perkins (Esther1), born say 1735, was a "Mulatto" servant charged in Accomack County court with absenting himself from the service of Andrew Gilchrist, administrator of James Gibson, on 28 August 1751 [Orders 1744-53, 522, 554]. He may have been the George Perkis who was in the Berkeley County, South Carolina Detachment of Captain Benjamin Elliot, drafted November 1759 and discharged January 8, 1760, in the same list with "Carter, a free Negro," Gideon Bunch, Ephraim Bunch, James Bunch, and Jacob Bunch [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 939]. He was living in Craven County, North Carolina, when he was acquitted of an unspecified crime by the October 1761 Craven County court. He was ordered to pay a little over 12 pounds damages to Edmond Morgan on 13 June 1769 [Minutes 1761-62, 45a; 1766-75, 115b]. He was called a husbandman on 27 February 1771 when he purchased 200 acres in Craven County on the west side of Cahoogue Creek for sixty barrels of tar. He sold half of this land on 3 October 1774 and was called a "free Negro" when he sold the remainder by deed proved in September 1785 Craven County court [DB 19:202; 26:124-5, 130]. He was a taxable head of his own "Black" Craven County household in 1769 [SS 837] and head of a Craven County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:131]. He was bondsman for the 3 February 1786 Craven County marriage of Sarah Perkins to Isaac Carter. He may have been the father of

i. Isaac1, born about 1756, head of a Craven County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:131] and 2 "free colored" in Craven County in 1820 [NC:67]. He married Deborah Godett, 24 March 1784 Craven County bond. She was named in the 1803 Craven County will of her father George Godett [CR 28.801.20]. Isaac entered land on the south side of the Neuse River and west side of Macock's Branch on 9 December 1813 [Grants 4:177]. He was living with his wife Deborah, born 1763, when he made a declaration in Craven County court to obtain a Revolutionary War pension on 13 May 1829. He testified that he enlisted for three years in May 1778 and was granted pension certificate no. 4666 on 30 November 1818. He still had 100 acres of land in his possession, and included with his pension application was a copy of his deed of 30 January 1827 by which he sold 150 acres on the south side of the Neuse River and head of Handcocks Creek near the head of Macocks Branch to Isaac Carter. Joseph Physioc testified that: from a long and intimate acquaintance with the General Conduct and Character of the Said Isaac Perkins, we do not hesitate to declare that (though a man of Colour) we do believe him to be too honest in principal to practice anything like a fraud. His lawyer, Samuel Gerock, called him a "Negroe Man, and Old Soldier of the Revolutionary Army" when he appealed for the restoration of his pension [National Archives Inv. File 41.953]. His will, proved in Craven County in August 1830, mentioned his wife Deborah and sister Sarah Carter and her children [WB C:326].

ii. Sarah, married Isaac Carter.

 

6.    Cady Perkins (Dorcas1, Esther1), born say 1758, was the mother of George Perkins who was ordered bound by the overseers of the poor to Sarah Bradford by the Accomack County court to be a farmer on 31 January 1792. She may also have been the mother of Stephen and Lott Perkins who were ordered bound to Caleb Harrison to be farmers on 1 March 1792. On 27 March Sarah Bradford brought a case against John Mears, George's former master, for detaining George in his service. After a hearing, the court ordered the overseers of the poor to bind George to Elizabeth Bardford [Orders 1790-6, 305, 324, 326, 343]. Cady was the mother of

i. George3, Sr., registered in Accomack County about 1832: born about 1780, a dark yellow, 5'8-3/4", born free in Accomack County [Register of Free Negroes, 1785-1863, no. 602].

ii. ?Stephen1, born 1 February 1780, listed in a register certified in Accomack County on 29 September 1807: a Dark Mulatto colour or Brown, 5 feet 5 Inches, Dark hair, Dark Eyes [Register, no.12].

iii. ?Lot, born 22 April 1785, listed in a register certified in Accomack County on 29 September 1807: a light Black Dark Mulatto, 5 feet 6-1/2 Inches ... Born Free [Register, no.8].

 

