PETTIFORD FAMILY

Three members of the Pettiford family were "Black" taxables in the Granville County tax lists in the 1750s. They were probably brothers, born in the 1730s and married before 1755. They were

1        i. Lawrence1, born say 1732.

2        ii. Lewis1, born say 1734.

3        iii. George1, born say 1736.

 

1.    Lawrence1 Pettiford, born say 1732, was taxable in the earliest Granville Tax List, dated 1746 or 1748, and was taxable with his wife Mary in Robert Harris' Granville County list for 1752: two "Black" taxables [CR 44.701.19]. According to Mary's great-great-granddaughter she was married to a Mitchell and had eight children before she married Lawrence Pettiford with whom she also had eight children [28 June 1893 letter from Narcissa Rattley to her children]. Lawrence was in the 8 October 1754 Granville County muster of Colonel Eaton [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 728]. On 14 September 1757 he purchased 70 acres in Granville County on the south side of Fishing Creek and another 15 acres adjoining this land on 17 March 1762 [DB C:451; E:360]. He sold 50 acres of this land to Reuben Bass on 20 October 1768 [DB H:473]. On 30 September 1767 he purchased 300 acres on Beaverdam Creek and sold this land on 16 December 1776 [DB H:406; L:146]. He was taxable on five persons in the Summary Tax List of 1769, taxable in Fishing Creek District on 150 acres, 2 horses, and 10 cattle in 1782; and he was taxable on 170 acres in 1787 but not subject to poll tax because he was "aged" [Tax List 1786-91]. He sold this 170 acres on 9 October 1787 to Nathan Bass [DB O:537] and moved to Wake County where he was head of a household of 8 "other free" in 1790 [NC:104]. His children were

i. Isham, born about 1753, first taxable in his father's household in the 1765 tax list of Samuel Benton.

4        ii. Philemon/ Philip, born about 1754.

iii. ?Bartlet, born say 1758, purchased 50 acres adjacent to Lawrence Pettiford's 50 acres in Wake County on 12 February 1795. They sold their land as one parcel of 100 acres on 26 March 1800 [DB Q:57, 444]. He was probably the Bartley Petiford who was head of a Marion District, South Carolina household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [SC:83]. By 1820 he was back in North Carolina where he was called "Bartely Bettingford" in the census for Robeson County, over forty-five years old and head of a household of 2 "free colored" [NC:306]. In 1831 he was in Wake County where he married Sallie Woodward, 30 March 1831 bond. He testified for the pension application of his sister Rachel Locus in 1838. In 1840 he married Zilpha Williams, Franklin County bond, and was counted as a ninety-year-old pauper in the 1850 Franklin County census [NC:306].

5        iv. William1, born about 1761.

v. ?George2, born say 1762, received a bed by the 1771 will of George Anderson [Original in County, not recorded]. He was taxable on 1 poll in Granville County in 1785, head of a Ragland's District household of 1 male and 1 female in 1786 for the state census, and head of a Granville County household of 7 "other free" in 1800. He was one of the freeholders ordered to work on the road from Fishing Creek at Taylor's Mill to the courthouse in November 1794 [Minutes 1792-5, 178]. He was taxable in Oxford District of Granville County from 1796 to 1805 [Tax List 1796-1802, 30, 81, 131, 176, 232, 287, 338; 1803-9, 32, 80, 105], and head of a Granville County household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:34]. He married Taby Johnson, 1 May 1837 Granville County bond, Edmond Pettiford bondsman. He was about sixty-three years old on 10 February 1821 when he made a declaration in Granville County court in order to obtain a Revolutionary War pension, stating that he had enlisted in the company of Captain Goodwin in the 4th North Carolina Regiment. Jesse Bass Poledore Johnson testified that they were well acquainted with George and that he was in reduced circumstances. Richard Glasgow of Granville County and Abram Gregory of Person County testified on 12 June 1827 that they served with George Pettiford, a "free man of Color." He died on 5 February 1853, and his wife Tabitha applied for a widow's benefit on 4 February 1856 [National Archives microfilm M805-648; NCGSJ XV:162].

vi. ?Rachel, born say 1764, married Valentine Locus, 12 August 1780 Granville County bond. On 24 May 1838 she applied for a survivor's pension for her husband's service in the Revolution, testifying that she was eighty years old at the time. Her brother Bartlet Pettiford, a "person of respectability," testified that he had witnessed her marriage [M805-533, frame 768].

vii. ?Lawrence2, born say 1766, not identified as Lawrence1's son, but testified with Martha Pettiford for the 1838 pension application of Rachel Locus that he remembered that she was married at a place "about one mile from their father's." He was probably referring to Lawrence1 Pettiford's home since George1 and Lewis1 Pettiford had left the county by then (the early 1780s). He may have been the Lawrence Pettiford who purchased 50 acres in Wake County on the west side of Crabtree Creek on 11 February 1795 and sold this land together with the adjoining 50 acres belonging to Bartlet Pettiford (his brother?) as one parcel to Matthew Maclin on 25 March 1800 [DB Q:58, 444]. He was taxable on 100 acres in Wake County in 1793, and he and Lewis Pettiford were taxable on 1 poll in 1802 [MFCR 099.701.1, frames 61, 253]. His estate papers were filed in Guilford County on 4 July 1838 [CR 046.508.194].

viii. ?Martha, born say 1768, perhaps the Martha Pedford who was an eighty-four-year-old "Black" head of household, born in North Carolina, living in Jefferson Township, Logan County, Ohio, in 1850 [OH:312].

 

2.    Lewis1 Pettiford, born say 1734, was a "Black" taxable in the 1758 Granville County Tax List of Nathaniel Harris, taxable in 1764 with his wife Catherine and daughter in Samuel Benton's list. He was probably married before 1753 since he had two daughters over twelve years old in the 1766 list of Stephen Jett. Easter Mitchell, also taxable in his 1766 household, may have been his wife's daughter by a previous marriage [CR 44.701.19]. He purchased 50 acres on the north side of Harrell's Creek near the mouth of the Mirey Branch in Granville County on 6 April 1765 and sold this land including the house in which he had lately dwelt on 8 November 1768 [DB H:47, 515]. On 11 May 1772 John Gordon & Company sued him in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, for a debt of 16 pounds, and the Mecklenburg County court ordered his son Edward bound to Richard Epperson on 9 March 1778 [Orders 1771-73, 198, 243, 308, 457; 1773-9, 395]. He was a "Mulo" taxable in the southern district of Halifax County, Virginia, in 1794 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1799, frame 544]. Lewis' children can be identified from the Granville County tax lists:

i. Cortney, born about 1752, taxable in her father's household in Samuel Benton's list in 1764. She married I. Burrell of Petersburg, Virginia [Hustings Court Records]. He registered in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 30 December 1810 by testimony of J. Nelson and R. Boyd of Mecklenburg County: Free John (commonly called John Burwell) was emancipated by his master Edwin Burwell, who gave him a tract of land adjoining mine, on which he has lived many years, within half a mile of my house, and Conducted himself in an Orderly & peaceable manner, his wife Courtney Pettifort, was born free and has always supported an excellent Character [Free Person of Color, no.2, p.1]. They were probably the parents of Clarissa Burwell, head of a Petersburg Town household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:330], and Peachey Barrell who registered in Rockingham County in 1812: a woman of a Dark Complexion aged 23 years five feet four inches [Register of Free Negroes, #11]. A deed from free John Burwell and Anderson Pettiford was proved in Mecklenburg County on 13 November 1809, and an indenture of bargain and sale from free John Burwell, Anderson Pettiford and Caty Pettiford was proved on 18 February 1811 [Orders 1809-11, 76, 369].

6        ii. Molly1, born about 1754.

7        iii. ?Drury1, born say 1755.

8        iv. Catherine2/Caty, born about 1757.

v. ?Elias, born say 1759, taxable in Granville County on 200 acres and 1 poll in 1785 and head of a Tar River District household of 1 male and 2 females in the 1786 state census.

9        vi. ?Easter, born say 1761.

vii. Edward, ordered bound apprentice in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 9 March 1778 [Orders 1773-9, 395].

viii. ?Lewis2, born say 1769, married Elizabeth Sweat, 2 January 1788 Granville County bond with Elias Pettiford bondsman. He was taxable one poll in Granville County in 1790 and was bondsman for the 31 October 1799 marriage of Mordecai Bass and Nancy Askew. On 15 April 1815 he was described as a "free man of color" in a Wake County indenture by which his wife at that time, Lydia, petitioned the court to bind out her two boys to her father Reuben Bass. The indenture explained that the boys, Ned and Thomas, eighteen and nineteen years old, were illegitimate children born before her marriage to Lewis, and Lewis was hiring them out without her consent [CR 99.101.1].

ix. ?William2, born say 1780, head of a Petersburg, Virginia household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:127a].

 

3.    George1 Pettiford, born say 1736, was a "Black" taxable in the 1754 Granville County tax list of Robert Harris, and he was listed in the Muster Roll of Colonel William Eaton's Granville County Militia [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 723]. He and his wife Lucy were "Black" taxables in the 1755 summary list for Granville and the 1757 list of Richard Harris. In the 1762 list of Samuel Benton for Oxford and Fishing Creek Districts he was taxable on his wife and (his wife's sister?) Rachel Butler and taxable on only two tithes in 1763. He had 4 "Black" taxables in the 1769 summary list for Granville County, but the taxables were not named. In August 1768 he tarred the courthouse and jail of Granville County [Minutes 1765-72, 126-7]. He was taxable in Nash District of Caswell County in 1777, taxable there on 200 acres, a horse, and six cattle in 1780 and taxable on 300 acres in 1784 [SS 837]. He may have been the father of

10      i. Mary, born say 1765.

 

4.    Philip Pettiford, born about 1754, was taxable in his father's household in the 1768 list of John Pope (called Phelimon Petteford). He married Patience Bass [28 June 1893 letter from his great-granddaughter, Narcissa Rattley, to her children]. Philip was taxable in Granville County on 2 horses and 5 cattle in 1782 (as Philemon), taxable on one poll in 1785 (as Philip), and was head of an Oxford District household of 5 male and 3 female "Blacks" and one white male in 1786 for the state census. He and George Pettiford were found guilty of forgery in Granville County court on 8 February 1787, but the judgment was arrested [Minutes 1786-7, n.p.]. In 1789 he was taxed in Captain Wyatt's Wake County List, but he had moved to Cumberland County by 1790 where he was head of a household of 9 "other free" [NC:40]. He made a declaration in Granville County on 5 September 1820 to obtain a pension for his service in the Revolutionary War. He stated that he was sixty-six years old and living with his eighty-four-year-old wife. His final pension payment papers recorded his death on 13 April 1825 [National Archives pension file S41952, http://www.fold3.com; NCGSJ XV:162]. Administration on his Cumberland County estate was granted on 5 September 1825 to John Pettiford with Bartly Pettiford and Frederick Moore providing security of 100 dollars [Minutes 1823-35]. This confirms the statement in the 28 June 1893 letter of Narcissa Rattley that Philip died in Fayetteville where he went to draw his pension. His children were most likely Sarah, Maria, Nance, and Gillica, "mulattos" (no surname given) who were bound apprentices to Duncan McNeill and his family in Cumberland County court on 29 October 1790 [Minutes 1787-91]. Philip's children named in Narcissa Rattley's letter were Milley, Sally, Nanny, Gillie, Betsy, Jefferson, and William. Philip's children were

i. Milley2, born say 1775.

ii. Sally, born about 1779, an eleven-year-old "mulatto" bound to Duncan McNeill in Cumberland County court on 29 October 1790.

iii. Maria, born about 1784, six years old in 1790. Perhaps she died young since she was not mentioned by Mrs. Rattley.

iv. Nanny/ Nance, born about 1787, three years old in October 1790.

v. Gillie/ Gillica, born about May 1790, five months old in October 1790.

vi. Betsy.

vii. Jefferson.

viii. William3, born say 1796.

 

5.    William1 Pettiford, born about 1761, was called the son of Lawrence Pettiford in George Anderson's 1771 Granville County will [Original Granville County will, not recorded]. In the 1778 Militia Returns for Granville County he was listed in Captain William Gill's Company as a seventeen-year-old "black man" [The North Carolinian VI:726 citing N.C. Archives Mil. TR 4-40]. William was head of a Granville County household of 1 male and 3 females in Fishing Creek District in the 1786 state census and head of an Orange County household of 14 "other free" in 1810 [NC:863] and 8 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:312]. He was about fifty-eight years old on 19 February 1819 when he made a deposition before one of the justices of Orange County to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. His brother Philip Pettiford testified that he served with him. He made a second deposition on 1 September 1820 when he testified that his wife was fifty-two years old and very infirm. He had a fifteen-year-old son named Reuben living with him as well as five daughters: aged nineteen, seventeen, twelve, ten and three. Jesse Picket testified that William had been living on his land for three to four years [National Archives Pension file no. S41948, http://www.fold3.com]. He left a 3 July 1836 Wake County will which named William Croker, Sr., William Day, Sr., Jesse Day, Jr., Nelson Pettiford, Sr., Lavina Roberts and James E. Franklin but did not state his relationship to them [WB 24:28]. William was the father of

i. ?Viney, married Dempsy Roberts, 9 April 1812 Orange County bond.

ii. ?Levice, married Francis Croker, 5 September 1812 Orange County bond, William Croker bondsman.

iii. ?Lucy, married William Croker, 27 November 1813 Orange County bond.

iv. ?Love, born about 1798, married Jesse Day, 27 January 1819 Orange County bond, William Day bondsman. They were counted in the census for Lawrence County, Illinois, in 1850.

v. ?Jinsey, born about 1799, married William Day, 6 October 1818 Orange County bond. They were counted in the census for Lawrence County, Illinois, in 1850.

vi. ?Nelson, born about 1800, married Clara Collins, 19 August 1823 Orange County bond. They were counted in the census for Lawrence County, Illinois, in 1850.

vii. Reuben, born about 1805, married Agnis Griffin, 12 June 1826 Orange County bond.

 

6.    Molly1 Pettiford, born about 1754, was taxable in her father's household in the list of Stephen Jett in 1767 but not listed in his household in 1768. Her "base born child" Lucy Pettiford was bound as an apprentice in Granville County on 4 February 1777. She may have been the mother of Thornton Pettiford who was bound to Nathan Bass on 1 February 1779 [CR 044.101.2-7]. And she may have been the Milly Pettiford who married Benjamin Bass, 2 January 1781 Granville County bond. Her children born before her marriage were

i. Lucy, "base born child of Molly Pettiford," bound apprentice to Jesse Barnet on 4 February 1777. She may have been the same Lucy Pettiford (born about 1780) who was bound apprentice in Caswell County on 17 July 1786 [CR 20.101.1].

ii. Thornton, born about 1772, no parent named, a seven-year-old bound apprentice to Nathan Bass in Granville County on 1 February 1779 [CR 44.101.2], perhaps identical to Thomas Pettiford, son of Milley Pettiford, who was bound to Nathan Bass on 1 February 1779 according to Thomas McAdory Owen's notes [Owen, Granville County Notes, vol. II]. In October 1792 Thornton was bondsman for Mary Pettiford who was charged with having a bastard child [Camin, N.C. Bastardy Bonds, 87]. He was taxable on a horse in Petersburg in 1803 and 1810 [PPTL 1800-33, frames 84, 294]. He married Alice Goff, 31 March 1804 Petersburg Town, Virginia bond. He and Hardy Bass were paid on 5 May 1807 for attending seven days as witnesses in the suit of Fanny Goff against Molly Lee in Petersburg [Hustings Court Minute Book 1805-8]. He was head of a Petersburg household of 2 "other free" and 2 slaves in 1810 [VA:128a].

 

7.    Drury1 Pettiford, born say 1755, married Tycey Bass, 12 November 1781 Granville County bond with (his brother?) Elias Pettiford bondsman. He was taxable on one poll in Granville County in 1785, head of a household of 2 males and 2 females in Granville in the 1786 state census, and taxable in Granville County on 2 polls and 90 acres in 1788. He moved to Stokes County where he was head of a household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [NC:607]. In his application for a pension on 25 August 1820 he stated that he enlisted in Virginia, that his age was sixty-nine years, and the age of his wife Dicy was sixty-six. He listed the ages of his children who were more likely his grandchildren [CR 099.928.11 by NCGSJ XV:162]. His wife was probably Dicey Bass, "the base born child of Lovey Bass," who was born about 1766 [CR 44-101.2-7]. His (grand) children were

i. Jesse, born about 1802.

ii. Nicholas, born about 1804, married Jane Evans, 12 October 1821 Wake County bond.

iii. Jincy, born about 1808.

iv. Drury3, born about 1811.

v. Sally, born about 1813.

vi. Franky, born about 1814.

vii. Thomas2, born about 1818.

 

8.    Catherine2 Pettiford, born about 1757, was living in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 14 June 1784 when the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her sons Byrd and Anderson Pettiford. On 12 June 1786 the court bound out her seven children, called "Bastards of Caty Peteford," as apprentices to Caleb Johnson. They complained to the court on 13 July 1795 that Johnson was mistreating them, but the case was discontinued for want of prosecution on 11 April 1796 [Orders 1784-87, 51, 524; 1792-5, 474; 1795-8, 57]. She registered in Petersburg on 23 May 1812: a light brown Mulatto woman, five feet eleven and a half inches high, fifty five years old, born free & raised in Mecklenburg County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 704]. Her children were

i. Anderson, born say 1771, ordered bound apprentice on 14 June 1784 [Orders 1784-7, 51]. He purchased 6 acres on Field's Mill Road in the upper district of Mecklenburg County by indenture of bargain and sale acknowledged in court on 14 July 1806 and was taxable on the land from 1807 to 1812. He sued William Fisher in court for trespass, assault and battery and was awarded $183 by the jury on 13 May 1807 [Orders 1805-6, 226, 369; 1807-9, 67, 129; Land Tax List 1782-1811A; 1811B-1824A, A lists]. He married Annis Anderson, 4 December 1817 Granville County bond and was head of a Granville County household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:34].

ii. Catherine3/Cate, born say 1773.

iii. Boling, born say 1775, bound apprentice to Caleb Johnson in Mecklenburg County on 12 June 1786. He ran away from Johnson in 1797 and, with the help of his uncle Benjamin Bass, found work driving a wagon for William Hester of Granville County for $5 a month. In September 1801 Johnson sued for his return, and Hester offered to pay for the remainder of his apprenticeship [LVA, Mecklenburg County chancery case 1804-001].

iv. Martin, born say 1777.

v. Hannah, born say 1779, married Jacob Garrett, 4 November 1802 Mecklenburg County, Virginia bond, 6 November marriage, (her brother) Drury Pettiford surety. Jacob Garatt was freed by deed of emancipation from John Finney according to a certificate of the Amelia County court recorded in Mecklenburg County on 13 August 1804 [Orders 1803-5, 206]. He was living near Petersburg in 1813 when he was counted in a list of "Free Negroes and Mulattoes" in Dinwiddie County [Personal Property Tax List, 1800-19].

vi. Drury2, born say 1781.

vii. Byrd, born say 1784, bound apprentice in Mecklenburg County on 14 June 1784 and bound to Harrison Wynne on 8 December 1794. On 9 September 1805 he complained of mistreatment by Wynne, and on 10 February 1806 Wynne moved that he be bound instead to (his brother) Anderson Pettiford [Orders 1784-7, 51; 1792-5, 380; 1803-5, 462].

viii. ?Winny, born about 1788, registered in Petersburg on 9 May 1809: a dark brown Negro woman of Colour, five feet one and a half inches high, twenty one years old, born free & raised in the Town of Petersburg [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 465].

 

9.    Easter Pettiford, born say 1761, was living in Granville County in August 1777 when her six-week-old son Collin was bound apprentice. She was head of a Granville County household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:27]. Her children were

i. Collin, born about June 1777, "orphan of Easter Pettiford," bound an apprentice to Thomas Satterwhite on __ August 1777 [CR 044.101.2-7]. He married Polly Chavis, 16 June 1802 Granville County bond. He was taxable on one poll in Island Creek District in 1804 and 1805, one poll in Abrams Plains District in 1806-09, and taxable on 81 acres on Grassy Creek in Country Line District in 1820 and 1823 [Tax List 1767-1823, 63, 124, 188, 204, 255, 311]. He was head of a Granville County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [NC:860] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:36].

ii. ?Augustine, born about 1779, a two-year-old boy bound apprentice to Thomas Satterwhite in Granville County on 6 November 1781, no parent named [Minutes 1766-95].

 

10.    Mary Pettiford, born say 1765, was the mother of Charity Pettiford who was bound to Mary Badgett by the Granville County court in May 1793. In August that year she petitioned the court to have her daughter removed from Badgett and bound to some other person [Minutes 1792-5, 91]. She was the mother of

i. Charity, born about 1786, seven-year-old daughter of Mary Pettiford bound to Mary Badgett in Granville County in May 1793 [Minutes 1792-5, 64].

ii. Elizabeth, born about 1789, four years old in August 1793 when she was bound to William Pinn [Minutes 1792-5, 92]. She married William Anderson, 12 November 1808 Granville County bond, and a Betsy Anderson married Moses Bass, 28 August 1809 Granville County bond.

iii. Merriman, born about 1792, one and a half years old in August 1793 when he was bound to William Pinn [Minutes 1792-5, 92], perhaps the Meredith Pettiford who married Ann Tyler, 6 August 1818 Granville County bond.

 

Other members of the Pettiford family were

i. Moses, born say 1775, bound as an apprentice farmer to William Creath by the Granville County court on 2 November 1790 [Minutes 17]. He was head of a Guilford County household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:111].

ii. Archilus, born about 1781, a five-year-old bound to Nicholas Talley by the Granville County court on 9 November 1786 to be a cordwainer [Minutes 1786-7]. He was called Cillis Pettiford in November 1795 when the Granville County court reported that Talley had moved to Guilford with the boy several years previous, but had since died and left him with someone who was not treating him well. He may have been identical to Archibald Pettiford who was head of a Stokes County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [NC:606] and 11 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:364].

iii. Polly, born about 1783, bound apprentice in Caswell County on 17 July 1786 (no parent named) [CR 20.101.1].

iv. Stephen, born about 1785, bound apprentice in Caswell County on 17 July 1786 (no parent named) [CR 20.101.1]. He married Amey Good, 23 December 1808 Wake County bond.

 

Endnotes:

1.    Narcissa Rattley's letter is in the possession of Robert Jackson of Silver Spring, Maryland.

2.    John Pettiford was an insolvent Fayetteville District taxpayer in 1825 according to the minutes of the 9 September 1826 Cumberland County court, perhaps the J(?). Pettiford who was head of a Cumberland County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:622].

 

PHILLIPS FAMILY

1.    Mary Phillips, born say 1670, was the servant of Mr. Thomas Banks on 16 July 1690 when she confessed in Northumberland County court that she had a child by her master's "negro" named William Smyth. On 15 August 1694 she bound her "mulatto" son Thomas as an apprentice to Thomas Downing until the age of thirty years by indenture recorded in Northumberland County [Orders 1678-98, pt. 2, 668; 1699-1713, pt. 2, 511, 684]. She was probably the mother of William Phillips, a "Mulatto," who was bound apprentice in Northumberland County in 1710. She was the mother of

i. ?William1, born 16 March 1690, a twenty-year-old "Mulatto" belonging to Mrs. Elizabeth Banks on 19 July 1710 when he was bound to serve her as an apprentice until the age of twenty-four

ii. Thomas, born 16 January 1693/4 [Orders 1678-98, pt. 2, 668].

 

They may have been the ancestors of

i. John1, born say 1750, a taxable "Molato" in Benjamin Ivey's Bladen County, North Carolina household in 1770 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:34].

ii. John2, a "Mulattoe" bound to Daniel Greenwood by the churchwardens of Hamilton Parish, Fauquier County on 23 July 1781 [Minutes 1781-4, 12].

ii. Jenny, a "free Mulatto" found not guilty by the Culpeper County court of threatening to burn down the house of Edmund Pendleton [Minutes 1798-1802, 421].

iii. Hannah Phillips, alias Timbers, found not guilty of felony by the Culpeper County court on 5 January 1803 [Minutes 1802-3, 135].

iv. Sylvia, head of a Buckingham County household of 18 "other free" in 1810 [VA:799].

v. William2, "F.N." head of a Culpeper County household of 4 "other free" and a white woman in 1810 [VA:66].

vi. James, head of a Richmond City household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:369]. He was probably the James Phillips who married Jenny, "a dark mulatto" who was emancipated by verdict of the Richmond District Court, by 29 May 1807 Henrico County bond.

vii. B., head of a Brunswick County, North Carolina household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:234].

 

PHILLIPSON FAMILY

1.     Rachel Phillipson, born say 1752, (no race indicated) was living in Lancaster County on 18 February 1773 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Christ Church Parish to bind out her children [Orders 1770-8, 296]. She may have been the mother of

i. John, a "Mulatto" bound out by the Lancaster County court to John Campbell to learn the trade of house carpenter and joiner on 16 July 1772 [Orders 1770-8, 239].

ii. Philip, head of a Loudoun County household of 12 "other free" in 1810 [VA:311].

 

PICKETT FAMILY

1.    Mary Pickett, born say 1664, was living in Elizabeth City County on 20 May 1724 when the court granted her petition to be levy free [Orders 1724-30, 15]. She may have been the ancestor of

2        i. Susannah, born say 1718.

ii. Samuel, born about 1723, a "Mulatto" ordered to be released from the Surry County estate of John Simmons, deceased, in December 1744 because he was over twenty-one [Orders 1744-48, 108, 12].

iii. Sarah Pickart, born say 1735, whose "Molatto" son Stafford was born in Overwharton Parish, Stafford County, on 22 October 1757 [Overwharton Parish, Stafford County, Registry 1724-76, 192].

3        iv. Elizabeth, born say 1742.

 

2.    Susannah Pickett, born say 1718, was called Susannah Pickett alias Taylor when her children: Sarah, Edward, Lydia, and James were bound out by the Surry County, Virginia court in January 1745/6 [Orders 1744-9, 108]. She was the mother of

i. Sarah, born say 1739.

ii. Edward, born say 1741, complained to the Surry County court on 16 January 1754 against his master Joseph Eelbeck. The court noted that Eelbeck had moved to North Carolina and ordered the churchwardens of Southwarke Parish to take him under their care [Orders 1753-7, 43]. He may have been identical to "Ned alias Edward Pickett" who was sent by the Surry County court for further trial at Williamsburg on the charge of stealing a mare from the estate of John Allen, Gentleman [Surry County Criminal Proceedings Against Free Persons, 1742-1822, 47], and he may have been the Edward Taylor whose son Aaron Taylor registered as a "free Negro" in Surry County in 1796.

iii. Lydia, born say 1743, called Lydia Taylor, a "Mulatto," when she was bound out in Surry County on 19 June 1753 [Orders 1751-3, 443].

iv. James, born say 1745.

 

3.    Elizabeth Pickett, born say 1742, (no race indicated) was living in Charles Parish on 17 May 1762 when the York County court presented her for having a bastard child [Judgments & Orders 1759-63, 358]. She was living in Warwick County in 1765 when she baptized her son William Picket, "bastard son of Eliza Picket," in Charles Parish [Bell, Charles Parish Registers, 152]. Her children were

4        i. ?John, born say 1761.

ii. William1, baptized 24 November 1765, head of a Montgomery County, Pennsylvania household of 5 "other free" in 1790, perhaps the William Pickett who was head of a Philadelphia County household of 5 "other free" in 1790.

iii. Robert, born 23 October 1768, baptized 12 February 1769, son of Eliza by William Sandefer [Bell, Charles Parish Registers, 152].

 

4.    John Pickett, born say 1761, and his wife Elizabeth, were living in Warwick County on 18 March 1785 when they registered the birth and baptism of their "mulatto" son William, in Charles Parish, York County [Bell, Charles Parish Registers, 152]. He was taxable in Warwick County from 1782 to 1801: called a "Mulatto" starting in 1789 [PPTL 1782-1820, frames 215, 218, 246, 249, 253, 255, 257, 266, 270, 273, 280, 285, 290]. Their children were

i. Patsey, born 18 September, baptized 3 November 1782, daughter of John and Eliza Pickett."

ii. William2, born 7 August 1784, baptized 18 March 1785, "mulatto son of John and Elizabeth."

 

PIERCE FAMILY

1.    Deborah Pierce, born say 1708, was the servant of James Halloway on 19 June 1729 when she was a witness for Christopher Needham in Elizabeth City County court. On 15 December 1731 she was presented for having a bastard child. And on 7 June 1748 she was presented for having a "Mulatto Bastard" [Orders 1723-9, 332; 1731-47, 15; 1747-55, 42, 149]. She was the mother of

2        i. ?Thomas, born say 1722.

ii. Elizabeth, a "Mulatto Bastard," bound to John Selden on 15 February 1749/50 [Orders 1747-55, 149]. She may have been the mother of Sarah Pierce (no race indicated) who was fined 500 pounds of tobacco by the Elizabeth City County court on 7 January 1767, probably for having an illegitimate child [Court Records 1760-9, 419].

 

2.    Thomas Pierce, born say 1722, received a warrant for 57 acres in Tyrrell County, North Carolina, on 21 March 1743 [Saunders, Colonial Records of North Carolina IV:628] and was taxable on 265 acres, 4 horses, and 10 cattle in Tyrrell County in 1782 [NCGSJ X:244]. He was a "free colored" head of a Tyrrell County household of 4 free males and 4 free females in 1790 [NC:34]. On 13 June 1795 he was called "Thomas Pierce of Tyrrell County, administrator of William Pierce," when he gave power of attorney to Samuel Warren, an attorney, to receive the final settlement due to (his son?) William Pierce for his service in the North Carolina Continental Line [NCGSJ XIV:230]. Thomas' widow Mary Pierce appeared in Tyrrell County court in January 1797 to claim her dower rights to two tracts of land, one for 50 acres on the sound and one for 140 acres joining Samuel Chessons. She was head of a Washington County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [NC:708]. Their children were most likely

i. William, born say 1750, died before 13 June 1795.

3        ii. Israel, born say 1755.

4        iii. Sarah, born say 1770.

iv. Stevens, born say 1785, head of a Tyrrell County household of one "other free" and one slave in 1810 [NC:785].

 

3.    Israel Pierce, born say 1755, was a "free colored" head of a Tyrrell County household of 3 free males and 3 free females in 1790 [NC:34], 7 "other free" in Hyde County in 1800 [NC:374], 11 in Hyde County in 1810 [NC:119] and 8 "free colored" in Beaufort County in 1820 [NC:32]. He was in Tyrrell County on 21 June 1791 when he gave power of attorney to Samuel Warren, an attorney, to receive his final settlement due him as a soldier in the North Carolina Continental Line [NCGSJ XIV:230]. He may have been the father of Simon Pierce, born 28 December 1798, and Lewis Pierce, born September 1801, "free Mullattos" bound as apprentices to William and Mercer Cherry in Beaufort County by the September court [Minutes 1809-14, 10th page of September Minutes].

 

4.    Sarah Pierce, born say 1770, was living in Tyrrell County on 8 April 1796 when her nine-year-old son James Simpson was bound to Isaac Bateman [CR 96.102.1, Box 1]. She was head of a Washington County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:708] and 5 in 1810 [NC:787]. Her son was

i. James Simpson, born about 1787, perhaps the James Swinson who was head of a Beaufort County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:34].

 

Other members of the Pierce family were

i. William Pierse, head of a Beaufort County, South Carolina household of 10 "other free" in 1800 [SC:116].

ii. Joseph, a "Mulatto" soldier born in Nansemond County who was living in New Kent County when he was listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Court House [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153].

iii. Francis, a man of color born in Caroline County who enlisted as a soldier in the Revolution NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153].

iv. William, head of a Loudoun County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:268].

v. Lawrence, born about 1777, registered in Fauquier County on 25 September 1820: bald head, age 43, 5'6", born free [Register of Free Negroes, 1817-65, no. 37].

vi. Henry, born about 1779, registered in Amelia County on 24 October 1805: a brown Mulatto man about 5 feet 5 inches high about 26 years of age, born free as appears by the certificate of George Gorden and a register from the County of Fouqerire [Register of Free Negroes 1804-35, no. 20].

vii. Benjamin, "F. Negroe" head of a Fauquier County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:412].

 

PINN FAMILY

The Pinn family was probably related to Thomas Pin, the servant of John Pinckard, who was declared levy free by the Lancaster County court on 12 May 1685 because he was blind, perhaps the same Thomas Pin who was taxable in Lancaster County in 1695 but was declared levy-free in June 1697 because he was "very aged." On 8 March 1731/2 the Lancaster County court paid another Thomas Pinn for attending as a witness against Thomas Pinckard, Gentleman, and Maurice Jones, Gentleman, so he was almost certainly a white man [Orders 1680-86, 241; 1686-96, 332; 1696-1702, 20]. Members of the family were

1        i. _____ (unnamed woman), born say 1695.

2        ii. Robert1, born say 1700.

 

1.    ____ Pinn, born say 1695, was the mother of Keziah Pinn, orphan of "Indian Harry" deceased, who was bound by the Lancaster County to Thomas Hubbard and his wife Margaret on 10 June 1748 until the age of twenty-one [Orders 1743-52, 160]. They were the parents of

3        i. ?David1, born say 1725.

4        ii. Keziah, born say 1735.

 

2.    Robert1 Pinn, born say 1700, and his security Captain Thomas Pinckard were sued in Lancaster County for 500 pounds of tobacco by Elizabeth Burn on 13 July 1720 [Orders 1713-21, 333]. He was presented by the churchwardens of Wicomico Parish, Northumberland County, on 16 August 1733 for absenting himself from his parish church [Orders 1729-37, 109]. He was in Lancaster County on 13 January 1744 when his son Robert, no age or race mentioned, was bound to Thomas Dogget as an apprentice cooper. He was probably married to Margaret Pinn who bound her son Robert to William Downman as an apprentice shoemaker in Lancaster County on 11 May 1751 [Orders 1743-52, 9, 251]. Margaret may have been the ancestor of a "free Negro boy" named Thomas Pinn bound out by the court in Richmond County, Virginia, on 7 May 1764 to William Downman, the same man Robert Pinn was bound to in Lancaster County [Orders 1762-5, 227]. Robert and Margaret were the ancestors of

5        i. Robert2, born say 1740.

6        ii. ?Rawley, born say 1750.

7        iii. ?Patsey Maclin, born say 1750.

iv. ?John1, born say 1752, a "Free" head of a Northumberland County household of 3 "Blacks" in 1782 [VA:37]. On 10 May 1784 the Northumberland County court exempted him from paying taxes due to an infirmity [Orders 1783-5, 153]. His 9 July 1785 Northumberland County will, proved 9 July 1792 but not recorded, mentioned (his wife?) Ann Kesterson, who was to receive all his estate as long as she remained single or married a free person. However, if she married a slave, then the entire estate was to go to his sister Sally Nickens [Northumberland County Wills and Administrations, 80]. Ann Kesterson was probably the sister of Judith Kesterson who married Edward Sorrell, 13 April 1789 Northumberland County bond.

v. ?Sally Nickens, called the sister of John Pinn in his 9 July 1785 Northumberland County will, probably the wife of Amos Nickens.

vi. ?Thomas, born say 1758, a "free Negro boy" living in Richmond County, Virginia, on 7 May 1764 when the court ordered the churchwardens of North Farnham Parish to bind him out to William Downman, the same man Robert Pinn was bound to in Lancaster County on 11 May 1751 [Orders 1762-5, 227].

 

3.    David1 Pinn, born say 1725, an "Indian," was taxable in Benjamin George's Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County household in William Tayloe's list for 1745 and called David Pinn, "an Indian," in Benjamin George's Christ Church Parish household in the 1746 list of Dale Carter [Tithables 1745-95, 1, 6]. He was a shoemaker on 11 February 1764 when he and his wife Averilla (Grimes) leased 50 acres in Spotsylvania County from John Waller. They conveyed a life interest in this land to Oliver Towles on 31 November 1774 [DB F:362; J:41]. He purchased land by deed proved in Halifax County, Virginia, on 17 November 1774, 17 May 1781 and 20 December 1787 [Pleas 1774-9, 88; 1779-83, 191; 1786-8, 298]. He was taxable in Halifax County from 1782 to 1796: listed with 2 tithes and 3 horses in 1782, called a "Mulo" in 1791 and 1796 [PPTL, 1782-1799, frames 4, 27, 47, 142, 422, 681] and head of a household of 4 whites (free persons) in 1785 [VA:90]. He left a 30 September 1796 Halifax County will, proved 25 September 1797, by which he left all his estate to his wife Avery except for 50 acres which he left to Patsey Macling (Maclin). After Patsey's death the land was to go to her son David Pinn who was to care for David Pinn, Sr.'s wife for the rest of her life. After Avery's death, her portion was to be divided between David Pinn and Nancy Pinn [WB 3:359]. Averilla was taxable on 1-2 horses in Halifax County from 1797 to 1809, called a "Mulatto" starting in 1805 [PPTL, 1782-1799, frames 707, 831, 924; 1800-12, frame 69, 146, 389, 533, 640, 814]. David may have been the father of

i. John3, a "Mulo" taxable in the southern district of Halifax County in 1796 [PPTL, 1782-1799, frame 681].

 

4.    Keziah Pinn, born say 1735, orphan of "Indian Harry" deceased, was bound by the Lancaster County court to Thomas Hubbard and his wife Margaret on 10 June 1748 until the age of twenty-one. On 17 October 1755 she agreed to relinquish her freedom dues in exchange for early release from Hubbard's service [Orders 1743-52, 160; 1752-6, 392]. She may have been the mother of

i. Elizabeth, born say 1756, a "Mulatto" child bound by the Lancaster County court to William Pinckard until the age of eighteen on 16 May 1760 [Orders 1756-64, 258].

ii. Mary, ordered bound by the Lancaster County court to Mrs. Mary Silden on 18 February 1763 [Orders 1756-64, 445].

 

5.   Robert2 Pinn, born say 1740, was bound by the Lancaster County court as an apprentice to Thomas Dogget to learn the trade of cooper on 13 January 1743 [Orders 1743-52, 9]. He was convicted by the Lancaster County court of stealing a greatcoat belonging to Bailie George and given 39 lashes on 4 February 1773 [Orders 1778-83, 6]. He was taxable on 2 free tithes in Lancaster County from 1787 to 1790, called Robert Pinn, Sr. [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 45, 53, 62, 74, 86]. He and his wife Ann were identified as the parents of Benjamin Pinn when he married Betty Bell, 25 April 1789 Lancaster County bond. Ann Pinn, born about 1748, registered as a "free Negro" in Lancaster County on 19 September 1803: Age 55, Color black, Height 5'3"...born free [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 1]. She was probably the Nanny Pin who was head of a Lancaster County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:357]. Robert was the father of

i. William1, born say 1758, mentioned in the Revolutionary War pension application of his brother John Pin, perhaps the William Penn who was head of a Maryland household of one "other free" in 1790 [MD:52].

ii. John2, born about 1760, married Anne Cassady, 12 September 1785 Northumberland County bond. He was living in Boston, Massachusetts on 28 October 1842 when he applied for a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that his father Robert Pin was a Mustee and his mother a Cherokee who were inhabitants of Lancaster County, Virginia, at a place called Indian Town near Carter's Creek. He and his father served in Captain William Yerby's Company of Artillery, he as a powder boy. He had moved to Boston about 1792 and married Nancy Coffin about ten years later. She died about 1820. He had owned a small house and lot, but the house had been lost in an accidental fire. He testified that his brothers Jim and William also served and that Jim died in the service. He was described as "a coloured man - apparently of Indian Origin and is a person of good report amongst our mercantile community both here and at Salem" [M804-1938, frames 0637-51].

iii. James1, born say 1762, mentioned in the Revolutionary War pension application of his brother John Pin, said to have died in the service.

iv. Benjamin, born about 1768, a twenty-one-year-old carpenter, "son of Robert and Ann Pin," married Betty Bell, "daughter of Elias Bell, deceased," 25 April 1789 Lancaster County bond. He was granted a certificate of freedom by the Lancaster County court on 20 October 1795, stating that he was born free [Orders 1792-9, 235]. He was taxable in Lancaster County from 1791 to 1798 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 86, 110, 122, 144, 175] and head of a Norfolk County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:915].

8        v. ?Peggy, born say 1765.

vi. ?Robert3, born about 1768, registered as a "free Negro" in Lancaster County on 22 April 1806: Age 38, Color dark, Height 5'10-1/4", Born free; a little grey [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 2]. He was taxable in Lancaster County from 1792 to 1817, in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in 1813 and 1814 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 98, 133, 175, 304, 385, 399, 431] and head of a Lancaster County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:357] and 9 "free colored" in 1830.

vii. ?Aaron, born about 1772, taxable in Lancaster County from 1792 to 1803 and in 1807 [PPTL, 1782-1839, frames 98, 122, 157, 216, 230, 242, 304] and taxable in Northumberland County from 1804 to 1806 [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 577, 587, 596]. He married Mary Kelly Weaver, 3 March 1794 Lancaster bond. He purchased 57 acres in Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County, on 3 November 1800 [DB 23:298] and sold this land in 1805 [Land Tax List 1782-1850]. He registered as a "free Negro" in Lancaster County on 20 June 1803: Age 31, Color black, 5'8-1/2" Height...born free, and (his wife?) Mary Pinn, born about 1775, registered on 19 September 1808: age 33, Color yellow, Height 5'4"...born free [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 1, 4]. Perhaps his widow was the Mary Pin, Senr., who was head of a Lancaster County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:356] and 3 "free colored" in 1830. She may have been the Mary Pinn who was named as one of the heirs of Elijah Weaver on 15 September 1834 in Lancaster County court [Orders 1834-41, 37].

viii. ?Molly, granted a certificate of free birth by the Lancaster County court on 14 July 1797 [Orders 1792-9, 379], head of a Lancaster County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:357].

ix. Joanna, born say 1776, granted a certificate of free birth by the Lancaster County court on 14 July 1797 [Orders 1792-9, 379].