7.    Adam Perkins, born say 1765, was taxable in Norfolk County from 1791 to 1812: called a "N"(egro) in 1797; a labourer on Western Branch in a "List of Free Negroes and Mulattoes" in 1801, head of a household with males Nathan and Wright Perkins and females Annas, Betsey and Lucretia Perkins; called a "M"(ulatto) in 1802; taxable on a slave aged 12-16 in 1803 [PPTL, 1791-1812, frames 29, 88, 145, 231, 304, 384, 434, 468, 487, 582, 695, 747]. He was head of a Norfolk County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:820]. He purchased 5 acres in Norfolk County at the head of the Western Branch of the Elizabeth River for 7 pounds, 10 shillings on 4 September 1790, purchased another 7 acres adjoining Thomas Archer and John Weaver for 14 pounds on 1 November 1797 (with James Newton as a witness) and purchased another 11 acres at the head of the Western Branch adjoining John Cooper's from John and Mary Weaver deed proved in Norfolk County on 9 December 1805 for 40 pounds [DB 32:87; 43:72-3]. He (making his mark) made a 20 March 1815 Norfolk County will, proved 15 May 1815, by which he lent his plantation where he was then living to his wife Anne during her widowhood and then to be divided among his four children: son Nathaniel the plantation where his father was living, son Wright his swamp land, and all personal property divided among Nathaniel, Wright, Betsy and Lucretia Perkins. He appointed Nathaniel executor [WB 4:209-10]. Annias was a "B." (Black) taxable on 2 horses in Western Branch in Norfolk County from 1815 to 1817 [PPTL, 1813-24, frames 110, 148, 265]. Adam and Annias were the parents of

i. Betsey, born say 1792, married William Bass, 2 November 1812 Norfolk County bond, Adam Perkins surety.

ii. Nathan, born about 1792, a "B.M." (Black Male) taxable in Western Branch in Norfolk County from 1815 to 1817 [PPTL, 1813-24, frames 110, 266]. He and a white woman named Celia Peake were indicted by the Norfolk County Superior court on 10 April 1822 for adultery and fornication. They were each fined $10 [Superior Court Orders 1820-5, 161, 239, 242, 282-3]. On 17 May 1823 he acknowledged a deed of sale for his interest in 5 acres of land in Norfolk County [Minutes 18:103]. On 19 September 1825 he was in a list of "free Negroes" hired out by the sheriff to pay their taxes for the year 1823 [Mintues 19:154-5]. He registered in Norfolk County on 15 July 1833: age 41 yrs., 5 ft 7, Indian complexion, Indian descent [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 901].

iii. Wright, born about 1799, registered in Norfolk County on 24 November 1831: age 32, 6 ft 3/4 in., a mulato, Born free and he registered again on 15 July 1833 after the "not Negro" law was passed: age 34, 5 ft 11-1/2, Indian complexion, man of Indian descent [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 843]. On 18 August 1823 the Norfolk County court certified that he and Willis Bass, Jr., were of good character and granted them permission to keep a firelock [Minutes 18:177].

iv. Lucretia.

 

8.    George2 Perkins (Joshua1, Esther1), was born on 22 March 1754 in Liberty County (present-day Marion County), South Carolina, according to his pension application [National Archives Pension File RF-8113]. He applied for a pension while living in Lawrence County, Kentucky, on 15 March 1834. He was living in South Carolina when he entered the service in Charleston. He served four tours of ten days each in the militia under Lieutenant Richard Whittington in 1780. He lived for about twenty-six years (1787-1813) on the Watauga River in the part of North Carolina which later became Washington County, Tennessee, and lived in Lawrence County, Kentucky, for another twenty-one years (1813-34). A copy of his 5 April 1780 Bladen County marriage bond to Keziah Manning, with John Cade (one of the captains he served under) as bondsman, was included in Keziah's application for a widow's pension [RF-8113]. He was taxable in Washington County in 1788 and received a grant for 100 acres in Washington County on Little Doe Creek near Roans Creek from the State of North Carolina on 17 November 1790 and another 100 acres on the Watauga River on 16 October 1797 [Creekmore, Tennessee Ancestors, 5:37; Carter County, Tennessee DB A:141, 149 (This part of Washington County became Carter County, Tennessee)]. He purchased 200 acres in Washington County, Tennessee, on Little Doe Creek of the Watauga River on 24 May 1793 [Washington County DB 2:273-275]. He sold 200 acres of this land on 21 October 1795, another 100 acres on 28 December 1797 [Carter County DB A:104, 136], sold 100 acres on the Watauga River on 10 February 1804, 100 acres on Roans Creek on 26 November 1804, 50 acres on Little Doe Creek on 26 August 1805, and another 50 acres in this area on 10 April 1807 [Carter DB A:468-9, 532-3; B:16, 108-9]. George died in Lee County, Iowa, on 16 November 1840 and Keziah died on 12 August 1849 according to their only surviving child Ann Graves [National Archives Pension File RF-8113]. Their children were

i. Stephen2, born 6 September 1783, purchased 190 acres on Doe River on 12 September 1806 and sold this land on 10 August the same year [Carter County DB A:111-3]. He married Catherine Summa and had eleven children. He was head of a Campbell County, Tennessee household of 8 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. Anna Graves, born about 1780 since she was seventy-seven years old in 1858 when she made a deposition in Missouri for the Johnson County, Tennessee trial of Jacob F. Perkins [The Perkins File, deposition of Anna Graves].