 

6.    Rawley1 Pinn, born say 1750, was a "Mulatto" taxable in Buckingham County in 1774 [Woodson, Virginia Tithables From Burned Counties], head of an Amherst County household of 7 persons in 1783 [VA:47], and 8 "Mulattos" in 1785 [VA:84]. He was a free man of color who served in the Revolution from Amherst County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 152]. Edmund Wilcox sued him in Amherst County court for 550 pounds of crop tobacco in May 1784 [Orders 1782-4, 249]. He was taxable in Amherst County from 1782 to 1794 and from 1799 to 1804, taxable on 2 tithes in 1800 [PPTL 1782-1803, frames 4, 17, 38, 69, 106, 138, 169, 229, 261, 329, 455, 485, 522, 556, 593; 1804-23, frames 29]. He was surety for the 29 November 1792 Amherst County marriage bond of Francis Beverly and Mary Williams. He purchased land by deed proved in Amherst County court on 1 December 1788 [Orders 1787-1790, 408], and he and his wife Sarah (signing) sold land in Amherst County on Mill and Porridge Creeks to George and William Clark for 100 pounds on 18 March 1800 [DB I:161]. They were the parents of

9        i. ?James2, born say 1775.

ii. Ann, born say 1778, daughter of Rolly Pinn (farmer) and Sarah Pinn, married Thomas Evans, 2 November 1795 Amherst County bond, John Lonogan security.

10      iii. ?Turner, born about 1782.

iv. ?Edy, married William Beverly in November 1800 in Amherst County by the Rev. James Boyd.

 

7.    Patsey Maclin, born say 1756, may have been the partner of Ambrose Month who bound his children Charity Grymes Penn, David Penn, and Averilla Penn (Pinn) to Micajah Poole in Spotsylvania County on 13 February 1779 [DB J:431]. She received 50 acres where she was then living by the 30 July 1796 Halifax County, Virginia will of David Pinn. After her death, the land was to pass to her son David Pinn. She was the mother of

11      i. Charity Grimes, born say 1772.

ii. David2 Pinn Month, born say 1774, bound out by the churchwardens of Berkeley Parish in Spotsylvania County on 21 September 1780 [Orders 1774-82, 151]. He was taxable in Dinwiddie County in 1790, his tax charged to Thomas Woodward [PPTL, 1800-19, list B, p.20]. He may have been the David Pinn who was granted a certificate of freedom by the Lancaster County court on 16 October 1797 [Orders 1792-9, 384]. He was taxable in Halifax County, Virginia, in 1809 [PPTL, 1800-12, frame 814]. He married (his cousin?) Nancy Pinns who was to receive half the property left to Averilla Pinn by her husband David Pinn, Sr.'s Halifax County will. She was called Nancy Grimes in the 4 January 1812 Caswell County deed by which she and her husband David sold the land which had been willed to her by "her uncle" David Penn. This deed was not legal since it was recorded in Caswell County [DB R:433]. David and Nancy were living in Grainger County, Tennessee, on 20 November 1817 when they sold the land by deed proved in Halifax County, Virginia [DB 26:639]. David Pinn was head of a Knox County, Tennessee household of 2 "free colored" in 1830 (born before 1776). David was called David Penn "sometimes known and called by name David Month" when he sold his land on Winn Creek in Halifax County by deed proved in Caswell County, North Carolina [Caswell DB R:433].

iii. Averilla, born say 1776.

 

8.    Peggy Pinn, born say 1765, was a "F. Negroe," head of a Fauquier County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:418], perhaps identical to "Peg a Mulatto" who was ordered bound by the Fauquier County court to Robert Sanders on 26 February 1770 and again on 22 May 1775 [Minutes 1768-73, 163; 1773-80, 229]. She may have been the Peggy Pinn who was head of a Darlington District, South Carolina household of 5 "free colored" in 1830 and she may have been the mother of

i. Joanna, ordered bound by the churchwardens of Hamilton Parish to John Mauzy in Fauquier County on 28 September 1778 [Minutes 1773-80, 340]. She was called a "free Coloured woman" on 29 September 1801 when she bound her three-year-old son Samuel Pinn to Joseph Withers to be a planter and farmer by Culpeper County indenture [DB W:436-8]. He was probably the Samuel Pinn who registered in Fauquier County on 24 August 1819: 21 years of age in June last, 5 feet 7 inches high, a Bright Mulatto, Bushy hair...flat nose prominent [Register of Free Negroes, no.13].

ii. Minor, born about 1781, a "Mulatto" ordered bound to Howsen Duncan by the Fauquier County court on 22 July 1782. He was serving as an apprentice to Howson Duncan on 25 January 1796 when three of the five justices of the Fauquier County court ruled that Duncan had done nothing wrong in hiring him to Turner Johnson in Culpeper County. But the court ruled on 24 October 1796 that Minor was not bound to Duncan and ordered the overseers of the poor to bind him to George Kemper to be a carpenter and be sent to school [Minutes 1781-1784, 54; 1795-7, 152, 329, 439, 470]. Minor was taxable in Fauquier County from 1798 to 1813: listed by John Kemper in 1798 and 1799, listed as a "free Negro" in 1805 [PPTL 1797-1807, frames 113, 135, 659], head of a Fauquier County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:380]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Fauquier County from John Kemper on 24 September 1805: Minor Pinn a free man of Dark Complexion served his time with me and is an Honest Industrious well behaved fellow [DB 16:246]. He registered in Fauquier County on 26 May 1824: age 43, 5'10", long thin face, rather prominent nose and forehead, long slim hands, very dark Mulatto [Register of Free Negroes, 1817-65, no.74].

iii. Johnston, bound to Robert Sanders by the Fauquier County court on 25 March 1776. On 1 April 1796 the court ordered him to return to the service of his master and serve an additional month after the expiration of his time. His case against James Saunders was dismissed by the court in February 1797 [Minutes 1773-80; 1795-7, 222, 574]. He was listed as a "free Negro" in Fauquier County in 1805 and 1806 [PPTL 1797-1807, frames 659, 768].

iv. Mary, a "free Negro" taxable on a horse in Fauquier County in 1807 [PPTL 1797-1807, frame 819].

v. Mima, born in May 1793, registered in Fauquier County on 29 July 1829: age 36 last May, 5'5", A Black Woman, Born free [Register of Free Negroes 1817-65, no. 109].

vi. Lewis, born about 1796, registered in Fauquier County on 25 October 1831: age 35, 6', Tolerably dark in colour, born free [Register of Free Negroes, 1817-65, no.43].

 

9.    James2 Pinn, born say 1777, married Nancy Redcross, daughter of John Redcross, 27 August 1799 Amherst County bond, Rawleigh Penn surety; and married second, Jane Cooper, 6 October 1812 Amherst County bond, John Cooper security. He was taxable in Amherst County from 1800 to 1820: taxable on 2 tithes in 1809, 2 slaves in 1811, called a "man of color" in 1811, 1812, 1815 and 1820, a "Mulatto" in 1813, in a list of "Free Mulattoes & Negroes" in 1814, 1817, and 1818 [PPTL 1782-1803, frames 485, 522, 593; 1804-23, frames 29, 71, 151, 172, 216, 239, 259, 284, 418, 489]. He was head of an Amherst County household of 6 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [VA:302]. On 21 July 1817 James and his wife Jinsey sold 108 acres in Amherst County on Porridge Creek to Turner Pinn, sold 112 acres on Porridge Creek where James was then living, and purchased 130 acres on Porridge Creek for $1,000 [DB N:349, 354]. He purchased another 19 acres on Porridge Creek for $360 on 19 January 1818 and 145 acres on the east side of Glade Road for $1,700 on 19 May 1820 [DB N:463; O:698]. He sold 150 acres on Porridge Creek to John Cooper on 27 September 1821, and his wife Jincy and John Cooper sold 45 acres on Porridge Creek on 3 August 1822 [DB P:217]. James and Jane/ Jincy were the parents of

i. Robert5, born about 1813, registered in Amherst County on 5 January 1836: light complexion for a Negro 5 feet Eight and a half inches high son of James & Jincey Pinn...twenty three years of age.

ii. Christina, born about 1815, registered on 11 August 1834: daughter of James Pinn and Jincey his wife free born about 19 years light complexion for a Negro five feet one inch high.

iii. George Washington Lafayette, born about 1821, registered on 13 March 1841: About 20 years of age - Bright Mulatto - 5 feet 11 inches high...Son of Jincy Pinn [McLeRoy, Strangers in Their Midst, 60, 61 63].

 

10.    Turner Pinn, born about 1782, was taxable in Amherst County from 1800 to 1820: taxable on a slave in 1811, called a "man of color" in 1811, 1812, 1815 and 1820, a "Mulatto" in 1813, in a list of "Free Mulattoes & Negroes" in 1814, 1817 and 1819 [PPTL 1782-1803, frames 485, 551, 593; 1804-23, frames 29, 151, 195, 216, 239, 259, 284, 308, 418, 528, 578]. He married Joyce Humbles, 13 August 1807 Amherst County bond, William Solle security. He was head of an Amherst County, Virginia household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:302]. He purchased 108 acres in Amherst County where he was living on 21 July 1817 from (his brother?) James Pinn, and on the same day he and his wife Joyce and James Pinn and his wife Jincy Pinn sold 112 acres on Porridge Creek where James was then living [DB N:349, 350]. Turner registered as a "free Negro" in Amherst County on 26 September 1828: of dark brown complexion, about five feet ten inches high aged 46 years born free. His wife Joyce Pinn registered on 20 October the same year: wife of Turner Pinn a free woman of color rather light complexion about five feet in hight stout built about forty five was born free [McLeRoy, Strangers in Their Midst, 55, 56]. Their children were

i. Maria, born about 1802, daughter of Turner Pinn, married Bartlet Sparrow, 26 December 1827 Amherst County bond, Jonathan Beverly security. She registered in Amherst County on 11 October 1831: wife of Bartlet Sparrow formerly Maria Pinn a free Negro of light complexion daughter of Turner Pinn 29 years of age 5 feet 8-1/2 inches high.

ii. ?William2, born about 1805, registered on 27 October 1828: dark complexion about six feet & half an inch in hight of spare stature aged 23 years.

iii. Polly, born about 1805, registered in Amherst County on 27 October 1828: a free woman of colour aged twenty three years rather dark mulatto complexion about five feet nine inches in height. She was called the daughter of Turner Pinn when she married Richard Tuppence, 14 August 1829 Amherst County bond. Richard Tuppence registered on 14 August 1829: a free man of light complexion (nearly white) light hair slightly curled five feet six inches and a half high...aged Twenty five years [McLeRoy, Strangers in Their Midst, 55, 56, 57-8]. He was probably related to David Topence, head of a Richmond City household of 4 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [VA:325], S. Twopence, "Free Negro" head of a King & Queen County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:179], Huley Twopence, head of a Campbell County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:853], and Nancy Twopence, head of a Middlesex County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:470].

iv. ?Saunders, born about 1806, registered on 20 October 1828: dark complexion about six feet in hight aged 22 years.

v. Segis, born about 1806, registered on 11 October 1831: daughter of Turner Pinn a dark Mulatto 5 feet 4-3/4 inches high 25 years of age. She married Daniel Jackson in 1840.

vi. ?Raleigh2, born about 1808, registered on 27 October 1828: dark complexion about five feet ten inches high aged 20 years. He married Susanna Scott, eighteen-year-old daughter of Samuel Scott, 18 June 1827 Amherst County bond, Thomas Jewell security.

vii. Betsy, born about 1813, registered on 11 October 1831: daughter of Turner Pinn a verry dark Mulatto 5 feet 8-3/4 inches high 18 years of age.

viii. Lavinia, born about 1815, registered on 11 October 1831: daughter of Turner Pinn verry light complexion for a Negro, or perhaps more properly a very dark Mulatto 5 feet 8 3/4 inches high about 16 years of age [McLeRoy, Strangers in Their Midst, 55, 56, 58].

 

11.    Charity Grimes Pinn Month, born say 1772, was ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Berkeley Parish in Spotsylvania County on 21 September 1780 [Orders 1774-82, 151]. She may have been identical to Charity Pinn, the mother of Alexander Pinn who was born in Dinwiddie County about 1800. Her children were

i. ?Avey, born about 1790, registered in Petersburg on 30 June 1817: a dark brown free woman of colour, five feet two inches high, twenty seven years old, born free in Dinwiddie County, a Spinner [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 851].

ii. ?Henry, born about 1795, registered in Lunenburg County on 12 August 1822: aged about 27 years...dark complexion, born free [WB 5, after page 89, no. 16 (not in order, between nos. 27 & 28)]

iii. Alexander, born about 1800, registered in Lunenburg County on 13 August 1821: aged about twenty one years, black complexion, son of Charity Pinn, born free in Dinwiddie County, perhaps identical to Sandy Pinn who registered at about the age of fifty, no date: of dark complexion [WB 5, after page 89, nos. 27, 76].

 

Other members of the Pinn family were

Robert4, born say 1777, taxable in Brunswick County, Virginia, in 1794, in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in 1811, 1813 and 1814 [PPTL 1782-98, frame 436; 1799-1815, frames 559, 637, 675].

Robert5, born about 1786, a turner, counted in the "List of Free Negroes and Mulattoes in the Lower District of Lunenburg for the Year 1814" [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 33:266]. He registered in Lunenburg County on 10 April 1820: about 34 years of age, yellowish Complexion, five feet four and one half inches high, born in Dinwiddie County. Lucretia was probably his wife. She registered in Lunenburg County on 5 December 1818: Lucretia Pinn formerly Mills, born free, about 28 years, five feet six inches high, yellow Complexion [WB 5, after page 89, nos. 6 & 9]. Cretia, Eliza, Franky and Ned Mills were counted near Robin Pen in the "List of Free Negroes and Mulattoes" in Lunenburg in 1814 [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 33:266].

David3, born 1775-1794, head of a New Hanover County, North Carolina household of 1 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:235].

David4, born about 1801, registered in Petersburg on 5 June 1832: 5 feet 5-1/2 inches high, about 31 years of age, black complexion...born free as appears from a certificate of registry from the Clerk of Spotsylvania County [Register of Free Negroes 1819-33, no. 40].

 

PITTMAN FAMILY

1.    Ann Pittman, born say 1700, was the servant of Nathan Hutchings of Princess Anne County on 5 September 1722 when she was convicted of having a "mullatto" child. The court ordered the churchwardens to sell her after the completion of her indenture [Princess Ann County Orders 1717-28, 151]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Reuben, born about 1790, no race indicated when he was bound to Richard Bradley in Edgecombe County, North Carolina, on 24 November 1799.

ii. Archibald, born 26 December 1793, a five-year-old "mulatto" boy bound to Nathan Bradley in Edgecombe County as an apprentice wheelwright on the fourth Monday in August 1799 [Minutes 1797-1800, n.p.].

 

PITTS FAMILY

1.    Ann Pitts, born say 1670, was the servant of Joseph Hoult of Northumberland County on 20 1688/9 when she was convicted of having a child by a "negro" [Orders 1678-98, part 2, 430]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Nancy, head of a Stokes County, North Carolina household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:362].

 

PLUMLY FAMILY

1.    Obediah Plumly, born say 1760, was a yellow complexioned soldier from New Kent County, Virginia, who served as a substitute in the Revolution [Register & description of Noncommissioned Officers & Privates at Chesterfield Court House, cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153]. He was head of a "white" household of a male aged 21-60 with three males younger than 21 or over 60 in the 1786 census for Northampton County, North Carolina, head of a Northampton County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:76], 11 in 1800 [NC:469] and 3 in 1810 [NC:739]. He was probably the father of

i. Josiah, head of a Northampton County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [NC:739] and 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:250].

ii. Keziah, married Eli Kemore (Keemer), 6 July 1815 Northampton County bond, Jesse Ash bondsman.

 

POE FAMILY

1.    Jane Peacock/ Poe, born say 1700, was a "Molatto" presented by the York County court for not listing herself as a tithable on 20 November 1727 (called Jane Peacock) and on 17 November 1735 (called Jane Poe). She was called "Jane Po alias Peacock" on 20 August 1744 when Landon Carter, Esq., sued her in York County for a cow and a calf of the value of 40 shillings. The court ruled that they were her property and dismissed the suit [OW 16:489; W&I 18:237, 245; 19:302, 317]. The court presented her on 19 November 1750 for not listing herself as a tithable, but the sheriff reported that she was not to be found in the county [Judgments & Orders 1746-52, 364, 393]. She may have been the mother of

i. Ann, born say 1724, presented by the York County court on 20 November 1749 for failing to list herself as a tithable in Bruton Parish. The court fined her 1,000 pounds of tobacco for the offense. The court presented her for the same offense the following year on 19 November 1750, but the sheriff reported that she was not to be found in the county [Judgments & Orders 1746-52, 256, 277, 364, 393].

2        ii. John, born say 1726.

3        iii. Thomas1, born say 1728.

iv. Elizabeth, born say 1730, presented by the York County court on 20 November 1749 for failing to list herself as a tithable [Judgments & Orders 1746-52, 256, 277].

 

2.    John Poe, born say 1726, was sued in York County court on 17 July 1749 by Elizabeth Savey (Savoy). The case was dismissed later that year on 21 August 1749 when she failed to prosecute. On 20 November 1749 the court presented him for failing to list himself as a tithable, on 16 November 1761 for concealing two tithables and on 17 December 1764 for failing to list his wife as a tithable. On 15 August 1763 he sued John Bird for debt, but the suit was dismissed on agreement between the parties. He was a witness for George Jones in his suit against Peter Gillett on 19 September 1763. On 18 March 1765 he sued Anthony and Jasper Peters for trespass, assault and battery and was awarded 20 shillings. Sarah Gillett, Patience Alvis, and William Wilson were his witnesses [Judgments & Orders 1746-52, 225, 238, 256, 277, 284; 1759-63, 298, 312; 1763-5, 63, 79, 320, 357, 358]. He was taxable on 2 horses and 6 cattle in James City County in 1782. His widow may have been Mary Poe who was taxable in James City County on a horse and 2 cattle in 1783 and 1786 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99]. They may have been the parents of

i. William, born say 1765, taxable in Bruton Parish, York County, in 1786, taxable in James City County in 1787 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-99], and taxable in York County from 1788 to 1813 when he was head of a household of 2 "free Negroes & mulattoes over 16" [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frames 128, 143, 153, 246, 267, 367, 393]. He was head of a York County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:880].

 

3.   Thomas1 Poe, born say 1728, sued Peter Gillett in York County on 16 September 1751 for a debt due by account. The case was dismissed. The York County court presented him on 16 November 1761 for concealing two tithables, on 17 December 1764 for failing to list his wife as a tithable, and on 15 November 1773 for failing to list himself and his unnamed son. On 18 June 1787 the court discharged him from paying taxes, probably due to old age [Judgments & Orders 1746-52, 473; 1759-63, 298, 312; 1763-5, 320; 1772-4, 437; 1784-7, 468]. He paid 2 pounds rent per year to Timson Crawley, orphan of Robert Crawley, between 1763 and 1773 [Guardians' Accounts 1736-1780, 396, 425, 485]. He and his wife Sarah Pow, "free Mulattas," registered the ___ 1766 birth of their son Thomas in Bruton Parish [Bruton Parish Register, 30]. He was taxable in York County on 2 tithables, 3 horses and 9 cattle in 1782, 2 horses and 6 cattle in 1785, 2 tithables in 1786, and exempt from personal tax from 1788 to 1792 when he was taxable on 2 horses [PPTL, 1782-1841, frames 69, 92, 109, 131, 143, 164, 184]. On 29 September 1789 he was charged in Brunswick County, Virginia court with horse stealing. Joseph Hill claimed that his black mare was stolen or strayed from the house of a certain William Gray of Greensville on the fourth Thursday in August and that he found her the 28th September and that Fortunatus Sidnor swore in his presence before an alderman of the city of Richmond that he took the mare from Thomas Poe. John Smith deposed that Poe came up to his gate and tied his horse up to his door on 24 August. He asked Poe who he belonged to, where he was from, and where he was going to which Poe replied that he belonged to himself, was from York and was going to Eaton's Ferry on the Roanoke River. The court ordered that he be sent for trial at the district court of Brunswick [Orders 1788-92, 226-7]. He purchased property by indenture of bargain and sale from John Ferguson acknowledged in York County court on 17 May 1790, and he mortgaged property to Ferguson on 1 June 1790 [Orders 1788-95, 282-3]. Thomas and Sarah were the parents of

i. ?David, born say 1755, taxable in York County from 1782 to 1796: taxable on 3 horses and 3 cattle in 1782 and taxable on a slave in 1795 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frames 69, 72, 109, 127, 143, 164, 203, 212].

ii. Thomas2, born in 1766 [Bruton Parish Register, 30], sent by the York County court to the General Court in Richmond on 15 February 1786 on a charge of breaking and entering the dwelling house of John Peal and stealing property worth 25 shillings [Orders 1784-7, 271]. He was taxable in York County from 1794 to 1800 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frames 203, 231, 257].

iii. ?Charles, born say 1767, a 16-21 year old taxable in Thomas Poe's household in 1785 and taxable in his own household in 1788, 1789, 1794 and 1795 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frames 109, 143, 153, 203, 212].

 

POMPEY FAMILY

1.    John Pompey, born say 1710, was living in Brunswick County, Virginia, on 5 October 1733 when a case brought against him by Miles Thweet was dismissed. He and his wife Anne sued George Smith in court in September 1739, and they were sued for debt by Anthony Haynes and Clement Reed in September 1740. Charles Valentine sued him for debt in April 1741. A suit brought against him by Andrew King was dismissed at King's costs in June 1749 [Orders 1732-41, 40, 266, 357, 382, 412, 440, 441, 443; 1741-2, 45; 1745-9, 415, 505]. John and Anne were probably the parents of

i. James1, born about 1735, a "Negro planter" from Sussex County, Virginia, listed in the Size Roll of Captain Thomas Waggener's Company at Fort Holland in August 1757: 22 years old, 5 feet 4 inches tall [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 463].

2        ii. Littleberry, born say 1740.

 

2.    Littleberry1 Pompey, born say 1740, was apprenticed to John Quarles on 25 January 1753 when he complained to the Brunswick County, Virginia court against his master for ill treatment and neglecting to teach him a trade. They reached agreement by 26 September 1753 when the case came to trial [Orders 1751-3, 409; 1753-6, 66]. He was living in Sussex County on 11 January 1774 when he and James Stewart purchased 270 acres in Meherrin Parish, Brunswick County, to be equally divided between them as if two separate deeds had been made. He purchased 50 acres on the north side of the Meherrin River in Brunswick County adjoining Richard Branscomb and Thomas Evans on 23 November 1778. He purchased 50 acres in Brunswick County on Tomlins Run on 26 January 1778. On the same day he and his wife Nanny and James Stewart sold 135 acres in Brunswick County in Meherrin Parish on Steward's Branch. They were living on land in Brunswick County on the south side of the Meherrin River adjoining Drury Going and Rebecca Stewart on 10 October 1787 when Going sold his land [DB 11:251-3; 13:44-5; 14:366]. Nanny may have been James Stewart's sister and the daughter of Rebecca Stewart. Nanny was called a widow when she was taxable in Meherrin Parish, Brunswick County, on a horse from 1787 to 1794 and on a free male tithe and a horse from 1796 to 1800, taxable on a horse in 1801 [PPTL 1782-98, frames 205, 237, 270, 307, 324, 362, 399, 436, 543, 592, 640; 1799-1815, frames 41, 91, 139]. They were probably the parents of

i. James, living in Brunswick County on 24 February 1794 when he, Nanny, and Betty Pompey were found not guilty of stealing hogs the property of John Mason [Orders 1792-5, 204].

3        ii. Betty, born about 1771.

iii. Mary, head of a Free Town, Brunswick County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:770].

iv. Littleberry2, born say 1780, taxable in Meherrin Parish, Brunswick County, in 1802 and 1803 [PPTL 1799-1815, frames 196, 258].

v. Rebecca, born 1776-1794, head of a Free Town, Brunswick County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:770] and head of Northampton County, North Carolina household of 1 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:250].

3.    Betty Pompey, born about 1771, was head of a Brunswick County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:666]. She registered as a free Negro in Brunswick County on 26 September 1831: a free woman of dark complexion about sixty years old five feet four inches high...born free as appears by the evidence of Phebe Harrison [Wynne, Register of Free Negroes, 113]. She may have been the mother of

i. Claiborne, born about 1788, listed in Thomas Branscomb's Greensville County, Virginia household from 1810 to 1812, a "Mulatto" taxable in Meherrin Parish, Greensville County, in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1850, frame 445], in a list of "Free Negroes and Mulattoes" in Meherrin Parish, Brunswick County, in 1814 and 1815 [PPTL 1799-1850, frames 675, 732], registered there on 25 August 1823: a free man of black Complexion five feet 8 Inches high about thirty five Years old...born free as appears from the evidence of Phil Claiborn and by Occupation a farmer.

ii. Peggy, born about 1789, in a list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" in Meherrin Parish, Brunswick County, in 1813 [PPTL 1799-1815, frame 637], head of a Brunswick County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:666]. She registered in Brunswick County on 24 May 1824: a free woman of a Yellow complection about thirty five years of Age five feet five Inches high...born free in this County as appears from the Evidence of Phil Claiborne.

iii. William2, born say 1790, taxable in Meherrin Parish, Brunswick County, from 1806 to 1810, listed as a "free person of colour" in 1810 and 1811 [PPTL 1799-1815, frames 393, 437, 477, 519, 559, 637, 675], head of a Free Town, Brunswick County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:770].

iv. Cresy, born about 1795, head of a Brunswick County household of 4 "free colored" in 1830 [VA:267], registered in Brunswick County on 26 September 1831: a free woman of dark complexion about thirty six years old five feet two inches high...as appears from evidence of Phebe Harrison.

v. Caleb, a "Mulatto" taxable in Meherrin Parish, Greensville County, in 1814 [PPTL 1782-1850, frame 464], a "Free Negro" taxable in Meherrin Parish, Brunswick County, in 1815 [PPTL 1799-1815, frame 732].

vi. Thomas, born 1794-1806, head of a Greensville County, Virginia household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:264].

vii. Turner, born about 1800, registered in Greensville County on 10 March 1825: a free Colored man of a light yellow Complexion about 25 years old, 5'10-5/8 inches high in shoes...by occupation a planter [Register of Free Negroes, no.137]. He was head of a Brunswick County household of 4 "free colored" in 1830, one of whom was a woman over fifty-five years of age [VA:247].

viii. Dostin, born about 1802, registered as a free Negro in Brunswick County on 28 July 1823: a free man of Yellow complexion, about twenty one years of Age Six feet high...born free as appears from the evidence of Phil Claiborne and by Occupation a Carpenter.

ix. Rowana, born about 1811, registered on 26 September 1831: a free woman of dark complexion about twenty years old, five feet two inches high...born free as appears by the evidence of John Wyche.

x. Lucinda, born about 1811, registered on 28 November 1831: a free woman of dark complexion about twenty years of age, five feet and a half inch high has two small scars on the back of the right hand, and no others perceivable, was born free as appears by the evidence of John Wyche [Wynne, Register of Free Negroes, 67, 112, 119, 120, 195].

 

Other members of the Pompey family were

i. William1, taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County from 1805 to 1814: a "f.n." on Ben Jordan's land in 1812, listed with wife Abby in 1813 and 1814 [PPTL 1792-1806, frames 817, 850; 1807-21, frames 77, 175, 200, 323, 423].

ii. Maria, married William Banks, 9 August 1825 Northampton County, North Carolina bond, Silas Banks bondsman.

 

PORTIS FAMILY

(Probably identical to the Poythress family)

1.    John1 Portis, born say 1718, purchased 97 acres in Isle of Wight County on the south side of Lightwood Swamp from John and Bridget Demmira (Demery) on 28 October 1745 [DB 7:205]. On 13 June 1754 he (called John Porteus) and John Demery were among fourteen heads of household who were sued in Southampton County court by William Bynum (informer) for failing to pay the discriminatory tax on free African American and Indian women. He was fined 1,000 pounds of tobacco, the fine for concealing two tithables, so he probably had two women in his household over the age of sixteen. The sheriff attached a butcher's knife belonging to John as security for his appearance in court [Orders 1749-54, 500, 512; 1754-9, 5, 22-3, 42-3; Judgment Papers 1752-5, frames 759-60, 786-7, 795]. He was probably identical to John Portee, Sr., who was taxable on the female members of his household in Granville County, North Carolina in the list of Phil. Pryor in 1762:

John Portee, Senr., John Portee, Junr., Uriah Portee, Rachael Portee, Milly Portee, Sarah Ason, Lucy Wilson, Basel Wilson [CR 44.701.19].

Rachel Portie, Sarah Portie and members of the Wilson family were residents of Richland District in 1806 when they petitioned the South Carolina legislature to be exempted from the tax on free Negro women [S.C. Archives series S.165015, item 01885]. John may have been the father of

2        i. Robert, born say 1740.

3        ii. John2, born say 1742.

 

2.    Robert Portiss, born say 1740, was one of the freeholders in Edgecombe County, North Carolina, in June 1761 who were ordered to work on the road from Fishing Creek to the road that led to Tarborough [Minutes 1744-62, 24]. He purchased 240 acres on Fishing Creek in Halifax County, North Carolina, on 6 April 1767 [DB 9:490]. Land adjoining his was mentioned in the record of an Edgecombe County estate on 25 February 1793 [Gammon, Record of Estates, Edgecombe County I:71]. He was head of an Edgecombe County, North Carolina household of 1 "other free" in 1790 [NC:58], 7 in 1800 (a "Mulatto") [NC:232] and 2 in 1810 [NC:759]. He may have been the father of

i. Elizabeth, born say 1759, called a "young Woman of mixed Blood named Bet ... of free Parents" in her suit, Portess vs. Hodges, when the Edgecombe County court summoned Thomas Hodges to the November 1780 session to show cause why he held her in slavery [Byrd, In Full Force and Virtue, 140]. She was head of an Edgecombe County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [NC:760].

ii. Martin, head of an Edgecombe County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:759].

iii. Samuel, head of an Edgecombe County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [NC:759].

 

3.    John2 Portee, born say 1742, recorded a plat for 200 acres in the fork of the Congaree and Wateree Rivers on 14 January 1771 in the part of Craven County, South Carolina, that later became Richland County. He was called John Porteaus when the memorial for the land was recorded on 14 February 1775 [South Carolina Archives, S213184, Vol. 17:423, item 2]. He was counted in the Richland County, South Carolina census as white in 1790 (as were all mixed-race families in that district), head of a household of 1 male over 16, 2 under 16 and 3 females [SC:146]. He was probably the ancestor of

i. Rachel1 Portee, in a list of "sundry female persons of Colour" who resided in Richland District in 1806 when they petitioned the Senate for relief from the discriminatory tax levie on them [S.C. Archives series S.165015, item 01885], head of a Richland District household of 4 "other free" in 1810 (called Rachel Potee) [SC:175a].

ii. Sarah, in a list of "sundry female persons of Colour" who resided in Richland District in 1806 when they petitioned the Senate for relief from the discriminatory tax levie on them [S.C. Archives series S.165015, item 01885].

iii. Howell, head of a Richland District household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [SC:175a], one of the "Free people of Colour" from whom the sheriff of Richland District was unable to collect the discriminatory tax in 1821 and 1822 [South Carolina Archives, General Assembly Petitions, S165015, N.D. 1796, Roll ST1429, frames 786-92].

iv. Russell, one of the "Free people of Colour" from whom the sheriff of Richland District was unable to collect the discriminatory tax in 1822 [South Carolina Archives, General Assembly Petitions, S165015, N.D. 1796, Roll ST1429, frames 786-92].

v. Rachel2, born about 1805, a "Mulatto" counted in the 1850 Richland County census with $74 real estate [family no. 338].

vi. Uriah2, born about 1815, a "Mulatto" planter counted in the 1850 Richland District census with (wife?) Martha Pote and $100 real estate [SC:117, family no. 354], called Uriah Portee when he was counted in 1860 with $4,000 real estate [family no. 88].

 

POWELL FAMILY

1. Margaret Powell, born say 1660, was a servant (no race mentioned) who several times ran away from her master, Captain Barham, and was ordered by the 4 March 1678 Surry County, Virginia court to serve William Gray for six months, apparently because he was the only one she was willing to serve

haveing dureing the time shee served Capt. Barham Runaway severall times & now appeareing in Cort and being Willing to serve six months, It is Ordered that shee doe serve ye. said six months.

On 4 January 1680 she was ordered to serve additional time for having a bastard child while in Gray's service. On 5 September 1682 the court ruled that she was tithable, so she was probably an African American [Haun, Surry County Court Records, III:246, 332, 385]. She was taxable in Augustine Hunicutt's household in Chipoaks Precinct of Lawnes Creek Parish in 1681 and in Hansell Bayly's household in 1682 [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy, vol.22, no.4, 53, 58]. She may have been the mother of

2        i. Mary, born say 1695.

3        ii. Stephen1, born say 1700.

 

2.    Mary Powell, born say 1695, was called "Mary Powell a mullatto" on 12 June 1755 when the Southampton County court ordered that she be exempt from paying levies [Orders 1754-9, 92]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Elijah, born say 1755, mentioned in the May 1786 Johnston County court which ordered the sheriff to deliver an "orphan" child of his to be bound out [Haun, Johnston County Court Minutes, IV:325]. He was head of a Johnston County household of 1 "other free" in 1800, 6 in Chatham County in 1810 [NC:200], and 10 "free colored" in Chatham in 1820 [NC:211]. He was one of the freeholders of Chatham County who were ordered by the court to work on the road from New Hope Bridge to William Goodwin's in February 1814 [Minutes 1811-18, 147]. His will was proved in Chatham County court on Monday, 13 August 1832.

ii. Nancy, born say 1760, mentioned in the May 1786 session of the Johnston County court which ordered the sheriff to deliver two of her "base born" children to court to be bound out. In September 1789 Stephen Haithcock entered into bond for having an illegitimate child by her [Haun, Johnston County Court Minutes, III:325; IV:84]. She was head of a Johnston County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:259].

iii. Artis, removed from his master Jacob Newsum and bound instead to James Williams by the Southampton County court on 14 July 1785 [Orders 1784-9, 102]. He married Levinia (Viney) Artis, with Absolem Artist's consent, 23 July 1800 Southampton County bond, Hanson Pope security, 18 August marriage.

iv. Mason, married Charles Artis, 30 December 1801 Southampton County bond, Evans Pope, surety.

v. Blytha, married John Artis, 15 February 1802 Southampton County bond, John Pope surety, Evans Pope witness.

vi. Phillis, born say 1785, head of a Southampton County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:57].

vii. James, head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [NC:336] and 8 "free colored" in Northampton County in 1820 [NC:250].

viii. Miles, head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:739] and 8 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:250].

ix. Natt, "Free Negro" taxable on one head of cattle in Nansemond County in 1815 [Yantis, Supplement to the 1810 Census of Virginia, S-14].

x. Ruth, head of a Johnston County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [NC:246].

xi. Jacob, born 1776-94, head of a Johnston County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 and 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:259]. He married Sally Dempsey, 13 December 1819 Halifax County bond, James Dempsey bondsman.

 

3.    Stephen1 Powell, born say 1700, was married to Mary Powell, the daughter of John1 Jeffries, when she was named in her father's 3 November 1746 Albemarle Parish, Surry County will [D&W 1738-54, 798]. He was granted a patent for 195 acres on the north side of the Meherrin River by the side of Horse Meadow Branch in Isle of Wight County on 30 March 1743 [Patents 21:432]. Mary was called "the wife of Stephen Powell" on 14 June 1759 when the Southampton County court ordered that she be exempt from paying levies [Orders 1754-9, 509]. He and his wife Mary sold their land to John Powell by Southampton County deed of 5 July 1765 [DB 3:350-2]. Stephen was head of a Cumberland County, North Carolina household of 3 "Mulatto" tithables in 1767 [N.C. Genealogy XXI:3136]. By his 20 December 1780 Johnston County will he left his personal estate to his wife Mary, left his son Stephen his clothes, and left $1 each to his son William and daughters Sarah Haithcock and Mary Reed [Original at NC Archives]. He was the father of

4        i. Stephen2, born say 1740.

ii. Sarah Haithcock.

iii. Mary Reed, perhaps the wife of David Reid, head of a Chatham County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [NC:193].

iv. William1, born say 1765, head of a Southampton County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:75]. He married Beedy Husk, 23 July 1797 marriage in Southampton County by Rev. Benjamin Barnes, Methodist [Minister's Returns, 648]. He was listed in Southampton County as a "free Negro" with his wife Bedy on Drew Bryant's land in 1813. His wife was called Judah in 1814 [Personal Property Tax List 1807-21, frames 323, 423]. In 1820 William was head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of one "free colored" born before 1776 [NC:250]. His wife Beedy was probably related to Lewis Husk, head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:449], and Edward Husk, head of an Orange County, North Carolina household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [NC:571].

 

4.    Stephen2 Powell, born say 1740, entered land on the north side of Black Creek in Johnston County on 1 September 1778 and entered another 150 acres adjoining this land on the north side of White Oak Swamp in August 1780 [Haun, Johnston County Land Entries, 23, 142]. In November 1782 he was granted administration on the Johnston County estate of Archibald Artis on a bond of 200 pounds [Haun, Johnston County Court Minutes, III:232] and was taxable on 150 acres and one poll in Johnston County in 1784 [GA 64.1]. He was about fifty-two years old on 29 February 1792 when he made a deposition in Johnston County court that his son Stephen, aged about eighteen or nineteen years old, enlisted for eighteen months and died in the service in 1783 [NCGSJ XIV:234]. He was granted administration on his son's Johnston County estate in November 1792 [Haun, Johnston County Court Minutes, IV:234]. He entered 150 acres adjoining his own line on the north side of Whiteoak Swamp in Johnston County on 17 January 1793 [Haun, Johnston County Land Entries, no.323]. He was head of a Johnston County household of 11 "other free" in 1790 [NC:142], 11 in 1800, and 4 in Chatham County in 1810 [NC:197]. His children were

i. Stephen3, Jr., born about 1764, died in 1783.

ii. William2, head of a Johnston County household of 1 "other free" and 2 slaves in 1810 [NC:246].

 

A member of the Powell family in Chesterfield County, Virginia, was

i. Elizabeth, born say 1745, a "Mulato" bound by the churchwardens to William Bradley until the age of thirty-one. He assigned her to John Almond, but on 1 August 1766 the court ruled that the indenture was not assignable [Orders 1759-67, 748]. She ran away from Almand in December 1768 and he placed an ad in the 11 May 1769 edition of the Virginia Gazette: Run away from the subscriber, some time in December last, a Mulatto woman, named Elizabeth Powell; she is a large woman though not tall. Any person that will take her up, and send the said woman to me, at Goochland Court-house, shall receive three pounds reward, besides what the law allows [Virginia Gazette, Rind edition]. She may have been the mother of several children bound out in Chesterfield County, no parent or race indicated: James Powell, a poor child, who was ordered bound out on 5 July 1771, William Powell who was ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Manchester Parish in June 1784 and Betsy Powell who was ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Manchester Parish in June 1784 but allowed to stay with her unnamed mother [Orders 1771-4, 9; 1774-84, 541, 546].

 

POWERS FAMILY

1.    Betty1 Powers, born say 1738, appeared in Beaufort County court in September 1756 in her suit against Joseph Adams and his wife. The court ordered that depositions be taken from several persons in Northampton and Bertie counties and that she return to the Adams' service until the case was settled. However, the court dismissed the case in September 1757 because her proof was insufficient [Minutes 1756-61, 1:14a (Docket #59), 34d (Docket #11)]. She was called "a free Molatto Woman named Bett" in the June 1758 Beaufort County court when the court ordered her to serve two additional years for having two bastard children during her indenture. The same court bound her four-year-old son Simon to Thomas Jasper, and her one-year-old daughter Betty to Mrs. Celia Payton [Minutes 1756-61, 1:46c; 2:46d (June Court 1758)]. She was called "Betty Power a free Melatto woman" and was apparently free of her indenture by June Court 1761 when she moved by her attorney, William Herritage, that "a negro Boy Named Simon, being formerly Bound to Thos Jasper & he going out of the Country, ..." be Bound to James Calef [Minutes 1756-61, 2:43c]. Her children were

i. Simon, born March 1754, according to the June 1758 Court Minutes.

ii. Betty2, born about December 1756, one year and six months old in June 1758, perhaps the Elizabeth Powers who was head of a Hyde County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:139]. She may have been the mother of George2 Godett's daughter Betsy Powers.

2        iii. ?Jeremiah, born say 1759.

 

2.    Jeremiah Powers, born say 1759, was called a "Free Negroe" by the 13 March 1777 Craven County court when he was charged with entertaining slaves [Minutes 1772-78, 45f]. He was head of a Craven County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:131] and 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:77]. He may have been the father of

i. William, born say 1780, married Lucretia Lewis, 2 April 1803 Craven County bond, Solomon Bowers bondsman.

 

POYTHRESS FAMILY

(Probably identical to the Portis family)

1.    Odam Poythress, born about 1755, purchased 50 acres adjoining Peter Nowles and James Sexton in Northampton County, North Carolina, on 3 December 1777, and he and his wife Sele sold this land two years later on 23 August 1779 [6:237, 351]. He was head of a Northampton County household of 4 free males and 4 free females in Captain Williams' District in 1786 for the state census, 9 "other free" in 1790 [NC:72], 12 in 1800 [NC:469], and 10 in 1810 [NC:742]. He purchased 100 acres on Jack Swamp on 9 February 1785 [DB 10:51]. Administration of his estate was granted John Sandifer on 3 December 1817 on a bond of 1,000 pounds [Minutes 1813-21, 68]. His children were probably

i. Thomas, who paid money to the Northampton County estate of Robert Crow between January and March 1801 [Gammon, Record of Estates, Northampton County, I:120].

ii. Littleberry, tithable in Meherrin Parish, Greensville County, Virginia, in 1805, his tax charged to William Dancy [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1850, frame 336]. He sold land in Northampton County in 1819, two years after Odam's death.

iii. Francis, who gave Littleberry his power of attorney in Northampton County court on 9 June 1819 [Minutes 1813-21, 177].