 

9.    Jacob2 Perkins (Joshua1, Esther1), born say 1756, was taxable on 200 acres in Washington County, Tennessee, in 1787, 1788, and 1789 [East Tennessee Historical Society's Publications, (1963):108; Tennessee Ancestors, vol. 5, No.1 (April 1989):37, 82]. He purchased 200 acres on Little Doe Creek of the Watauga River in Washington County, Tennessee, on 11 May 1791 [DB 2:272-3]. He was a school teacher who married Nancy Graves, daughter of John Graves, a constable, and his wife Susan, a white woman [The Perkins File, deposition of James Bradley]. Johnson Hampton testified for the pension application of his son Jacob3 Perkins that Jacob2 Perkins came to Carter County, Tennessee, about 1802 and that Jacob2 told him he had lived in South Carolina near the Little Pee Dee River during the time of the Revolution. Jacob served in the Revolution under General Marion and: was [a] respectfully up right honest man and was considered by his neighbors. John J. Wilson, who helped to bury him, testified that [Jacob]: and wife were both members of the Babstez Church he was a respectable man and a good citizen and was regarded by his neighbors. His son Jacob3 Perkins testified that Jacob2 Perkins also served several tours against the Indians after coming to Carter County (then Washington County, North Carolina). And he was married to Ann Graves by Jonathan Mulkey, a Washington County preacher while the county was still a territory of North Carolina (1790-96). He further testified that his father died on 4 April 1819, and his mother lived with him until her death on 8 November 1842 [National Archives Pension File R-8105]. James Bradley deposed that he knew Jacob's children: Joseph, Sally, Esther, Joshua, Amos, John, Susan, and Keziah [The Perkins File]. In his 22 March 1819 Carter County, Tennessee will, he mentioned his wife Nancy and their children: Joseph, Joshua, Amos, Jacob, John, Sarah, Esther, Keziah, Lydia, and Susanna, and he asked that land he owned in Burke County, North Carolina, be sold and divided between William and Benjamin (no last name mentioned), the two children of his daughter Sarah [WB 1:387-8]. His children were

i. Joseph. He and his brothers, Joshua, Amos, Jacob, and John Perkins entered land on Cranberry Creek in 1827 [Burke, The History of the North Carolina Country, 1777-1920, 212]. They were the original owners of the Cranberry Iron Forge in Watauga County [Arthur, History of Watauga County, 264].

ii. Sarah, mother of William and Benjamin Graves.

iii. Esther3.

iv. Joshua5, born in 1796, married Elizabeth Kite. They were the parents of Jacob F. Perkins, plaintiff in the 1858 Johnson County suit [The Perkins File, Plaintiff's Attorney's Notes/ Outlines of Argument]. Jacob F. Perkins was a school teacher. He clerked at elections, voted, and associated with whites.

v. Amos.

vi. Jacob3, born about 1799, since he was about fifty-three years old on 16 October 1852 when he testified for a survivor's pension [National Archives File R-8105]. He was a school teacher [The Perkins File, deposition of Dr. John E. Cossen].

vii. John.

viii. Susan.

ix. Keziah.

x. Lydia.

 

10.    Isaac2 Perkins (Joshua1, Esther1), born say 1758, received a grant for 100 acres in Washington County on Campbell's Creek from the State of North Carolina on 17 November 1790 and was living in Granville County (Greenville?), South Carolina, on 19 January 1796 when he sold this land to Jacob Perkins [Carter County DB A:110, 147]. He purchased 100 acres in Greenville District, South Carolina, in 1796 and sold 200 acres there in 1797. He purchased 100 acres in Greenville District on 8 September 1796. On 29 March 1798 he sold by two deeds (signing) a total of 500 acres of land in Greenville County on the waters of "Guilden Creek of Enoree Reiver" which was land he had been granted on 1 December 1794 [DB D:320, 509, 511]. He was head of a Buncombe County, North Carolina household of 12 "other free" in 1800 [NC:183], 11 "other free" in Opelousas, Louisiana in 1810 (living near Gilbert Sweat) [LA:325], and one "free colored" over forty-five years of age in 1820 [LA:108]. He married Hannah Sweat according to the 16 January 1819 Opelousas Courthouse marriage license of their son Stephen Perkins of South Carolina [Opelousas license no.3]. Isaac and Hannah's children were

i. George3, born say 1785, married Polly Ashworth, daughter of James Ashworth and Keziah Dial of South Carolina, 4 December 1810. George was head of a St. Landry Parish household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 and 10 in 1830 [LA:107, 27].

ii. Isaac3, born say 1787, married Sarah Singleton, 24 May 1810 St. Landry Parish bond; and second, Mary Sweat, 23 September 1811 Opelousas marriage [Opelousas marriage license no.3]. He was head of a St. Landry Parish household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [Census p.108].

iii. Stephen3, born say 1790 (in Craven County, South Carolina), son of Isaac Perkins and Hannah Sweat, married Nancy Johnson, daughter of Isaac Johnson and Mary Willis, on 16 January 1819 in Opelousas [Opelousas marriage license no.3].

iv. ?Lewis2, born say 1792, head of a St. Landry Parish household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [LA:107].