 

2.    Hardimon Poythress, born about 1757, was head of a Northampton County household of 3 free males and 2 free females in Captain Williams' District of the state census and 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:72]. He died before 7 March 1796 when Jesse Mitchell was granted administration on his estate by the Northampton County court on only 50 pounds bond [Minutes 1792-96, 219]. Temperance Poythress, head of a Northampton County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:471], was most likely his wife. Their children were probably

i. Odam, Jr., who died before 4 March 1817 when his next of kin, John Poythress, was required to show cause why administration on his estate should not be granted to the greatest creditor [Minutes 1792-96, 7].

ii. John, whose estate administration was granted Hardimon Poythress in Northampton County court on a bond of 50 pounds [Minutes 1792-6, 18].

 

Other descendants were

i. "Sterling and Lucy Poltress, children of color," bound apprentices to Ransom Sherrin in Halifax County on 15 February 1824.

ii. Sebastian and Frances Portres, (paupers) bound out on 4 March 1824 by the Northampton County court [Minutes 1821-25, 373].

 

PRISS/ PRESS FAMILY

1.    Priscilla, born say 1688, was called "Priss alias Priscilla a Malatta or Mustee bigg with a bastard Child got in Somerset County in Maryland" in Accomack County court on 7 August 1706 when Edward Bagwell "Indian" appeared in court and agreed to have her child bound to him [Orders 1703-9, 75]. Her child was

2        i. William, born in 1706.

 

2.    William Priss/ Press, born in 1706, was called "an Indian who was born in Accomack (County) of the body of a free Negro called Priscilla" in March 1730/1 when he was fined 1,000 pounds of tobacco for failing to list himself as a tithable in Northampton County, Virginia. Thomas Fisherman, who was also an Indian, was paid 1,000 pounds of tobacco for informing on him. His mother-in-law, an Indian woman named Ibby, called William a "Mulatto" on 10 October 1732 when she complained to the court that he had beaten and abused her. The court ordered him to post five pounds security for his good behavior towards her [Orders 1732-42, 26, 35; Mihalyka, Loose Papers I:239; II:11]. William was apparently the ancestor of the following members of the Press family:

i. Littleton, married Molly Fisherman 14 December 179? Northampton County bond, Reubin Reed security.

ii. Elsey, head of an Accomack County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:160].

iii. Tabby, married Thomas Francis, 26 December 1796 Northampton County bond, Edmund Press security.

iv. Molly, married Sam Beavans, 19 August 1797 Northampton County bond, Abraham Lang security.

v. Edmund, born before 1776, married to Rachel on 10 April 1793 when they were charged in Northampton County court with breach of the peace by William Roberts, Sr. [Minutes 1789-95, 284-5]. He was security for the 24 September 1796 Northampton County marriage of Solomon Beavans and Esther Casey. He was an "Indian" taxable on a horse in Northampton County in 1812 [PPTL 1782-1823, frame 515], head of a Northampton County, Virginia household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:216A] and 14 in 1830.

vi. ?John, born 15 March 1779, bound by the Northampton County court to William Roberts on 12 December 1792 [Minutes 1789-95, 265], head of a Sussex County, Delaware family of 8 "other free" in 1810 [DE:375].

 

PRICE FAMILY

1.    Elizabeth1 Price, born say 1675, left a 26 December 1735 Norfolk County will, proved 19 January 1735/6, leaving a bed to her granddaughter Elizabeth, Price, a heifer to her granddaughter Mary Price, a shilling each to her children Susan, William, Edward, Elizabeth, Eleanor and Ann Price, and the remainder to her son Richard Price who was to be her executor [McIntosh, Brief Abstracts of Norfolk County Wills, 134]. Her children were

2        i. Elizabeth2, born say 1700.

ii. Susan.

3        iii. Richard1, born say 1705.

4        iv. William1, born say 1710.

v. Edward.

vi. Eleanor.

vii. Ann.

 

2.    Elizabeth2 Price, born say 1700, was called "Eliza Price Junr." on 20 June 1718 when she was presented by the Norfolk County Grand Jury for bearing a base born child (no race indicated) [DB 10:11, 34, 38]. She was taxable in the household of (her brother) Richard Price in Norfolk County in 1736 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1730-50, 185]. She may have been the mother of

5        i. Elizabeth3, born say 1718.

 

3.    Richard1 Price, born say 1705, was a taxable head of a Norfolk County household in the Western Branch District with his brother William Price living near William Bass from 1730 to 1732. He was taxable in 1734 and taxable with (his sister) Eliza Price in 1736 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1730-50, 20, 39, 71, 138, 185]. He was the father of

6        i. John1, born say 1735.

 

4.    William1 Price, born say 1710, was taxable in the Norfolk County household of his brother Richard Price in Western Branch District from 1730 to 1732, taxable in his own household in 1734, and taxable with his unnamed wife in 1736 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1730-50, 20, 39, 71, 138, 183]. They may have been the parents of

i. Richard2, head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [NC:40].

 

5.    Elizabeth3 Price, born say 1718, was a "Mullatto" bound to Martha Reding in April 1743 when the Pasquotank County, North Carolina court ordered that she serve her mistress an additional year for having a child born four to six months previous. The court also bound her unnamed child to Reding until the age of thirty-one [Haun, Pasquotank County Court Minutes 1737-46, 108]. Martha Reding was the widow of Joseph Reding who was probably related to the Redding family of Norfolk County [Pasquotank County court Minutes 1737-55, April court 1744; Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1730-50, 130]. Elizabeth was probably the mother of a "Malatto" girl named Kesiah Price who was bound by the Pasquotank County court to Jonathan Reding until the age of thirty-one in July 1751. In December 1755 the court bound Elizabeth's daughter Rachel (no race indicated) to Jonathan Reding [Minutes 1751-2, July court, n.p.; 1755-77, last page of December court]. Her children were

i. ?Kesiah, a "Malatto" bound to Jonathan Reding in July 1751.

7        ii. Rachel, born say 1755.

 

6.    John1 Price, born say 1735, sold two tracts of swamp land of 50 acres each near the head of the Western Branch in Norfolk County for a total of 8 pounds, 5 shillings on 15 January 1759. He made his mark and his wife Mary signed. And he sold another 1-1/2 acres of land in the same area for thirty shillings on 24 October 1759, explaining in the deed that it was land which formerly belonged to his father Richard Price and that he had purchased it from William Price who was Richard's brother [DB 18:175; 19:37a&b]. He was taxable in the Norfolk County household of John Bass in 1756 and 1757, in his own Western Branch District household in 1759, with his wife Mary in 1761, taxable on 50 acres in 1765, taxable on himself and his wife in 1767, and by himself in 1769 and 1770. He probably died before 1771 when Mary was taxable on 50 acres [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1730-50, 100, 115, 135, 171, 190; 1766-80, 15, 88, 106, 150]. John and Mary were the parents of

i. ?John2, taxable on a horse in Portsmouth and Elizabeth River Parishes, Norfolk County, from 1790 to 1817: listed as a "M"(ulatto) from 1800 to 1804; taxable on 2 free males when he was a shoemaker living in Portsmouth in a list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" in 1801; taxable on 2 free males in 1804; taxable on a slave in 1811; 2 free males, a slave, and a two-wheel carriage in 1812; in a list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" in 1813; a "B.M." (Black Man) living in Portsmouth in 1815 when he was taxable a slave over 16 and a two-wheel riding carriage [PPTL, 1782-1791, frame 688; 1791-1812, frames 26, 145, 379, 383, 434, 468, 779; 1813-24, frames 109, 264]. On 20 October 1815 he purchased 27 acres in Portsmouth Parish near the Western Branch adjoining land of Frederick Moore, deceased, and Joseph Ellis, deceased, for $200 [DB 46:261].

8        ii. William2, born say 1770.

iii. ?Stephen, married Mary Ellis on 19 May 1799 in Norfolk County on 19 May 1799 [Marriages, 1797-1840]. He was taxable in Portsmouth and Elizabeth River Parishes from 1790 to 1817: listed as a "N"(egro) in 1797, a "M"(ulatto) in 1800, a labourer living on Western Branch when he was in a list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" in 1801 [PPTL, 1791-1812, frames 26, 231, 383, 434; 1813-24, frames 265]. He purchased 20 acres from James and Levila Smith by in the parish of Portsmouth on Middle Branch on the souths side of the road leading to Portsmouth, adjoining his own land, Lydia Callahan's, Joseph Owens and Betty Ellis for 40 pounds on 20 May 1805 and another 10 acres adjoining his land and land of James Ellis on 17 April 1807 for $55 [DB 42:82; 43:151]. He, making his mark, left a 17 June 1827 Norfolk County will, proved 16 August 1830, by which he gave the plantation where he was then living to his son Traffiz Price; a bed, chest, cow and a dollar to his daughter Fanny Price, similar items to daughter Nancy Price, 28 acres of swamp land to his son John Price; and one fourth of the remainder of his estate to his daughter Feaby Price [WB 5:269].

iv. ?Nancy, married Nelson Bass 9 December 1817 Norfolk County bond, James Price surety.

v. ?Sally, a "free woman of colour," married John Gibbs Bass, a "free man of colour," 12 August 1812 Norfolk County bond, William Bass surety.

 

7.    Rachel Price, born say 1755, was living in Gates County in August 1798 when the court bound out her sons Benjamin and Robert [Fouts, Minutes, Gates County, I:202]. She was head of a Chowan County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:534] and 3 "free colored" in Edenton in 1820 [NC:320]. She was the mother of

i. ?Demsey, born say 1774, head of a Camden County household of 3 "other free" and one white woman in 1800 [NC:97].

ii. ?Samuel, born say 1776, head of an Onslow County household of 1 "other free" and 3 slaves in 1800 [NC:163].

iii. ?Aaron, head of a Pasquotank County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:921].

iv. Benjamin, born about 1787, bound as an apprentice farmer to Willis Brown in Gates County by the August 1798 court.

v. Robert, born about 1789, bound as an apprentice farmer to Willis Brown in Gates County.

vi. John3/ Jack, born about 1797, illegitimate son of Rachel Price who was bound to George Williams by the Gates County court in August 1799 [Fouts, Minutes, Gates County, I:247].

 

8.    William2 Price, born say 1770, was taxable on a horse in Portsmouth and Elizabeth River Parishes from 1791, to 1812: called a "M"(ulatto) from 1800 to 1804; a labourer living on Western Branch when he was in a list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" in 1801; taxable on 2 free tithes and a horse in 1803 and 1804; taxable on a slave in 1805 and 1812 [PPTL, 1791-1812, frames 26, 360, 379, 383, 434, 468, 487, 565, 778]. He and his wife Mary sold 45 acres to James Abernathy in Norfolk County at the head of Simons Creek adjoining Benjamin Bowers, the main road and William Ballentine's for 80 pounds on 17 August 1796 [DB 37:1]. He purchased land from Robert Cox by deed proved in Norfolk County on 21 April 1801 and purchased 3 acres on the Western Branch adjoining his own land and Thomas King's for $37.88 on 5 February 1807 [Orders 1799-1801, 234b; DB 43:115]. On 18 July 1808 the Norfolk County court ordered the Overseers of the Poor of Portsmouth Parish to list him and his unnamed wife and children, advance them $10 for their immediate support and "make such further allowances as their necessities may require" [Orders 1806-8, n.p]. On 18 March 1833 Major Spivy Wyatt testified in Norfolk County court for the application of William's son Asa to be treated as an Indian. He testified that William was one of several children of John and Mary Price, Indians, that William married a white woman named Mary Makell, that Asa was their child, and that they all lived within a half mile of him [Minutes 23:180]. William and Mary were the parents of

i. Asa, born about 1798, registered in Norfolk County on 15 July 1833: age 35 yrs., 5 ft 9, a nearly white complexion, Indian descent [Register of Free Negroes, 1794-1865, no. 904]. He and his wife and Sally Bass sold all their interest in 24 acres on Western Branch by deed acknowledged in Norfolk County court on 26 January 1833 [Minutes 24:166].

 

Another member of the family in Norfolk County was

i. Lucy, born about 1793, registered in Norfolk County on 20 October 1831: age 38, 5 ft 3-1/4, a mulatto, Born free [Register of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1809-1852, no. 788].

 

Endnotes:

1.     The Virginia law which taxed free African American and Indian women was repealed in November 1769.

2.    In binding out Elizabeth's daughter until the age of thirty-one, the Pasquotank County, North Carolina court was following the Virginia law which bound children descended from white women and men of African descent until the age of thirty-one. The Virginia law also applied to the children and grandchildren of these unions.

 

PRICHARD FAMILY

1.    Herbert1 Prichard, born say 1690, was living in Bertie County on 14 May 1738 when the Bertie County court ordered him, Henry Bunch, and other freeholders to lay out a road from Connaritsa Swamp to the road leading to Wills Quarter Swamp [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, I:118]. His 23 September 1738 Bertie County will, proved in February 1738/9, appointed Jonathan Standley, Jr., his executor and gave his land and plantation to his sons John and William. The will was witnessed by Ann Williams [SS 1724-43, no. 95]. His children were

i. John, born say 1720, a taxable "Free Mulatto Male" in the 1763 list of Jonathan Standley in Edward Callum's household and a "free male molattor" head of his own household in Standley's 1764 list [CR 10.702.1]. He purchased land from Jonathan Standley by deed proved in Bertie court in 1772 and sold land to his brother William by deed proved later that year [DB L:329; M:10]. He was taxed on an assessment of 121 pounds in the 1778 county summary and on 173 acres in Wynn's and King's District in 1779.

2        ii. William, born say 1725.

3        iii. James1, born say 1730.

4        iv. ?Herbert2, born say 1738.

 

2.    William Prichard, born say 1725, purchased land by deed proved in Bertie County in 1762 and 1766, and purchased land from his brother John in 1772 [DB K:228; L:90; M:10]. He was a taxable "Free Mulatto Male" in the 1763 list of Jonathan Standley in William Holland's household and a "free male molattor" head of his own household in Standley's 1764, 1769, and 1771 list. He and his brothers probably married white women since their wives were never taxed in Bertie County [CR 10.702.1]. His Bertie County will was proved in February 1775 and named his wife Christian and children [Dunstan, The Bertie Index, 1927]. Christian was taxed on an assessment of 157 pounds in the 1778 summary list and 300 acres in the 1779 list for Wynn's and King's District. His children were

i. ?Richard, born say 1749, a "White Servant" taxable in William's household in the 1765 list of Jonathan Standley.

ii. Jonathan, head of a white Bertie County household of 2 males and 4 females in 1790 [NC:14]. He married Patsy Butler, 2 February 1797 Bertie County bond.

iii. Christopher, head of a white Bertie County household of 2 males in 1790 [NC:14].

iv. Mary.

v. Ruth.

vi. Keziah, married John Butler, 27 December 1797 Bertie County bond, her brother Christopher Prichard bondsman.

 

3.    James1 Prichard, born say 1730, was a taxable "Free Mulatto Male" in the 1763 list of Jonathan Standley in John Higges' household. He purchased land by deed proved in Bertie County in 1763 [DB K:236]. On 29 March 1770 Nathan Cobb, sixteen-year-old orphan of John Cobb, was bound to him to be a cooper [CR 010.101.7 by NCGSJ XIV:34] and Nathan was listed as a "Free Malletor" in his household in the 1770 list of Jonathan Standley. He was taxed on an assessment of 191 pounds in the 1778 summary list and on 150 acres in an untitled 1779 list. James' will, proved in May 1786 Bertie County court, named his wife Dorcas and children [Dunstan, The Bertie Index, 1927]:

i. Reuben/ Rigdon, born say 1765. He married Ann Bunch, 29 February 1792 Bertie County bond with James Prichard bondsman. He sold 50 acres on Connaritsa Swamp (which he received by his father's will?) on 29 January 1797 to his brother James [DB R:361].

ii. James2, head of a white Bertie County household of 2 males and one female in 1790 [NC:14]. His Bertie will was proved in November 1807 and named his children: Absilla, Solomon, James3, and David [Dunstan, The Bertie Index, 1927].

 

4.    Herbert2 Prichard, born say 1738, may have been a son of Herbert1 Prichard, but he was not named in his will. He was a taxable "Free Mulatto Male" in the 1763 list of Jonathan Standley in Jonathan Robson's household. He purchased 105 acres adjoining his own line, Thomas Wilson's, and William Leviner's by a deed proved in December 1763 by Jeremiah Bunch. He purchased 100 acres on Pellmell Pocosin in December 1766 [DB K:245; L:44]. In 1767 he was taxed in Standley's list as a free white head of household and a "Free Mallator" head of household in Standley's 1769 list. In 1775 he was a "free mulatto" in Peter Clifton's list. He purchased 250 acres at the mouth of Poplar Branch on 30 May 1774 and 200 acres on the north side of White Oak Swamp on 11 May 1778 [DB M:161, 350]. He was taxable on an assessment of 165 pounds in the 1778 Bertie summary list and was taxed in two districts in 1779, 200 acres in Wynn's and King's District and 100 acres in Thomas Ward's list for Captain Walton's District. He was witness to numerous deeds which he proved in Bertie court and was several times called upon to settle the estates of Bertie residents [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, V:477; VI: 707, 732, 746, 755, 757, 758, 806, 807, 843, 878, 917]. He purchased a further 300 acres near the Chowan River on 22 March 1782 and 217 acres for 235 pounds on 17 December 1797 [DB M:541; R:404]. The February 1789 Bertie County court ordered a "Mollatto child" Polly Carter bound to him because her master, Robert Rawlings, was treating her badly [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, VI:734]. His Bertie County will, proved in May 1797, named his wife Elizabeth, executor, and his children [Dunstan, The Bertie Index, 1926]. His heirs purchased a half-acre lot, no. 91, in the town of Colerain on 10 August 1799 [DB S:102]. His children were

i. Absolem, born say 1770, purchased land by deeds proved in Bertie in 1789 and sold land by deeds proved in 1798 [DB S:10, 46, 47]. He married Sarah Brown, 25 January 1800 Bertie County bond.

ii. Zadock.

iii. Hugh.

iv. Martha.

 

Endnotes:

1.     The white wives of free African Americans were taxable, but the courts of many counties seemed to be unsure of this.

 

PROCTOR FAMILY

1.    Mary Proctor, born say 1737, was living at Thomas Kelly's on 8 May 1759 when the Loudoun County court presented her for having a "Mulatto" child and also presented her master for detaining her, encouraging her to cohabit with "a certain Negro named Peter," and conveying her out of the county when ready to be delivered [Orders 1757-62, 233, 300]. She may have been the mother of

2        i. Joseph, born say 1759.

ii. Edward, born before 1776, head of a Craven County, North Carolina household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:65].

 

2.    Joseph Proctor, born say 1759, was taxable in Luke Going's Loudoun County household in 1774 [Tithables 1758-99, 768] and a "F.N. taxable on a horse in Loudoun County in 1800 and 1803 [PPTL 1798-1812]. He may have been thee "Mulatto" Joseph Proctor who was head of a Charles County household of 6 "other free" in 1790. He was head of a Abrams Plains, Granville County, North Carolina household of 2 "free colored" men in 1820 [NC:24]. He appeared in Granville county court on 7 May 1835 to make a declaration to obtain a pension for service in the Revolution. He stated that he was about seventy-three-years old and was drafted from St. Mary's County, Maryland, where he was born and resident. Two of his older brothers died in the service quite young, under the age of twenty. He, together with some others who had stayed behind, were sent for and carried to Annapolis. Someone paid him for taking his place. He was placed in Pendergass's Company but spent most of his time in the hospital on account of the ague and fever. He was sent to Frederickstown sometime in the Winter and guarded the Hessian troops and the magazines. His claim was rejected because there was a record of a Joseph and James Proctor listed next to each other on a list of arrears paid, but there was no way to tell which of the two had been paid [National Archives pension file R8497, http://www.fold3.com]. He may have been the father of

i. Lucy, born say 1795, married Jones Thomasson, 25 December Granville County bond, Bannester Royster surety.

ii. Charles, born 1794-1776, head of a Granville County household of 1 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:24]. He was called Charles M. Proctor when he married Tabitha Simmons, 18 May 1821 Granville County bond, Benjamin Davis bondsman.

 

PRYOR FAMILY

1.    Oner (Honor) Pryer, born say 1704, was the mother of a "Mallato" girl named Sarah whose birth was registered in St. Paul's Parish, King George County, Virginia [St. Paul's Parish Register, 1716-93, 18]. She was the mother of

2        i. Sarah, born 24 J___, 1724.

 

2.    Sarah Pryor, born in 1724, was probably the mother of

3        i. Alice, born say 1745.

 

3.    Alice Pryor, born say 1745, was the mother of Leviny Pryor who registered as a free person in King George County on 7 September 1820. She was the mother of

4        i. Leviny, born about 1764.

ii. ?George, born about 1764, a "free Negro" taxable in Augusta County from 1799 to 1820 [PPTL 1796-1810, frames 130, 175, 224, 273, 323, 368; 1811-20, frames 61, 118, 163, 394, 470, 540, 550, 636], registered in Augusta County on 23 February 1824: of a light black colour, aged 60 years, 5 feet 8 inches high [Register, no. 80].

iii. ?Syllah, born say 1772, mother of Winny Pryor who registered in King George County on 23 August 1820: daughter of Syllah Pryor, a bright mulatto woman, about 28 years of age, about 5 feet 4 inches high...born free in the County of King George [Register of Free Persons, no.60].

5        iv. ?Joseph, born before 1776.

v. ?Andrew, born about 1775, registered in King George County on 12 January 1775: a black man, about twenty two years old and about five feet six inches high, was born of a free woman and served to the age of twenty one years with Richard Potes of this County [Register, no.6].

 

4.    Leviny Pryor, born about 1764, registered in King George County on 7 September 1820: daughter of Alice Prior, a very dark mulatto about 56 years of age...born free in the county of King George [Register of Free Persons, no.61]. She was the mother of

i. Milly, born about 1783, registered in King George County on 7 September 1820: Daughter of the above named Leviny, about 37 years of age, 4 11/12 feet high - was born free in this County [Register no.62].

ii. ?Tabathy, head of a Hanover County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:852].

 

5.    Joseph Pryor, born before 1776, was head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [NC:39] and 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:162]. He was probably the father of

i. Peter, head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [NC:39].

 

PUGH FAMILY

1.    Sarah1 Pugh, born say, 1730, was a "free molatto" Bertie County taxable in 1763 [CR 010.702.1, box 1]. Her children were

i. Pen, born about 1748, the nine-year-old daughter of Sarah Pugh, a "Free Mullattoe," bound to Margaret Dukinfield on 27 January 1756 [CR 010.101.7 by NCGSJ XIII:169]. She was called "a mulatoe girl aged 17 years" when she was bound to John Pearson in Bertie County on 27 June 1766 [NCGSJ (1988):32]. She may have been the Penelope Pugh who married Thomas Whitmell, Jr., (a white man), 20 October 1768 Bertie County bond.

2        ii. Isaac, born about 1750.

iii. Mary, born about 1755, the four-year-old minor of Sarah Pugh, bound to James Jones on 26 July 1759 [NCGSJ XIII:171], taxable in her own household in George Lockhart's list for Bertie County in 1774.

iv. ?Jesse, born about 1755, a "free Mulatto" taxable in John Pearson's Bertie County household in 1767.

v. David, born about 1757, the two-year-old minor of Sarah Pugh, bound to James Jones on 26 July 1759 to be a cooper [NCGSJ XIII:169]. He was head of a Hertford County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 and was listed in the roster of soldiers from North Carolina in the American Revolution.

vi. Arthur, born about 1761, described as a Mulatto bastard of Sarah when he was bound as an apprentice cooper to James Holley on 30 March 1767 [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, III:765]. He was listed in the roster of soldiers from North Carolina in the American Revolution.

vii. ?Sarah2, born about 1762, ordered bound to Mrs. Pearson in August 1777, parent and race not identified.

viii. ?Darbe, born about 1768, ordered bound to Mrs. Pearson in August 1777, parent and race not identified [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, IV:241].

 

2.    Isaac Pugh, born about 1750, the six-year-old son of Sarah Pugh, was bound to Margaret Dukinfield in Bertie County on 27 January 1756. He was head of a "Mulatto" household in Buxton's list for Nansemond County, Virginia, in 1784 (number of persons in household not recorded) [VA:74] and a "Free Negro" taxable on one head of cattle and 6 horses in Nansemond County in 1815 [Yantis, Supplement to the 1810 Census of Virginia, S-14]. He was probably the ancestor of

i. Jasper, head of a Norfolk County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:841].

ii. Toney, a "Free Negro" taxable on 3 slaves, one head of cattle, and 11 horses at "B. Church" in Nansemond County in 1815 [Yantis, Supplement to the 1810 Census of Virginia, S-14].

iii. Sarah3, born about 1780, registered in Norfolk County on 16 December 1811: 5 feet 6 1/2 In. 31 years of age of a Yellowish Complexion with a scar on her forehead, Born free [Register of Free Negros & Mulattos, #67].

 

PURSLEY FAMILY

1.    Ann Pursley, born say 1715, was living in Cople Parish on 30 June 1736 when the Westmoreland County, Virginia court convicted her of having a "Mulato" child [Orders 1731-9, 252a]. She was the ancestor of

i. Jeremiah, an overseer for William Weatherspoon, counted in "A List of Free Mulattoes & Negroes" in Westmoreland County in 1800.

ii. Baker Purse, a gardener for Taker Carter, counted in "A List of Free Mulattoes & Negroes" in Westmoreland County in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31(1987):42], head of a Westmoreland County household of 1 "other free" in 1810.

iii. ?James Percey, a taxable in Bladen County with Gilbert Cox in 1770 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:34].

 

RAINS FAMILY

Members of the Rains/ Reins family were

i. Robert Reins, head of a Norfolk County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:839], probably identical to Robert Rains, a "free negro" farmer listed with his unnamed wife, "a free negro woman," in Hardy County in 1813 [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List].

1        ii. Bethena, born about 1779.

iii. Edmund, a "Mulatto" taxable in Culpeper County from 1794 to 1801 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 529, 649, 693, 743, 820], a "free Mulatto" charged with felony in Culpeper County on 20 January 1801 [Minutes 1798-1802, 282].

iv. Hannah Rains, head of a Spotsylvania County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:99b]. She was counted in a list of "Free Negroes & Mulattoes" in Fredericksburg in 1813 [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List].

 

1.    Bethena Reines, born about 1779, registered in Essex County on 10 August 1829: born free by cert. of Richard Rowzee, dark Mulattoe, 50 years of age, 5 feet 2 inches [Register of Free Negroes 1810-43, p.72, no.163]. She was the mother of

i. Polly, born about 1802, registered in Essex County on 10 August 1829: born free by cert. of Richard Rowzee, bright Mulattoe, 27 years of age, 5 feet 5-1/8 inches.

ii. Catherine, born about 1804, registered in Essex County on 10 August 1829: born free by cert. of Richard Rowzee, bright Mulattoe, 25 years of age, 5 feet 5-7/8 inches [Register of Free Negroes 1810-43, p.73, nos.165-6].

 

RALLS FAMILY

1.    Rebecca Ralls, born say 1720, complained to the Caroline County court on 13 October 1768 that Mary Stevens was detaining her children, but in April 1769 the court ordered that her children Hampton, Harry, and Cloe serve her mistress until the age of thirty-one. She was called "Beck, a Mulatto" in the suit brought by her son Harry for freedom from Mary Stevens in July 1771 [Orders 1768-70, 262, 292, 315; 1771-2, 244]. Rebecca was the mother of

i. Harry, born about 1739 according to Muriah Mullin who testified for him in his suit for freedom from Mary Stevens in Caroline County court on 14 June 1771. She stated further that he was "the whitest child she ever saw to have so dark a Mother and that she was sure it was a white man's child" [Orders 1771-2, 221, 244-5, 301, 371]. Henry was a "Mulatto" taxable in Culpeper County in 1789 [PPTL 1782-1802, frame 305-6].

ii. ?John Ralls/ Rolls, born about 1739 in Caroline County, a "free man of colour" living in Culpeper County in 1779 when he enlisted in the Revolution. He was about eighty-two years old and had been living alone in Shenandoah County for "some years" before 9 January 1821 when he made a declaration to obtain a pension. David Jamison, a justice of the peace in Culpeper County, testified for him, noting that John had been one of four brothers and a sister in the county, and that he had had a wife and children living there while he was in the service [M804-2079, frame 0520; Revolutionary Army, vol. 1, Register 1777-1783, LVA accession number 24296, cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in Culpeper County from 1786 to 1802: taxable on (his son?) Gloucester Rawles in 1787. Gloster was also a "Mulatto" taxable in 1790 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 157, 194, 336, 418, 435, 529, 567, 609, 693, 743, 867].

iii. Hampton, perhaps identical to "Hampton, a Negro boy belonging to John & Mary Stevens born January the 20th 1746." The birth date was recorded in Harry Rall's petition for his freedom in 1771. Hampton petitioned for his freedom from Edward Stevens in October 1772 (no race indicated), but the court ruled that he was not entitled to his freedom until 20 January 1777 [Orders 1772-6, 143, 160, 164, 225].

iv. Cloe, born say 1750.

 

Their descendants were probably:

i. James, a "Mulatto" taxable in Culpeper County in 1793, 1795 and 1798 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 496, 567, 693].

ii. Catey, petitoned the Culpeper County court on 16 March 1802 that she was held illegally in servitude as an apprentice to Hy Camp [Minutes 1798-1802, 427].

iii. Samuel Rawls, "free black" taxable in Orange County, Virginia, in 1813 [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List].

iv. Agatha Rolls, a "Mulatto" taxable in Culpeper County in 1813 [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List].

v. Austin, born before 1776, a "free man" taxable in Shenandoah County in 1811 [PPTL 1800-18, frame 448], head of a household of 1 "free colored" in 1830.

vi. Jacob, a "free man" taxable in Shenandoah County in 1811 [PPTL 1800-18, frame 449].

 

RANDALL FAMILY

Members of the Randall family of Virginia were

i. George, head of a Prince William County household of 12 "other free" in 1810 [VA:508].

ii. Robert, head of a Norfolk County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:917].

iii. Thomas, head of a Norfolk County household of 2 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [VA:802].

iv. Mason, head of a Frederick County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:513].

v. Lucy, born about 1795, registered as a free Negro in Botetourt County on 10 June 1836: 41 years of age; Mulatto ... Born free as per Order of Botetourt Court April Term 1814 [Free Negroes &c Registered in the Clerk's Office of Botetourt County, no. 93].

 

RANGER FAMILY

1.    Mary Range, born say 1722, was the servant of Winder Kenner on 11 August 1740 when she was convicted in Northumberland County court of having an illegitimate "mulatto" child. On 14 December 1741 the court ordered her sold for five years. She was the ancestor of

i. Nicholas Ringe, born 13 November 1741, "Mulato son to Mary" [Fleet, Northumberland County Record of Births, 76]. Nicholas Ranger was taxable in the lower district of Prince William County from 1793 to 1802 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1810, frames 236, 261, 316, 446, 464, 511].

ii. Hannah Range, born 9 March 1744, "Daugr. to Mary Born a Mullatto" [Fleet, Northumberland County Record of Births, 76].

iii. ?Solomon Ranger, taxable in the lower district of Prince William County from 1793 to 1809, called a "Free Black" in 1799 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1810, frames 237, 342, 407, 445, 511, 668], head of a Prince William County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:508].

iv. ?Joseph Rantger, an African American seaman in the Revolution from Northumberland County who moved to Elizabeth City County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153; Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42]. Joseph Ranger was taxable on his own tithe and a slave in Elizabeth City County from 1809 to 1815: taxable on slave in 1809 and 1810, in a list of "free negroes & mulattoes" in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1820, frames 258, 271, 283, 295, 315, 334, 342X].

v. ?Winifred Range, whose suit against William Throp for trespass, assault and battery was dismissed by the Northumberland County court on 12 May 1784 [Orders 1783-5, 165].

vi. ?William Range, head of a Fayette County, Kentucky household of 7 "free colored" in 1830.

 

RANN FAMILY

1.    Matthew1 Rann, born say 1740, was mentioned in a 3 September 1767 letter from Anthony Armistead of Northampton County, North Carolina, to Col. Samuel Benton, clerk of Granville County. Armistead wrote: Mathew Ran, while he Lived with me got in my debt ... he's now Run away and is got with old William Chavers, or one Asa Tiner that Married his daughter... old Chavers Lives in Granville or Bute County ... (Mathew Ran is a Lusty Man... a Carpenter by Trade and Squints) [CR 44.928.8 by NCGSJ XI:35]. He may have been the father of

2        i. Mary, born say 1768.

3        ii. Michael, born say 1770.

 

2.    Mary Rann, born say 1768, was living in Southampton County on 15 July 1799 and 22 July 1800 when the court ordered the overseers of the poor in the lower district of Nottoway Parish to bind out her children Matthew, Archer, Patty, Isaac, and Betty [Minutes 1799-1803, 25, 103, 108]. She was head of a Southampton County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:60]. She was listed in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in 1813 with her daughters Disey and Nanny on Henry Blow's land [Personal Property Tax List 1807-21, frames 324]. She was the mother of

i. Matthew2, born about 1785, a "poor child of Mary Ran," ordered by the Southampton County court bound to John P. Pettway on 15 July 1799. He registered in Southampton County on 5 September 1809: age 27, light complexion, 5 feet 6 inches, free born. He registered again on 31 July 1810: age 28, Dark Mulatto, 5 feet 6 inches, free born. And he registered again on 14 November 1816: age 31, Dark Mulatto, 5 feet 7 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 435, 449, 765, 1036].

ii. Disey, born about 1786, registered in Southampton County on 6 July 1810: age 24, yellow (Colour), 5 feet 4 inches, free born. She registered again on 24 December 1823: age 36, dark complection, 5 feet 4-1/2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, nos. 561, 1430].

iii. Sam, born about 1786, son of Mary Rand who complained to the Southampton County court on 20 February 1804 about the treatment he was receiving from his master Sam Calvert. The court ordered Benjamin Lewis to take the boy into his care until the case was heard, and on 18 September 1804 the court ordered the overseers of the poor to take him into their care [Minutes 1803-4, unpaged]. Sam registered in Southampton County on 31 July 1810: age 24, Dark Mulatto, 5 feet 9-1/2 inches, free born. He registered again on 7 July 1813 and 11 June 1816 [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 770, 818, 1012].

iv. Patty, born say 1790, ordered bound out to Samuel Kello on 22 July 1800.

v. Archer, born about 1791, ordered bound out to Samuel Kello on 22 July 1800. He registered in Southampton County on 22 April 1813: age 22, yellow (Colour), 5 feet 6-1/4 inches, born of free parents [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 815].

vi. Betty, born about 1792, ordered bound out to William Blow on 22 July 1800. She registered in Southampton County on 1 April 1822: Betsey Williams formerly Rann, age 30, 5 feet 2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 1312].

vii. Isaac, born about 1793, ordered bound out to Isaac Hill on 22 July 1800. He was a "Mullatto boy" accused in Southampton County court on 20 January 1806 of stealing $5 from a boy slave named Burwell belonging to James Crichlow. Mason Chavis was a witness against him. He was sent to the district court in Suffolk for trial [Minutes 1799-1803, 85]. He registered in Southampton County on 26 July 1815: age 22, yellow complexion, 5 feet 10-1/4 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 964]. He was a "f.n." taxable in Nottoway Parish, Southampton County, in 1818 [Personal Property Tax List 1807-31, frame 650].

viii. Nancy, poor child of Mary Rand, ordered bound apprentice in Southampton County on 23 November 1803 [Minutes 1803-4, unpaged]. She was over the age of sixteen when she was listed in her mother's household in 1813.

 

3.    Michael Rann, born say 1770, was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in Lazarus Cook's household from 1794 to 1796 [Personal Property Tax List 1792-1806, frame 76, 185]. He was head of Northampton County, North Carolina household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:473], 7 in Halifax County in 1810 [NC:44], and 8 "free colored" in Halifax in 1820 [NC:163]. He was in the First Company detached from the Halifax County Regiment in the War of 1812 [N.C. Adjutant General, Muster Rolls of the War of 1812, 19]. On 18 May 1841 the Halifax County court ordered William and Joseph Rand bound as apprentices to him. His 10 November 1847 Halifax County will was proved in November 1850. He left his children Mary and Willis Ran his property as well as his portion of the estate of his deceased wife Cloe Ran, formerly Cloe Newsom. He claimed a share of the estate of her brother James Newsom who died intestate in Ohio about 1835-1837. Fred A. McWilliams of Halifax County was his executor as well as his agent to recover his claim on James Newsom's Ohio estate [WB 4:295]. His children were

i. Maria, born 1806-20, head of a Halifax County household of 3 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. ?James, born 1806-20, head of Halifax County household of one "free colored" in 1830.

iii. Willis, born 1806-20, head of Halifax County household of one "free colored" in 1830.

 

RANSOM FAMILY

Members of the Ransom family in North Carolina were

1        i. Isaac1, born say 1758.

2         ii. Simon, born say 1760.

iii. George, born say 1764, head of a Craven County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:134].

 

1.    Isaac1 Ransom, born say 1758, was head of a Craven County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:134]. He may have been the father of

i. Isaac2, born after 1775, married Sally Lewis, 1 November 1809 Craven County bond, Robert Sawyer bondsman. He was head of a New Bern household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:78].

ii. Nicey, married James Moor (col.) (col.) 16 August 1818 Craven County bond, no bondsman named.

 

2.    Simon Ransom, born say 1762, was taxable on 1 poll in Robeson County in 1784 and head of a Robeson County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:49], 8 in 1800 [NC:414] and 2 in 1810 [NC:126]. He may have been the father of

i. Martin, born say 1780, married Pollie Locklier, 2 December Robeson County bond, William Barnes bondsman. He was head of a Robeson County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:126].

ii. Willis, head of a Robeson County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:126].

 

Another member of the family was

i. Moses, born before 1776, head of a Franklin Township, Ross County, Ohio household of 2 "free colored" in 1830.

 

RAPER FAMILY

1.    Hannah Raper, born say 1710, was living with her son William Raper when he made his 6 June 1787 Charleston, South Carolina will. She was the mother of

2        i. William, born say 1730.

ii. Ruth, born say 1735, married Thomas Cole.

 

2.    William Raper, born say 1730, married Susanna Cole, "Mulattoes," in St. Philip's Parish, Charleston. He was executor of the 21 October 1771 Charleston will of his brother-in-law Thomas Cole. He called himself a bricklayer in his own 6 June 1787 Charleston will which was proved 27 October 1787. He allowed his mother Hannah the use of a room in his house on the east side of Meeting Street, left his wife Susanna a slave named Ichabod and the use of three other slaves who were to go to his granddaughter Elizabeth Susanna Gardner after his wife's death. He left his house on Meeting Street to his daughter Ruth Gardener. He also provided for the emancipation of one of his slaves, a "Mulatto Boy named John," the son of Tamer, when he reached the age of twenty-five years. He named his wife, son-in-law George Gardener, and John Webb executors [WB 14:109-10; 22:194-6]. The account of his estate returned by his wife in 1788 included nine slaves [Inventories B:15-16]. William and Susanna were the parents of

i. Ruth, married George Gardner.

 

RATCLIFF FAMILY

1.    Mary Ratcliff, born say 1733, was living in Truro Parish, Fairfax County, on 20 March 1753 when the court ordered the churchwardens to bind her "Mulatto" son Ned to Thomas Sorrell [Orders 1749-54]. She was the ancestor of

i. Ned, born say 1753.

ii. ?Sarah Ratliff, born 1776-1794, head of a Guilford County, North Carolina household of 8 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:115].

 

RAWLINSON FAMILY

1.    Elizabeth1 Rawlinson, born say 1663, was the servant of Ralph Flowers in November 1684 when she confessed to the York County court that she had an illegitimate child by John Hall [DWO 6:606]. She may have been the mother of

2        i. Elizabeth2, born say 1684.

 

2.    Elizabeth2 Rawlinson, born say 1684, was presented by the Grand Jury of York County, Virginia, on 20 November 1727 for not listing herself as a tithable. She owed William Timson 3 pounds, 10 shillings according to the settlement of his York County estate recorded on 21 February 1725/6. Perhaps she was the mother of a "Mollatto Servt. boy to be free" who was listed in the inventory of the York County estate of Captain William Timson (of Queen's Creek) on 11 November 1719. Elizabeth's 4 October 1748 Bruton Parish, York County will was proved on 17 December 1750. She left her estate to her son John Rollinson and a shilling each to her son George Rollinson and daughter Joanna Inscho [OW 13:19, 51; 15, pt. 2, 354, 374, 491-2, 515; 16, pt. 2, 373, 489; Wills & Inventories 1746-1759, 197-8]. She was the mother of

i. George, born say 1705, apparently married Tabitha Gibson, who received a girl slave named Nanny by the 7 September 1726 Charles City County will of (her father?) Gibby Gibson. He was called George Rollison when he received a girl slave named Nanny by the 6 May 1727 distribution of the estate [DW 1724-31, 161-2, 167].