 

11.    Joshua4 Perkins (Joshua1, Esther1), born in November 1759 in present-day Marion County, South Carolina, was taxable on one poll in Washington County, North Carolina, in 1788 (called Joshua Perkins, Jr.) in the same list as George Perkins and Gilbert Sweat, and he was taxable on 100 acres in 1791 [Creekmore, Tennessee Ancestors, 5:37, 72, 81]. He was head of a Buncombe County, North Carolina household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [NC:183]. He married Mary Mixon according to the 2 October 1810 Opelousas Marriage of his daughter Sarah Perkins [Opelousas Parish Courthouse, marriage license no.14]. He was head of an Opelousas, St. Landry Parish, Louisiana household of 6 "other free" in 1810, one "free colored" over forty-five years of age in 1820, and one over fifty-five years of age in 1830 [LA:26]. On 25 May 1830 he was called a "f.m.c." (free man of color) when he made a deposition for Gilbert Sweat, "f.m.c.," in a case held in St. Landry Parish in which he testified that he would be seventy-one years old in November 1830, was born on the Little Peedee River in what was then called Marion County, South Carolina, in the same area as Gilbert Sweat. About the year 1777 he helped Sweat run off with Frances Smith, wife of John Barney Taylor. They travelled the same route from South Carolina: to North Carolina to Tennessee to Big Black River, Mississippi, and finally to Louisiana about 1804. However, they sometimes did not see each other for several years at a time [Parish of St. Landry, case no.1533]. On 15 June 1837 when he was about seventy-eight years old, his three daughters filed suit in the Court of Probate of St. Landry Parish to have a curator appointed to administer his estate because he was blind and supposedly feeble. They were Mary Perkins (wife of James Ashworth), Sarah Perkins (wife of Jesse Ashworth), and Elizabeth Perkins (wife of James Goings). He was living with his son Jordan Perkins at the time. The estate was said to contain considerable property, mainly cattle. The case was dismissed on 3 April 1840, apparently due to the death of Joshua. His children were

i. Elizabeth, born say 1787, married James Goings. He was born before 1776, head of an Opelousas Parish household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [LA:305] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [LA:101].

ii. Jordan, born say 1789, married Jinny Goen on 12 March 1814 in Opelousas [Opelousas license no.9]. He was head of a St. Landry Parish household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [LA:101].

iii. Sarah, born about 1791, daughter of Joshua Perkins and Mary Mixon, married Jesse Ashworth, "of South Carolina," son of James Ashworth, Sr., and Keziah Dial, on 2 October 1810 [Opelousas license nos.14, 17]. James Ashworth, Sr., was head of an Opelousas household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [LA:306]. Sarah Ashworth was a fifty-nine-year-old "Mulatto" in the 1850 Calcaisieu Parish, Louisiana census.

iv. Mary, born about 1796, daughter of Joshua and Mary Perkins, married James Ashworth, Jr., son of James and Keziah Ashworth, on 23 September 1811 in St. Landry's Parish, Louisiana [Opelousas license no.13].

 

Endnotes:

1.    Esther Perkins may been related to Isaac and Joshua Perkins who owned land in Craven County, North Carolina, in 1738 and 1750 respectively [Craven DB 1:406; 7:88, 90, 98 100; Haun, Craven County Court Minutes, IV:93, 113]. Isaac recorded a memorial for 100 acres on Reedy Creek in Craven County, South Carolina, on 9 May 1761 based on a plat of 10 May 1756 [S.C. Archives Memorials 14:82; Colonial Plats 6:162]. He was probably the Isaac Perkins who was head of a Cheraw District, South Carolina, household of one white male over 16, two under 16, one white female, and 2 "other free" in 1790 [SC:46].

2.    Dorcas Perkins apparently had at least one child. The 27 January 1746 session of the Accomack County court recorded that the charges against her by the churchwardens were abated due to her death which would have been about the same year as her mother died [Orders 1744-53, 181]. Perhaps the court confused Dorcas with Esther Perkins.

3.    Landon Carter was taxable on 3,716 acres in Washington County, Tennessee, in 1795 [McCown, Washington County, Tennessee Records, Vol. I, Privately Printed, Tennessee (1964):135].