3        ii. ?Elizabeth3, born say 1708.

iii. Joanna Insco, born say 1710, presented by the York County court on 20 November 1727 for not listing herself as a tithable, called Joanna Inscow alias Rollinson on 16 July 1733 when she was presented by the churchwardens of Bruton Parish. On 21 June 1736 she was presented for having a bastard child. On 15 December 1735 Isaac Bee was presented for not listing her as a tithable, and on 15 May 1738 she was presented for not listing herself. On 21 August 1738 she proved to the court that she was "not a Molatto," but she was again presented for not listing herself as a tithable on 19 January 1746/7 [OW 18:60, 67, 293, 414, 440, 489, 499; 19:486]. She may have been identical to Hannah Insco who sued Thomas Dickson, administrator of Isaac Bee's estate [OW 19:249]. On 17 December 1753 a deed to her from her son John Insco was proved in York County [Judgments & Orders 1752-4, 363].

iv. John, born in 1725, chosen by his nephew John Insco as his guardian in York County court on 17 November 1746 [OW 19:474]. He was called a "Mulatto" by the York County court on 1 November 1748 when he was presented for not listing his wife and mother as taxables. He sued John Glass for debt in York County court on 15 May 1749 and was security for George Kerby's appearance at court on 18 November 1751. Humphrey Jones brought a suit in chancery against him on 17 August 1752 in which the parties by their counsel agreed that the plaintiff and a witness named Thomas Carter were "Mulattos." The court ruled that the lease involved in the suit was obtained fraudulently and was, therefore, cancelled. John appealed to the General Court. Humphrey Jones sued him for a 93 pound, 16 shilling debt on 19 November 1753 [Judgments & Orders 1746-52, 101, 112, 141, 153, 156, 163, 182, 491; 1752-4, 119, 153, 166, 168, 170-1, 178, 196, 285, 343-4, 353, 495]. His 6 February 1780 Bruton Parish, York County will was proved on 16 October 1780. He left 500 pounds to Elizabeth Garrett for her services, 500 pounds to Samuel Garrett when he came of age, 100 pounds to Judith and Sarah Garrett when they arrived at eighteen years, and the remainder of his estate to his son Hulett Rollinson and his daughter Elizabeth, wife of William Cole. His inventory included eight houses in Williamsburg, a saddle, and "an old negro fellow." He was a shoemaker [WI 22:500-1; OWI 23:67, 68].

 

3.    Elizabeth2 Rawlinson, born say 1708, was called "Elizabeth Rawlinson the younger" when she was presented for not listing herself as a tithable in York County on 20 November 1727, perhaps the same Elizabeth Rawlinson who was presented again in York County on 15 May 1738 [OW 16:489; 18:414]. She was probably the mother of

4        i. William1 Rollison, born say 1727.

 

4.    William1 Rollison, born say 1727, was a "mollatoe" taxable with his unnamed wife in William Person's Granville County, North Carolina Tax List in 1750 [CR 44.701.23]. On 1 August 1764 he recorded a plat for 400 acres adjoining his land in South Carolina on the north side of the Santee River near present-day Richland County [South Carolina Archives, Plats 8:62]. He was head of a Camden District, Richland District household of 3 "white" males and 3 "white" females in 1790, living near Henry Bunch and Benjamin and Isaac Jacobs who were also counted as white [SC:26]. He was probably the father or grandfather of

i. Benjamin1, granted a memorial for 200 acres in Craven County, South Carolina, in the fork of the Wateree and Congaree Rivers in present-day Richland County on 15 February 1769 and granted a memorial for 300 acres in the same area adjoining William Rollinson on 6 February 1770 [South Carolina Archives, Memorials 8:420; 10:57]. He was head of a Richland District household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [SC:176a].

ii. Abigail, recorded a plat for 250 acres in Craven County, South Carolina, in the fork of the Wateree and Congaree Rivers adjoining William Rollinson on 22 May 1771 and sold this land on 14 September 1773 [South Carolina Archives, Memorials 20:180; Charleston Deeds H-4:222-6].

iii. Sam, head of a Richland District household of 6 "other free" and 2 slaves in 1810 [SC:178].

iv. William2, head of a Richland District household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [SC:171].

v. Nathaniel, head of a Richland District household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [SC:171].

vi. John2, recorded a memorial for 100 acres in Craven County, South Carolina, in the fork of the Wateree and Congaree Rivers on 23 May 1771 [South Carolina Archives, Memorials 10:446]. He was head of a Richland District household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [SC:179].

vii. Benjamin2, head of a Richland District household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [SC:179].

viii. Catherine, head of a Richland District household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [SC:175a], a resident of Richland District in 1806 when she petitioned the South Carolina legislature to be exempted from the tax on free Negro women [S.C. Archives series S.165015, item 01885].

ix. William3, head of a Richland District household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [SC:177a].

x. John3, head of a Richland District household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [SC:177a] and 1 "free colored" in 1830.

xi. James, head of a Richland District household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [SC:178] and 3 "free colored" in 1830.

xii. Manuel, born before 1776, head of a Richland District household of 5 "free colored" in 1830.

 

REDCROSS FAMILY

Robert Redcross was sued by Daniel Parker, Esquire, for 9 pounds, 10 shillings in York County, Virginia, on 12 November 1678 [DWO 1675-84, 56, 63]. He was probably related to the mixed-race members of the Redcross family in early Virginia records:

1        i. John1, born say 1730.

2        ii. _____, born say 1733.

iii. Margaret, a "free Mulatto woman" charged but found not guilty of robbing Dick, "a negro man slave the property of Smith Blakey" in Richmond City on 22 September 1790 [Richmond City Hustings Court Orders 1787-92, 545].

 

1.    John1 Redcross, born say 1730, was living in the town of Richmond on 7 March 1774 when he sold a wagon, four horses and other goods to Samuel Williamson of Richmond for 180 pounds by Henrico County deed. The other goods included: a mare, a horse colt, a bed and furniture, four rush-bottomed chairs, a large seal-skinned trunk, a large chest, three iron pots, an iron skillet, a dozen pewter plates, a pewter basin, a pewter dish, half a dozen knives and forks, half a dozen Queen china cups and saucers, half a dozen Queen china plates, a frying pan, a Queen china tea set and a Queen china dish [Deeds 1767-74, 522]. He was sued in Amherst County court for a debt of 25 pounds in November 1779. In October 1782 he sued William Ampey for slander, and Ampey sued him for trespass. Both cases were dismissed because they failed to appear [Orders 1773-82, 387; 1782-4, 49-50]. He was head of an Amherst County household of 11 whites (free persons) in 1783 [VA:48] and 1785 [VA:85]. He was taxable in Amherst County from 1782 to 1799 [PPTL 1782-1803, frames 9, 43, 70, 139, 197, 262, 329, 374, 455]. He and William Ampey were sued in Amherst County for a debt of 40 pounds on 3 May 1786. On 6 October 1788 the court reversed the indenture of Ann Shacklin's son John Shacklin (who had been bound to Henry Cam(p)den the previous month) and Henry Shacklin (who had been bound to Leroy Pope) on John Redcross's motion that their proper names were Williams and that they were properly brought up. He sued William Camden for slander on 1 March 1790 and Camden had a suit against him on 7 November 1791. His suit against James Warren for slander was dismissed for want of prosecution on 20 May 1793 [Orders 1783-7, 510; 1787-90, 353, 355, 606; 1790-4, 51, 123, 323, 373, 504, 527, 570, 584]. The inventory of his Amherst County estate was recorded 20 July 1801 and administration on his estate was granted to William Bryant in May 1802 [WB 4:13]. David Garland was administrator of the estate in November 1802 when Bryant sued him in Amherst County court for some unfinished work John had done on his roof about the year 1793. Louvisa Warren testified that Bryant agreed to help John build Major James Franklin's shop in return for John helping Bryant put the roof on his own house. Bryant stopped John from completing the last course of boards on his roof because it was a Sunday. Since John was busy on another job the next day, Bryant had to complete the work himself [LVA, chancery suit 1832-017, digitized]. John's children were

3        i. ?John2, born say 1755.

ii. Nancy, born say 1780, daughter of John Redcross, married James Pinn, 27 August 1799 Amherst County bond.

 

2.    ____ Redcross, born say 1733, probably married a member of the Evans family. Her son Daniel Redcross was bound to John Evans/ Epps by the churchwardens of Cumberland Parish, Lunenburg County, on 10 December 1767 [Orders 1766-69, fol.122]. He was taxable in John Evans' Lunenburg County household in 1772 and 1773 and called Daniel Evans in John's household in 1775 [Bell, Sunlight on the Southside, 304, 324, 354]. Daniel left a 12 September 1777 Lunenburg County will, proved 10 June 1779, leaving half his estate to his brother Charles Evans and the remainder to John Epps [WB 3:26]. She was the mother of

4        i. ?Lucy, born say 1750.

ii. Daniel, born say 1752, died before 10 June 1779.

iii. ?William, born say 1768, taxable in Charles City County from 1789 to 1791, called "William Evans, alias Redcross" in 1790 [Personal Property Tax List, 1788-1814].

 

3.    John2 Redcross, born say 1755, was a soldier in the Revolutionary War from York County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42]. He and his wife Mary were the parents of Fanny Redcross whose birth and baptism were recorded in Bruton Parish, James City County, in 1781 [Bruton Parish Register, 34]. Mary may have been the daughter of Mary Meade since a Meade Redcross (their son?) registered as a "free Negro" in York County. He was sued in Henrico County court on 3 December 1783 for a 3 pound, 5 shilling debt due by note of hand [Orders 1781-4, 149]. He was taxable in York County from 1784 to 1814: taxable on 2 horses in 1784, 3 tithes in 1802, 3 from 1809 to 1811, 2 in 1812, and 2 "free Negroes & mulattoes over 16" in 1813. His wife Molly/ Mary was taxable on a free male tithable in 1819 and taxable on a slave and a horse in 1820 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frames 92, 143, 164, 194, 224, 247, 308, 356, 378, 395, 426, 472, 484]. He was head of a York County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [VA:882]. He was the father of

i. ?Molly, born about 1776, registered in York County on 22 June 1803: dark mulatto about 27 years of age, 5 feet high, with woolly Hair and small regular features, born of a free Woman in Bruton Parish [Free Negro Register 1798-1831, no.23].

ii. Fanny, born 10 March 1781, baptized 7 October.

iii. ?John5, Jr., born about 1784, registered in York County on 16 October 1804: a small black fellow about 20 years of age, 5 feet 4-1/4 Inches high ... fierce black Eyes, fine Woolly hair ... born of free parents on Queens Creek in the parish of Bruton [Register 1798-1831, no.26]. He was taxable in York County from 1810 to 1814, called John Redcross, Jr. [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frames 356, 395, 411].

iv. ?Thomas, born say 1788, taxable in York County in 1809 and a "free Negro & mulatto" taxable in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1841, frame 342, 395].

5        v. ?Meade, born about 1791.

vi. ?George, born about 1802, registered in York County on 17 October 1831: of light complexion Twenty nine years of age 5 feet 9 1/2 Inches high ... large eyes and broad nose [Free Negroes Register 1831-50, no.307].

 

4.    Lucy Redcross, born say 1750, registered the 26 September 1768 birth of her son John Redcross in St. Peter's Parish, New Kent County. Her son was

6        i. John4, born 26 September 1768.

 

5.    Meade Redcross, born about 1791, registered in York County on 21 February 1814: of light complexion abt. 23 years of age 5 feet 5-1/2 Inches high, has short wooly hair ... born of free parents on Queens Creek [Free Negro Register 1798-31, no.73]. He was the father of

i. ?Maria, born about 1809, registered in York County on 19 September 1831: a dark girl about 22 years of age 5 feet 2 1/4 inch high [Register 1831-50, no.290].

ii. John6 Jr., born about 1811, registered on 18 June 1832: (son of Meade) a person of tawny complexion about 21 years of age 5 feet 6 inches high [Register 1831-50, no.341]. He was head of a York County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:882].

iii. ?Julia, born about 1815, registered on 18 November 1833: a person of yellowish complexion about 18 years of age five feet one Inch high [Register 1831-50, no.357].

 

6.    John4 Redcross, born 26 September 1768 in New Kent County [NSCDA, Register of St. Peter's Parish, 598], was a "Mulatto" taxable on a horse in Hanover County in 1785 and 1786 [Cocke, Hanover County Taxpayers, St. Paul's Parish, 105]. He may have been the John Redcross who married Susanna Thomas alias Humbles, 13 February 1807 Amherst County bond, William Bryant security. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in Amherst County in 1813 and 1814 [Personal Property Tax List 1804-23, frames 260, 284]. He was head of an Amherst County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:260] and was a seventy-five-year-old "Mulatto" man listed with his wife Susan in the 1850 census for Amherst County. He was the father of

i. ?William, born about 1805, a forty-five-year-old "Mulatto" listed in the 1850 census for Amherst County with (his wife?) Jane Redcross and children.

ii. Patrick Henry, born about 1810, registered as a "Free Negro" in Amherst County on 30 December 1831: brown complexion 5 feet 4 3/4 inches high [Register no.52]. He was called the son of John Redcross when he registered on 17 March 1851 [Register no. 216].

 

Another member of the Redcross family was

i. Henry, born about 1789, registered as a free Negro in Augusta County on 29 November 1814: a freeman of colour aged about 25 years of age, five feet 9 inches high of yellow complexion, black eyes black hair and rather finer than common...born free and served his apprenticeship with David L. Garland of New Glasgow as a hostler [Register of Free Negroes, no.10]. On 6 November 1795 the Campbell County court ordered him bound out to William Bailey(?) [Orders 1791-7, 442]. He was taxable in Amherst County in 1803 and a "Mulatto" taxable there in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1803, frame 594; 1804-23, frame 260].

 

REDMAN FAMILY

1.    Ann Redman, born about 1670, a "Mulatto Woman," was about twenty-seven years old on 7 October 1697 when she was freed from the service of Thomas Lloyd by the Richmond County, Virginia court because she was the daughter of an English woman named Jane Redman [Orders 1694-99, 249, 263-4, 497]. Her descendants may have been

2        i. Christian, born say 1715.

3        ii. William1, born about 1751.

iii. Aaron, born say 1771, perhaps the second unnamed tithable in John Redman's Culpeper County household in 1787, taxable in Culpeper County from 1788 to 1804 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 172, 225, 267, 320, 378, 460L, 476, 514, 548, 589, 629, 672, 720, 766, 809, 848; 1803-23, frames 33, 58], taxable in the "list of Free Negroes & Mulattoes" in the western district of Hardy County from 1806 to 1819: listed with his unnamed wife and seven small children as well as Peggy and Nancy Smith on Abel Seymour's land in 1809, listed with a female over the age of sixteen in 1813, called "Aron, Sr." in 1818 [PPTL 1786-1806, frame 471; 1807-50, 57, 183, 256, 271, 333, 360, 417, 432].

iv. Lettice, mother of "orphans" Beck, Amy and Godfrey who were bound as apprentices to Benjamin Cleveland in Wilkes County, North Carolina, in October 1783. Lettice bound herself "of her own free will" as a slave to Cleveland for three years in July 1784 [WB 1:135]. Perhaps Beck was the Rebecca Redmond, born before 1776, who was head of a Smith County, Tennessee household of 8 "free colored" in 1830.

v. Samuel, head of a Rockingham County household of 1 person in the list of William Herring for 1784 [VA:77], a "Free Negro" living on John Carthrae's land in the southeastern district of Rockingham County in 1813 [PPTL 1795-1813, frame 733].

vi. Mary, born about 1787, registered in Rockingham County on 18 May 1818: (a free Woman of Colour) appears to be about thirty five years of age five feet four Inches high a Mulatto...was born free as appears by the certificate of Anthony Hughes and Ezekiel Brandam of Culpeper County Virginia filed in my office. The above Register was by the County Court of Rockingham the 21 day of October 1818 ordered to be certified [Rockingham County Register of Free Negroes, 1807-1859, no. 38].

vii.Richard2, born about 1787, a "fn" or "fm" taxable in Stephen Bedford's list for Charlotte County in 1810 and 1811: a ditcher with his wife Betsey and daughter Sally in 1810, listed with William Jackson and 2 unnamed females over the age of sixteen in 1811 [PPTL 1782-1813, frames 795, 811; Commissioner of Revenue Memorandum Book 1810, frames 307, 332; 1811, frame 168], a "F.N." taxable in the northern district of Halifax County, Virginia, in 1814 and from 1817 to 1819 [PPTL 1813-21, frames 145, 362, 519, 568, 664]. He registered in Halifax County on 21 November 1825: aged about thirty eight years, five feet ten inches high, of a yellow complexion...born of a white woman...registered as a free negro [Registers of Free Negroes, 1802-1831, no. 82]. He registered in Pittsylvania County and presented his papers to the Botetourt County court on 14 May 1834: 47 years of age; Mulatto...Born free as per certificate from Clerk of Pittsylvania [Free Negroes &c Registered in the Clerk's Office of Botetourt County, no. 81]. His wife (born about 1788) may have been the Betsy Redman who registered in Halifax County, Virginia, on 26 May 1831: a bright Mulatto woman, aged 43 years, five feet five inches high, was born free [Registers of Free Negroes, 1802-1831, no. 176] and the Betsy Redman (born about 1778) who registered as a "free Negro" in Pittsylvania County and presented her papers to the Botetourt County court on 14 May 1834: 56 years of age; Mulatto...Born free as per certificate from Clerk of Pittsylvania [Free Negroes &c Registered in the Clerk's Office of Botetourt County, 1802-1836, no.80].

viii. Mary, born about 1790, registered as a free Negro at the Hustings Court of the Corporation of Staunton, Virginia: a mulatto woman, about forty years old, four feet eleven inches...born free as appears from a certificate of registry signed by P. William, Clerk of Shenandoah County [Staunton Free Negro Register, no.117].

ix. Nancy, a "Mulatto" listed in Culpeper County in 1813 [PPTL 1803-23, frame 187].

x. Eleanor, a "Mulatto" listed in Culpeper County in 1813 [PPTL 1803-23, frame 187].

xi. Polly, a "free Negro" spinster living at James Fulton's in Jefferson County, Virginia, in 1813 [PPTL 1802-20, frame 364].

xii. Betsy, a "free Negro" spinster living at James Fulton's in Jefferson County, Virginia, in 1813 [PPTL frame 364].

 

2.    Christian Redman, born say 1715, purchased for 11 pounds 100 acres in Culpeper County in the fork of Robinson's River at the foot of the Lost Mountain and crossing the mountain, adjoining Ambrose Powell and William Crosswait's line from Robert Leavell on 21 August 1760 [DB 2:384]. He, called "Christian Reapman," died before 12 June 1763 when his Culpeper County estate was appraised at 18 pounds, 6 shillings. It included 5 old hoes, 2 old plows, a cow, sow, 3 pigs, a horse, 3 shoats and 3 books [WB A:334]. A 13 January 1772 survey for a Northern Neck grant to Benajah Rice mentions land of the widow Redman and lists John Redman as a chain carrier [Grant W:188-9; Survey 3:185]. Christian was the father of

4        i. John1, born say 1740.

ii. Abraham, born say 1762, "orphan of Christian Redman," bound himself (signing) for seven years as an apprentice millwright to Joshua Lindsay by Culpeper County indenture of 18 November 1776 [DB 5:340]. He purchased 171 acres on the north fork of Hickory Creek in Louisa County from William and Rosa Little for a little over 85 pounds on 14 February 1789 [DB F:440].

 

3.    William1, born about 1751, was head of Spartansburg, South Carolina household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [SC:33 (microfilm of original)], a Lincoln County, North Carolina household of 11 "other free" in 1800 [NC:900], and 4 "other free" and a white woman in Rutherford County in 1810 [NC:431]. He made a declaration in Buncombe County court on 7 April 1820 to obtain a Revolutionary War pension. He stated that he was about sixty-nine years old and enlisted in South Carolina in 1775. He was the keeper of Samuel Bell's mill and had no family living with him other than his wife who was about sixty years old [M805-679, frame 0652]. He may have been the father of

i. William2, Jr., head of a Rutherford County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:431] and 2 "free colored" over forty-five years old in 1820 [NC:77].

 

4.    John1 Redman, born say 1740, (no race indicated) was sued for a debt of 8 pounds, 5 shillings by George Lamkin in Fauquier County on 27 August 1762 with Jeffrey Johnson as his security [Sparacio, Fauquier County Minute Book, 1759-1762, 8; Minutes 1759-62, 10]. On 15 May 1775 he (making his mark) and Jonathan Pratt and his wife Mary of Culpeper County sold to Jacob Nicely for 30 pounds--12 pounds to be paid on demand, 9 pounds to be paid on 15 May 1776 and the remaining to be paid on 15 May 1777--100 acres in the parish of Brumfield which had been purchased by Christian Redman, "Father of the said John," from Robert Leavell by deed recorded in Culpeper County on 21 August 1760, which land adjoined Ambrose Powell and William Crosswait's line [DB H:5-6]. Nicely sold this land to Samuel Kersey on 16 November 1778 [DB H:140]. Part of this land was still called Redman's Mountain in a 20 December 1797 Culpeper County deed from John Strother to William Covington [DB T:243-4; 345-6]. John was taxable in Culpeper County from 1782 to 1804: taxable on his own tithe and 3 cattle in 1782, taxable on a horse and 4 cattle in 1783, called "John Redman, Senr, in 1789 and 1785, taxable on 2 tithes in 1796 and 1797 and from 1800 to 1802, taxable on his unnamed son in 1803 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 5, 101, 120, 149, 172, 225-6, 267, 320, 378, 460L, 476, 514, 549, 589, 629, 672, 720, 765, 809, 848; 1803-23, frames 33, 58]. And he was taxable on 100 acres in Culpeper County from 1782 to 1801 [Land Tax List 1782-1813]. On 2 January 1800 William Covington and his wife Mildred sold for 90 pounds the land whereon John Redman was then living in Culpeper County to William Smith of Madison County being land adjoining McDaniel's line, Thompson's line (then Butler's), Thomas Bragg's, Samuel Young's and Redman's Mountain [DB U:517]. He may have been the member of the Redman family that lost his suit against a member of the Smith family in Culpeper County in May 1803 [Minutes 1803-5, 10, 33, 35, 36]. He may have been the John Redman who was a farmer living on James Miles' land in a list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in the western district of Hardy County in 1805 [PPTL 1786-1806, frame 459]. And he may have been the father of

5        i. John2, born about 1760.

ii. Richard1, born say 1762, bound by the churchwardens of Hamilton Parish in Fauquier County to George Bennet on 22 April 1765 [Sparacio, Fauquier County Minute Book, 1764-1766, 40; Minutes 1764-8, 83]. He may have been the Richard Redman who was taxable in Culpeper County from 1785 to 1804 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 120, 172, 226, 268, 319, 378, 460L, 514, 549, 589, 629, 672, 720, 765, 809, 848; 1802-23, frames 58], and taxable in the western district of Hardy County in a "list of Free Negroes & Mulattoes" from 1809 to 1816: listed with his unnamed wife and five children as farmers on Abel Seymour's land in 1809, called "Richard Senr" from 1811 to 1816 [PPTL 1786-1806, frames 471; 1807-1850, frames 57, 104, 166, 183, 266, 328, 343]. He testified for the pension application of Sarah Redman, stating that he had been present at the marriage of John and Sarah. He applied for a Revolutionary War pension while living in Hardy County on 10 February 1829. He enlisted about 1780 at Fauquier courthouse. His unnamed wife was sixty-five years old in 1829 [M805-679, frame 0630]. He was listed as a "yellow" complexioned soldier in the size roll of troops who enlisted in the Revolution [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153]. He was head of a Hardy County household of 2 "free colored" in 1830.