4.    Isaac Johnston who was head of a Robeson County household of one "other free" in 1790 [NC:48], perhaps a descendant of the Johnson Family of Northampton County, Virginia. Joseph Willis was the slave of Agerton Willis of Bladen County who manumitted him and gave him "considerable property." The manumission was approved by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1787 [Byrd, In Full Force and Virtue, 292]. Joseph was a "Molatto" taxable on 320 acres, 1 "white" (free) poll and 2 black (slave) polls in Captain Burn's Bladen County District in 1784, counted as white in 1790, head of a Cheraw District household of 1 male over 16 and 2 females [SC:46], head of a St. Landry Parish household of 13 "other free" and 7 slaves in 1810 [LA:325] and 11 "free colored" and 4 slaves in 1820 [LA:108]. He was buried in Ten Mile Cemetery at Occupy Church in Lower Rapides Parish: Rev. Joseph Willis, 1764-1854, First Baptist preacher of the word in Louisiana west of the Mississippi River [Wise, Sweat Families of the South, 100].

5.    Members of the Mixon family were in Craven County, North Carolina, between 1737 and 1756 [Haun, Craven County Court Minutes, II:107, IV:362] and were in Cheraw District, South Carolina, in 1790 [SC:46].

 

PETERS FAMILY

1.    Mary Peters, born say 1688, was the "Mullatto Woman Servant" of Edward Couch on 5 July 1708 when she confessed to the Middlesex County court that she had an illegitimate "Mullatto" child. Couch paid her fine of 500 pounds of tobacco [Orders 1705-10, 178, 182]. She was apparently the ancestor of "mulattas" Molly, Lucy and Hannah Peters who Thomas Hardin gave to his wife Lucy Hardin "during the time of their servitude" by his 17 November 1759 Middlesex County will which was proved on 4 December 1759 [WB D:545-6]. She was the ancestor of

2        i. ?Edward, born say 1720

3        ii. ?Catherine, born say 1723.

iii. Molly.

4        iv. Lucy1, born say 1730.

v. Hannah, born say 1735.

 

2.    Edward Peters, born say 1720, was sued for a 5 pound, 10 shillings debt in Sussex County, Virginia, in October 1755 [Orders 1754-56, 252, 288]. He was married before 21 November 1758 when the Surry County, Virginia court issued a presentment:

Against...Edward Peters, for each and every of them not listing their wife's according to law supposing the said persons to be Mulattoes...[Orders 1757-64, 135].

He may have been the father of

5        i. Aaron1, born say 1737.

6        ii. Armstead, born about 1739.

7        iii. Anthony1, born say 1741.

8        iv. Lucy2, born say 1743.

9        v. Jasper, born say 1744.

 

3.    Catherine Peters, born say 1723, was charged in Surry County court on 19 July 1744 with murdering a bastard child. Richard and Tabitha Wiggins and Matthew and Mary Hubbard were witnesses. She was sent to Williamsburg for trial [Criminal Proceedings Against Free Persons, Slaves, etc., 1742-1822, 2]. In December 1744 the Surry County, Virginia court clerk was paid for attending the trial [Orders 1744-48, 14]. She may have been the mother of

10      i. Rebecca, born say 1738.

ii. Samuel, born say 1740, brother of Rebecca Peters, bound apprentice by the churchwardens of Henrico Parish in August 1754 Henrico County court (no parent or race mentioned) [Orders 1752-55, 218].

11      iii. William1, born say 1745.

 

4.    Lucy1 Peters, born say 1730, was the servant of Thomas Hardin when he made his 17 November 1759 Middlesex County will. She was the mother of

12       i. William2, born say 1750.

ii. ?James1, presented by the grand jury of Middlesex County on 24 November 1783 for failing to list himself as a tithable [Orders 1783-4, 16; 1784-6, 7].

 

5.    Aaron1 Peters, born say 1737, was godparent for the christening of Samuel and Sarah Blizzard's daughter Lucy in Albemarle Parish, Sussex and Surry counties, on 16 May 1762 [Richards, Register of Albemarle Parish, 214]. He lost a suit brought by Daniel Ellis in Sussex County court in December 1764 for 10 pounds due on a judgment obtained in Surry County court [Orders 1764-66, 168]. He may have been the father of

13      i. Gilliam, born say 1765.

ii. Aaron2, born say 1771, head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 11 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:161] and 14 in 1830 [NC:322]. On 19 February 1836 there were five suits against him in Halifax County court for debts.

14      iii. Isham, born say 1773.

iv. Cullen, born say 1775, head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [NC:336] and 7 in 1810 [NC:41].

 

6.    Armstead Peters, born about 1739, appeared in Surry County, Virginia court on 15 May 1764 when he and William Walden were sued by the administrator of John Peters' estate for the price of articles which they purchased at the sale of the estate in 1762 but had not yet paid for [Orders 1764-74, 25, 33]. He was head of a Surry County household of 15 "whites" (free persons) in 1782 [VA:43]. He was taxable in Cabin Point district of Surry County from 1782 to 1812: taxable on Jesse Peters' tithe in 1782; charged with Drury Walden's tithe in 1788; charged with Aaron Taylor's tithe in 1791; taxable on a slave named Phil over the age of sixteen in 1793; taxable on slave Harry and 2 others from 1794 to 1804; taxable on James Taylor's tithe in 1801 and 1802 [PPTL, 1782-90, frames 350, 379, 458, 479; 603, 1791-1816, 15, 115, 166, 269, 302, 341, 421, 459, 598, 615, 674, 713]. He purchased 100 acres in Surry on 26 September 1786, and he and his wife Jenny sold this land two years later on 2 June 1788. He purchased another tract of 100 acres on 28 December 1790 from John Debereaux [DB 12:218; 13:236, 295]. He married, second, Elizabeth Blizzard, 26 April 1792 Surry County bond. She may have been the Betsy Peters whose son Charles Pickett, born about 1788, registered as a "free Negro" in Surry County on 25 March 1807 [Hudgins, Surry County Register of Free Negroes, 32]. Armstead was taxed on 100 acres until 1803 when the Surry Tax Alterations recorded the transfer of this land [Land Tax Lists]. He registered as a "free Negro" in 1795: a mulattoe man...aged about 56 years, born free, of a yellowish complexion, about 5'10 or 11" high and pretty stout made [Back of Guardian Accounts Book 1783-1804, no.1]. He was head of a Surry County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:614]. Betsy was listed in Surry County in 1813 with 2 free "Negroes & Mulattoes over 16 years old" [PPTL, 1791-1816, frame 752]. His children may have been

i. Lucy3, born about 1770, registered as a "free Negro" in Surry County on 16 September 1800: a mulatto woman of yellowish complexion, aged about 30 years, 5'5" high, born of free Parents, residents of this county [Back of Guardian Accounts Book 1783-1804, no.63]. She registered in Petersburg on 9 July 1805: a Mulatto woman of yellowish brown complexion, five feet four and a half inches high, thirty five years old, has holes in her ears, raised in the County of Surry as appears by a certificate of her registry from the Clerk of that County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 299] and was head of a Petersburg Town household of 5 "other free" and one slave in 1810 [VA:125a].

ii. Patsy, born say 1773, mother of William Collins Peters who registered as a "free Negro" in Surry County on 27 August 1816: William Collins, alias William Collins Peters, a mulatto, son of Patsy Peters, and is free born, age ca 25...of bright complexion, long hair and 5'9" tall [Surry County Registry of Free Negroes, p.85, no.205].

 

7.    Anthony1 Peters, born say 1741, sued William Wilson in York County court on 15 March 1765 for a 31 shillings debt due by account. And he and Jasper Peters were found guilty by the same court for trespass, assault and battery against John Poe [Judgments & Orders 1763-5, 357, 361]. He may have been the father of

i. Anthony2, born say 1763, married Anne Carter, 10 June 1786 York County bond, James Ashby security. He was taxable in Simon Gillett's York County household in 1784 and 1786 (perhaps identical to Anthony Jasper, a 16-21 year-old in Simon's household in 1785), taxable in his own household in 1788, 1789, 1793, 1794, 1798, 1799, 1800, 1803 (taxable on a slave), 1809, 1810, 1811, 1812, and head of a household of 2 "free Negroes & mulattoes over 16" in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1841, frames 91, 107, 130, 394, 410]. He married, second, Druscilla Daily, 16 January 1790 Henrico County bond, Lewis Fortune bondsman. He testified in Henrico County on 20 April 1791 at the trial of Hugh Shavers (Chavis) who was accused of stealing from the home of Mary Williamson a bed, blanket and mirror which were later found in the possession of Toby Jackson of Richmond City. Anthony testified that at the end of February 1791 Chavers came into his shop to have his shoes mended and complained that Toby Jackson had purchased a bed and mirror from him but failed to pay the balance. (Toby Jackson was emancipated by deed proved on 3 July 1786 by his wife Rebecca Jackson, a "Mulatto woman" emancipated by Thomas Johnson by deed proved on 4 November 1782 [Orders 1781-4, 114; 1784-7, 509; 1789-91, 493]). Anthony was head of a York County household of an "other free" man, 7 slaves and a white woman aged 26-45 in 1810 [VA:304].

ii. Sally, head of a York County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:880].

 

8.    Lucy2 Peters, born say 1743, was a resident of Surry County, Virginia, on 9 January 1796 when her son Jesse registered as a "free Negro" [Back of Guardian Accounts Book, 1783-1804, no. 17]. She was the mother of

15      i. Jesse, born about 1764.

 

9.    Jasper Peters, born say 1744, and Anthony Peters were sued in York County court by John Poe for trespass, assault and battery on 18 March 1765. They were found guilty and ordered to pay Poe 20 shillings. Jasper was sued for debt on 21 May 1770 [Judgments & Orders 1763-5, 357; Orders 1768-70, 471]. He and his wife Molly, "free mulattoes," baptized their daughter Ann Peters in Bruton Parish. Their daughter was

i. Ann, born 18 March 1768, baptized 5 June 1768 [Bruton Parish Register, 32].

 

10.    Rebecca Peters, born say 1738, and her brother Samuel Peters were ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Henrico Parish, Henrico County, on 5 August 1754 (no parent or race mentioned). She was called a "Free Mulatto" on 3 November 1760 when the court bound out her children Anne and Elisha. Her "Mulatto" children Frank and Milley were bound out by the court on 1 February 1768, and on 7 August 1769 the court ordered her children Frank and Milley bound to Ann Vanderwall and ordered her daughter Rachel bound out [Minutes 1752-55, 218; Orders 1755-62, 479; 1767-69, 207, 491, 510]. She may have been the Rebecca Peters who was head of a Richmond City household of 4 "other free" and one slave in 1810 [VA:328]. Her children were

i. Anne, born say 1757.

ii. Elisha, born say 1759.

iii. Frank, born say 1765.

iv. Milley, born say 1767.

v. Rachel, born say 1769.

vi. ?Betty, head of a Hanover County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:857].

 

11.    William1 Peters, born say 1745, was surety for the 19 March 1785 Stafford County marriage bond of Hannah Peters and William Clark. Hannah's mother was living at Charles Carter's place in Frederick County on 7 December 1817 when her husband William Clark obtained free papers in Culpeper County: William Clerke, a Mulatto man, 50 or 60, 5'7", served in the Revolutionary War in 1780 and 1781...is a free man, who has a wife and several children, and wishes to visit his mother in law in Frederick Co., at Charles Carter's place [Madden, We Were Always Free, 195]. He may have been the father of

i. Joshua, a "free Negro" sadler in Harrisonburg from 1807 to 1812 [PPTL 1795-1813, frames 570, 634, 681, 697], head of a Rockingham County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:3]. George McCoy was apprenticed to Joshua as a saddler when George registered as a "Free Negro" in Rockingham County on 20 June 1815 [Rockingham County Register of Free Negroes, no.22, p.10]. Perhaps his wife was Sally Peters, a free woman of color who testified in Rockingham County on 12 December 1816 that Coleman and Nicholas Clerke were sons of William and Hannah Clerke (Clark) [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto and Poor Persons, 21].

ii. Hannah, born say 1764, married William Clark, 19 March 1785 Stafford County bond [Madden, We Were Always Free, 195].

iii. James1, a "Mulatto" taxable in Culpeper County in 1789 (2 tithes), 1790 and 1796 (a tithe and 2 slaves) [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 305-6, 335, 608].

iv. Reuben, born about 1776, a "free Negroe" taxable in Amherst County in 1805, 1806 and 1812, and from 1816 to 1821 [PPTL 1804-23, frames 71, 111, 239, 403, 503, 554, 541, 604]. He was called "free Negro" when he married Susanna Hartless, "a free mulatto," in Amherst County on 8 January 1812 [Marriage Register, 229]. He was a "free Negro" taxable on Irish Creek in Rockbridge County in 1813 [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List]. He registered as a "free Negro" in Amherst County on 17 September 1822: a free man of Colour aged about 46 years five feet seven inches high [Register of Free Negroes, no.13]. He purchased 141 acres on Pedlar River in Amherst County from John and Mary Clark on 8 April 1823 [DB R:39].

v. Molly, head of a Northumberland County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:991]. She registered as a "free Negro" in Northumberland County on 30 July 1814: light Mulatto, about 46 years, Born of free parents in Lancaster County [Register of Free Negroes, no.71].

vi. Thornton, born say 1785, a "blackman" taxable in Amherst County in 1806 [PPTL 1804-23, frame 111].

vii. Lucy4, born say 1789, head of a Spotsylvania County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:111b]. She married William Jones ("free persons of color"), 29 September 1810 Fredericksburg bond, James Ferguson surety. James Ferguson was head of a Spotsylvania County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:103b].

 

12.    William2 Peters, born say 1750, married Henrietta Ridgway, 28 August 1780 Middlesex County bond. He and his wife Hany purchased 55 acres in Middlesex County, called "Jamuco," adjoining 10 acres of his own property adjoining the main road from William Bird of King William County for 12 pounds on 25 March 1776 [DB 9a:355]. He left a 8 January 1782 Middlesex County will, proved 24 June 1782, by which he gave his mother Lucy Peters a cow (if she was still living when he died) and left his wife Hannah Peters all the rest of his estate. After the death of his wife the estate was to go to his wife's daughter Mary Dungee and then to James Peters if Mary died without heirs. He named his wife Haney and John Dungee executors. They posted bond of 300 pounds currency. His inventory included 10 cattle, 70 hogs, a horse, two beds, a pair of cart wheels, four chairs, a grubbing hoe and a handsaw [WB F:233, 244]. He was the father of

i. James, orphan of Hannah Peters, ordered to be bound out by the churchwardens of Middlesex County on 27 June 1785 [Orders 1784-6, 198, 268], a "Mulattoe" taxable in Middlesex County in 1810 and 1811 [PPTL 1782-1850, frames 244, 253].

ii. ?Betsey, in a list of "Free negroes" in Middlesex County in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1850, frame 272].

iii. ?Lucy, in a list of "Free negroes" in Middlesex County in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1850, frame 272].

 

13.    Gilliam Peters, born say 1765, was head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 1 white male and 2 white females in 1790 [NC:72], 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:471], and 5 in 1810 [NC:741]. His Northampton County estate was administered on 4 March 1816. Purchasers at the sale of the estate, recorded in June 1816, included Mrs. Peters, Tabitha Peters, and Washington Peters. His children were probably

i. Tabitha, married William Coley, 25 April 1818 Halifax County bond. She may have been the same Tobby Cooley who married Henry Peters, 8 November 1826 Halifax County bond.

ii. Washington, born 1776-94, head of a Northampton County household of 4 "free colored" in 1830.

 

14.    Isham Peters, born say 1773, was head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 10 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:161] and 5 in 1830 [NC:353]. His children may have been

i. David, born 1776-94, head of a Halifax County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830 [NC:353].

ii. Henry, born 1776-94, married Tobby Cooley, 8 November 1826 Halifax County bond, head of a Halifax County household of 4 "free colored" in 1830 [NC:353].

iii. Susan, born 1794-1806, married John Scott, Jr., 22 January 1822 Halifax County bond.

iv. Bur., born 1806-20, married 26 February 1824 Halifax County bond, Micajah Mitchum, perhaps the son of Mary Michum, head of a Halifax County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [NC:38].

v. Thomas, born about 1810, a "Mulatto" counted in Halifax County in 1850, with his wife Catherine and children: Eliza, Isham, and Joshua.

 

15.    Jesse Peters, born about 1764, was taxable in Surry County, Virginia, in 1782, his tax charged to Armstead Peters [PPTL, 1782-90, frame 350]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable on himself and a slave over the age of sixteen in Warwick County in 1789 [PPTL, p. 3]. He married Sally Debreaux, 9 January 1796 Surry marriage bond, Armstead Peters surety, 15 January 1796 marriage. He registered as a "free Negro" in Surry County on 9 January 1796: son of Lucy Peters a free mulattoe, a resident of the county, a dark mulattoe man aged about 32 years, pretty well made short hair, 5'11" high [Back of Guardian Accounts Book 1783-1804, no.17]. He was taxable in Surry County from 1802 to 1816: listed with 3 "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-90, frames 350; 1791-1816, frames 498, 540, 598, 636, 674, 713, 752, 863]. His wife Sally registered in Surry County on 20 August 1804: wife of Jesse Peters was born of free parents of this county to wit, John Debrix and Lucy his wife, the said Sally is of a bright complexion, aged about 30 years, her hair pretty long, she is 5'3/4" high. She registered again on 24 March 1838 at the age of sixty-four [Surry County Registry of Free Negroes, p.5, no.15]. Jesse was called a "Free man of Color" in his application for a pension in May 1835 in which he stated that he was seventy-one years old and fought at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse under Captain John Lucas [National Archives File, R 8146]. His children were

i. Anna, born say 1800, married Richard Debrix, 21 January 1817 Surry County bond, with the consent of her father Jesse.

 

Lancaster County

1.    John Peters, born say 1725, was an "Indian" sued by George Ker merchant in Lancaster County for failure to pay on a promissory note he signed (making his mark JP) on 3 November 1752 in which he promised to pay 408 pounds of tobacco for his purchases of a felt hat, a "primmer," garters, rum, brown sugar, pipes, and a pair of buckskin gloves [Judgments 1752-1753]. He was paid 1 shilling by the Lancaster County estate of Robert Hill which was due by John's account for 1762. In 1763 he and Major John Fleet had a dispute over their accounts for the years 1757 to 1763 which was settled by an arbiter. The dispute included 4000 tobacco plants in the year 1759 which was not credited in Fleet's account [DW 1763-4, 17-18; DW 1764-70, 24a]. On 18 June 1763 the Lancaster County Court presented him for not listing his wife as a tithable but dismissed the case the following month [Orders 1756-64, 68, 483]. He won a suit against Moses Dameron and Stephen Miller for 1 pound, 15 shillings in Lancaster County court on 21 March 1771 [Orders 1770-8, 76, 158].

 

Endnotes:

1    Aaron Taylor, whose tax was charged to Armstead Peters in Surry County in 1791, was probably identical to Aaron Peters who was taxable in Cabin Point district of Surry County in 1789 and 1790, the years Aaron Taylor was omitted from the list.

 

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