 

4.    John2 Redman, born about 1760, was taxable in Culpeper County from 1785 to 1800: called "John Redman, Jr." in the list of John Suggett Slaughter in 1785 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 120, 172, 225-6, 267, 320, 378, 460L, 476, 514, 549, 589, 629, 672, 720, 765] and was taxable in the western district of Hardy County, counted in the "list of Free Negroes & Molattoes" from 1801 to 1813: listed by himself in 1801; with his four unnamed sons and two horses in 1802; with his wife Jane and children Reuben, Rachel, Moses and Lucy and four horses in 1803; with Moses, Reuben and Lucy (his wife not listed) living on Edward Fidler's land in 1804; a farmer listed with a female over the age of sixteen on Edward Fidler's land in 1805, listed with 2 males and a female in his household in 1813, called Jack Redman in 1814 when he was taxable on 2 tithes (his "Sons") [PPTL 1786-1806, frames 348, 357, 396-7, 459-60; 1807-1850, frame 183, 256]. At the age of sixty years on 11 June 1820, he made a declaration in Hardy County court to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted in Winchester, Virginia. His widow Sarah applied for a survivor's pension on 9 August 1838. Richard Redman made an affidavit stating that John Redman married Sarah about two years after the war. Sarah stated that they had been married about fifty years previous and that her husband died on 8 October 1836. Richard's wife Rachel Redman made an affidavit stating Sarah's maiden name was Sarah Day. Their son Nimrod was fifty-one years old on 26 May 1849 when he appeared in Hardy County court stating that he was the son of John and Sarah who died 4 November 1848 [M805-679, frame 0611]. John was the father of

i. Reuben, born say 1780, in the list of "Free Negro & Mulattoes" in the western district of Hardy County from 1805 to 1815: a laborer living on Edward Fidler's land in 1805, taxable on 2 horses in 1806, listed with his unnamed wife and three small children in 1809, listed with an adult female and 6 horses in 1813 [PPTL 1786-1806, frame 459, 471; 1807-50, frames 57, 183, 271]. He was a "Mulatto" farmer, taxable in Mason County from 1818 to 1830 [PPTL 1805-46, frames 219, 230, 243, 288, 310, 363, 427, 455, 485, 510, 539] and head of a Mason County household of 11 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. Rachel.

iii. Moses, born say 1789, taxable in the "list of Free Negroes & Mulattoes" in the western district of Hardy County in 1806 [PPTL 1786-1806, frame 471], a "Coloured man" taxable in Rockingham County in 1807 [PPTL 1795-1813, frame 554], in the list of "Free Negroes & Mulattoes in the western district of Hardy County from 1809 to 1816, living with Richard Redman at Abraham Fidler's in 1809, taxable on 4 horses and 8 cattle in 1815 [PPTL 1807-50, frames 166, 183, 256, 271, 333], perhaps the Moses Redman who was head of a Ross County, Ohio household of 9 "free colored" in 1830.

iv. Lucy.

v. Nimrod, born about 1795, taxable in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in the western district of Hardy County from 1811 to 1819 [PPTL 1807-50, frames 104, 166, 183, 333, 360, 417, 432].

 

Other members of the Redman family in Hardy County were

i. Richard3, born say 1792, taxable in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in the western district of Hardy County from 1809 to 1819: living with Moses Redman at Abraham Fidler's in 1809, called Richard, Jr., in 1811 and 1812, listed with a female in 1813, taxable on 2 horses and 2 cattle in 1815 [PPTL 1807-50, frames 57, 104, 166, 183, 271, 333, 417, 432]. He was head of a Ross County, Ohio household of 9 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. James, born say 1794, taxable in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in the western district of Hardy County from 1811 to 1819: listed with an adult female in 1813 [PPTL 1807-50, frames 104, 166, 183, 271, 333, 360, 417, 432].

iii. William, born say 1794, taxable in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in the western district of Hardy County from 1811 to 1819: with an adult female in 1813 [PPTL 1807-50, frames 104, 166, 183, 256, 271, 333, 360, 418, 432].

iv. Thomas, born say 1795, taxable in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in the western district of Hardy County from 1811 to 1817: with an adult female in 1813 [PPTL 1807-50, frames 104, 166, 183, 271, 333, 360], a "Mulattoe" farmer, taxable on 2 horses in Mason County from 1826 to 1828 [PPTL 1805-46, frames 427, 455, 484].

v. Fanny, a female over the age of sixteen, listed in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in the western district of Hardy County in 1813 [PPTL 1807-50, 183].

vi. George, born say 1790, a "free mulatto man distiller" living with James Morrow in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in the eastern district of Hardy County in 1812 and 1813, in the western district from 1814 to 1817 [PPTL 1807-50, 157, 202, 209, 256, 271, 333, 360], living at James Melton's in Jefferson County, Virginia, in 1820 [PPTL 1802-20, frame 773], perhaps the George Redman who was head of a Ross County, Ohio household of 7 "free colored" in 1830.

 

Endnotes:

1.    The personal property tax lists for Culpeper County are missing for the years 1805-1807 and 1809-1810.

 

REED FAMILY

1.    William1 Reed, born about 1673, was a mixed-race child born to a white servant woman in the Charles City County, Virginia household of Robert Jones. Jones bequeathed him a cow and a gun and his freedom from his indenture at the age of twenty-one years. Jones' executors refused to comply with his wishes, so William sued them in Charles City County court. On 3 September 1694 the court ruled in William's favor [Orders 1687-95, 522]. He was a taxable in James Ellis' household in the lower precinct of Southwarke Parish in Surry County from 1699 to 1703: called "Wm Read a Malatta" in 1699 [DW 5:193b, 210a, 233a, 289; Magazine of Virginia Genealogy, vol.24, 2:77, 84; 3:68, 73]. In May 1708 he began a suit against William Edwards in Surry County court for which he was awarded 1,285 pounds of tobacco on 21 September 1715 [Haun, Surry Court Records, VI:102; VII:89]. He may have been identical to the William Read who was living with his wife Mary Read in Brunswick County in 1729 when they sold 100 acres on the north side of the Nottoway River and both sides of Sappony Creek [Surry DW&c 8:22]. They may have been the parents of

2        i. Elizabeth, born say 1713.

3        ii. Ann1, born say 1724.

4        iii. John, born say 1738.

5        iv. Jane, born say 1740

 

2.    Elizabeth Reed, born say 1713, was fined 6 pounds on 3 May 1735 by the vestry of Chowan County, North Carolina, for having two "Molatto bastards" [Fouts, Vestry Minutes of St. Paul's Parish, 51]. Perhaps her descendants were

6        i. Rachel, born say 1735.

7        ii. Jemima, born say 1745.

iii. Shadrack1, born say 1750, head of a South Orangeburg District, South Carolina household of 7 "other free" and 3 slaves in 1790 [SC:99]. He received a little over 7 pounds on 9 January 1785 for supplying beef to the state commissary [South Carolina Archives, Accounts Audited for Revolutionary War Service, AA 6307].

iv. Willis, born say 1755, head of a South Orangeburg District household of one "other free" in 1790 [SC:99], paid a little over 35 pounds for militia duty as a horseman from 15 April 1781 to 15 February 1782 [South Carolina Archives, Accounts Audited for Revolutionary War Service, AA 6309].

v. Sarah, born say 1757, married Peter Gordon on 14 January 1778 in St. Philip's Parish, South Carolina.

vi. Hardy1, head of a South Orangeburg District, South Carolina household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [SC:99].

vii. Charity, head of a South Orangeburg District, South Carolina household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [SC:99] and 3 in 1800 [SC:53]. She recorded a plat for 640 acres on Ned's Branch in Orangeburgh District on 15 November 1784 [South Carolina Archives, Series S213190, 14:128].

viii. Cloe, head of a South Orangeburg District, South Carolina household of 3 "other free" in 1790 and 3 in 1800 [SC:53].

ix. Sarah, head of a Barnwell District, South Carolina household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [SC:58].

x. William2, head of a Chesterfield County, South Carolina household of 9 "other free" in 1800 [SC:106].

 

3.    Ann1 Reed, born say 1724, was the servant of James Ridley in Southampton County, Virginia, on 10 January 1752 when the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her unnamed "Mulatto" child to her master. On 9 April 1752 the churchwardens sued her for debt, and on 18 November that year the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her "Mulatto" son Isaac and her daughter Winney, "a poor child" [Orders 1749-54, 195, 201, 219; 1754-9, 27]. Her children were

8        i. Isaac, born about 1740.

9        ii. ?Ann2, born say 1748.

iii. Winney, born say 1750.

iv. ?Dempsey, born say 1758, listed in the Revolutionary War accounts, hired as a substitute by Nathaniel Harris in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 101]. On 3 June 1779 he purchased 200 acres in Warren County on Buffalo Branch for 200 pounds and sold 75 acres of this land to his neighbor, Joshua Capps, on 25 __ 1784 [DB 7:406; 8:203]. The October 1784 session of the Warren County court allowed him 30 pounds for building the bridge across Fishing Creek, and the April 1786 court ordered Warren Williams, base born child of Sarah Williams, bound to him as an apprentice cooper [Minutes 1783-87, 62, 67, 127]. He was taxable in Warren County from 1782 to 1791, taxable on 2 polls and 80 acres in 1787 [Tax List 1781-1801, 32, 57, 85, 95, 126, 150, 171, 211], head of a Warren County household of 8 "other free" in 1790 [NC:78], 13 in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, in 1800 [NC:534], and 12 "free colored" in Cabarrus County in 1820 [NC:160].

v. ?Frederick, born say 1765, head of a Franklin County, North Carolina household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:60]. He married Toppin Johnson, 25 December 1815 Franklin County bond, James Ferrell bondsman.

 

4.    John Read, born say 1738, was living in Southampton County on 9 September 1762 when he and John Brooks were sued for a debt of 9 pounds, 17 shillings [Orders 1759-63, 239]. And he was sued for 7 pounds he borrowed from John Wilkerson on 2 August 1763, and James Brooks sued him for 20 pounds damages in a plea of trespass on the case in July 1765 [Judgment Papers 1764-5, frames 579-87, 860-1]. He was taxable on a horse and 4 cattle in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, from 1782 to 1789 and taxable on 4 horses in 1790 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 508, 524, 597, 645, 668, 717, 767]. His 23 August 1790 Southampton County will was proved 10 December the same year. He left a cow to his daughter Patience Sweat and left 120 acres of land and the remainder of his estate to his wife Sarah. After her death the land was to go to his son Cordall and the estate was to be divided among his children Tabitha Byrd, Priscilla Byrd, Patience Sweat, Mason Read, Salley Read and Cordall Read. Cordall Francis and Hardy Hunt were witnesses [WB 4:395]. Sarah was the daughter of James Brooks who mentioned his daughter Sarah Read in his 21 May 1798 Southampton County will, recorded 21 May 1798, James Sweat executor [WB 5:58]. Sarah Read was taxable on 4 horses in Southampton County in 1791, 2 in 1792, taxable on John Brooks' tithe in 1793, on Cordall Read's tithe in 1795, on 2 horses from 1794 to 1804, called a "Mulatto" from 1802 to 1806, taxable on a free male tithable and 3 horses in 1806 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 823, 882; 1792-1806, frames 61, 88, 169, 277, 327, 389, 423, 527, 565, 634, 702, 851]. She was head of a Southampton County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:88]. Their children were

i. Patience, born say 1768, "daughter of John and Sarah," married James Sweat, 3 March 1790 Southampton County bond, David Reed surety.

ii. Cordall, born before 1776, married Delilah Kersey, 19 November 1798 Southampton County bond, James Sweat surety. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in Sarah Read's household in 1795, charged with his own tax from 1799 to 1813, called a "Mulatto" in 1802 and thereafter, listed with wife Delila in 1812 and 1813 [Personal Property Tax List 1792-1806, frames 390, 416, 565, 634, 702, 818, 851; 1807-21, frames 56, 77, 175, 200, 298, 324]. He was head of a Southampton County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:88] and a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 9 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:258].

iii. Tabitha Byrd, born say 1772, married Godfrey Scott, 16 November 1795 Southampton County bond, Cordall Reed surety, 22 November marriage. Godfrey was a witness to the 9 January 1800 Northampton County will of Philip Byrd [WB 2:363].

iv. Priscilla Byrd, perhaps identical to Priscilla Reed whose children Edward, Vine, and James were ordered bound by the churchwardens of Sussex County to Henry Brown on 15 January 1778 [Orders 1777-82, 32].

v. Mason, born say 1775, "daughter of Sary Read," married Claxton Roberts, 29 January 1793 Southampton County bond, James Sweat surety.

vi. Sally.

 

5.    Jane Reed, born say 1740, was living in Southampton County, Virginia, on 13 December 1759 when the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her "mullatoe" child Clement [Orders 1759-63, 11]. She was the mother of

i. ?Raymond, born say 1758, a "mullatto" child (no parent named) bound out by the Southampton County court for twenty-one years on 11 May 1758 [Orders 1754-9, 434].

ii. Clement, born say 1759, married Amy Malone, 17 November 1796 Brunswick County, Virginia bond. The Malone family were counted as "Free Negroes" in Brunswick County [Wynne, Register of Free Negroes].

 

6.    Rachel Reed, born say 1735, may have been one of the illegitimate children born to Elizabeth Reed in Chowan County before 3 May 1735 when she was presented by the churchwardens of St. Paul's Parish. Rachel was living in Chowan County on 5 January 1758 when she was presented by the churchwardens of St. Paul's Parish for having several base born children. In April 1763 the Chowan County court bound her "Mulatto" children Jacob and Reuben to James Bond, but on motion of her attorney Samuel Johnston on 23 June 1769 the court ordered Bond to show cause why the children should not be moved from their apprenticeship [Minutes 1761-3, 131; 1766-72, 472-3]. Rachel was a "mixt Blood" taxable in Hertford County on one person in 1768 and 1769 and on two persons in 1770 [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book, 50]. She was head of a Gates County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 (abstracted as Rude but appears to be Reede in the microfilm copy of the original) [NC:24; National Archives film M7, p. 329] and 5 "free colored" in Edenton, Chowan County, in 1820 [NC:130]. Her children were

i. Jacob1, born about 1755, eight years old in April 1763 when the Chowan County court bound him to James Bond until the age of twenty-one. He served in the Revolutionary War and died before 23 May 1792 when the Gates County court appointed (his mother) Rachel Reid, administratrix of his estate. On 4 August 1792 in Gates County she gave her son Benjamin power of attorney to settle the balance of his army wages from 20 November 1778 to June 1779 [NCGSJ XV:103].

ii. Benjamin, born about 1758, enlisted with Colonel Murfree for the term of the war. He made a declaration in Gates County court to obtain a pension on 19 November 1821, saying he had a stiff arm from a wound, and he had a sixty-two-year-old wife named Treasey [M805, reel 680, frame 89]. He was head of a Gates County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 (abstracted as Rude but appears to be Reede in the microfilm copy of the original) [NC:22; National Archives film M7, p. 323], 3 in 1810 [NC:842], and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:154].

iii. ?Shadrack2, born say 1763, head of a Hertford County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:26], 3 in 1810 [NC:98], and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:192], perhaps the Shad Reide who was head of a household of 6 "whites" (free persons) in Captain Willis Parker's District of Militia for the 1783 census for Nansemond County, Virginia [VA:58]. He and Jere Reid were two of the "Sundry persons of Colour of Hertford County" who petitioned the General Assembly in 1822 to repeal the act which declared slaves to be competent witnesses against free African Americans [NCGSJ XI:252].

iv. Reuben, born about 1760, three years old in April 1763 when he was bound by the Chowan County court to James Bond until the age of twenty-one to be a cordwainer [Minutes 1761-3, 131].

v. Jeremiah, born say 1770, head of a Hertford County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 (called Jeremiah Scotch Reed) and 9 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:186].

 

7.    Jemima Reed, born say 1745, a "free Mullatoe," was taxable in Hertford County, North Carolina, from 1768 to 1770 [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book, 25]. She was living in adjoining Gates County in November 1785 when the court bound her eighteen-year-old, illegitimate son Abraham as an apprentice cooper to John Duke, Jr. [Fouts, Minutes of County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions 1779-86, 97]. Her son was

i. Abraham, born about 1767, head of a Gates County household of one "other free" in 1790 (abstracted as Rude) [NC:22]. He married Charlotte Bird/ Byrd, 27 February 1786 Southampton County bond.

 

8.    Isaac Reed, born about 1740, the son of Ann Reed, a "Mulatto," was ordered bound out by the Southampton County court on 14 December 1752 [Orders 1749-54, 285]. He was taxable in Chowan County in John Lewis' list in 1756. He was taxed as a "Negro man" with a "Negro" woman in an untitled 1766 Chowan tax list, and in 1768 and 1769 he and his wife Margaret were taxables in Timothy Walton's list for Chowan County [CR 24.701.2]. His land on the east side of Bennett's Creek was mentioned in an 8 June 1799 Gates County deed [DB 4:345 by Taylor, Abstracts of Deed Books A-5, 188]. The Gates County court appointed him administrator of the estate of Jacob Reid on 22 May 1792 [Fouts, Minutes of County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions 1787-93, 110]. As administrator of the estate he appointed Samuel Smith attorney to settle the Continental Army Accounts of (his son?) Jacob Reid, Jr., from 10 December 1778 to 10 April 1779. On 5 June 1792 Captain Arthur Gatling testified in Northampton County, North Carolina court that Jacob was a soldier in a company of new levies on the Continental Establishment which he marched from Hertford to South Carolina from November 1778 to March 1779, and Jacob died in the service in South Carolina [NCGSJ XV:102]. Isaac was head of a Gates County household of 4 "other free," one white woman, and one white male over sixteen years of age in 1790 (abstracted as Rude by appears to be Reede in the microfilm copy of the original) [NC:23; National Archives film M7, p.334]. His children may have been

i. Jacob2, Jr., born about 1760, died in Revolutionary War service.

ii. Hardy2, born say 1762, married Tabitha Reed, 20 January 1784 Gates County bond, William Gwinn bondsman. He was head of a Gates County household of 8 "other free" in 1790 (abstracted as Rude but appears to be Reede in the microfilm copy of the original) [NC:23; National Archives film M7, p. 329]. On 22 May 1792 the Gates County court granted him administration on the estate of (his brother?) James Reid, deceased.

iii. James, born say 1763, died before 22 May 1792 when (his brother?) Hardy Reid was granted administration on his Gates County estate [Fouts, Minutes of County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions 1787-93, 110].

10      iv. Micajah, born say 1765.

v. Henderson, born before 1776, head of a Gates County household of one "free colored" in 1820 [NC:155].

vi. Lettis, head of a Gates County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:155].

vii. Sarah, married Dempsey Turner of Pasquotank County, 19 May 1801 Gates County bond. He was head of a Pasquotank County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:29].

 

9.    Ann2 Reed, born say 1748, was living in Southampton County on 14 February 1782 when the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her "poor children" David and Jeremiah Reed. Jeremiah was ordered bound out again by the overseers of the poor on 11 September 1789 [Orders 1778-84, 183; Minutes 1786-90]. She was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in 1787, taxable on David Reed's tithe and a horse in 1789 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-92, frames 645, 718]. She may have been the "Anne Read a free Mulato" who was required by the Halifax County, North Carolina court on 28 August 1799 to post bond of 200 pounds during her stay in North Carolina [Minutes 1799-1802, 54]. She was the mother of

11        i. ?Jemima2, born say 1764.

ii. David, born say 1767, taxable on a horse in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County in 1788 and 1790, taxable in John Robertson's household in 1793 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-92, frames 669, 718, 768; 1792-1806, frame 61]. He was head of a Chatham County, North Carolina household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [NC:193].

iii. Jeremiah, born say 1772, taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, from 1793 to 1799 [Personal Property Tax List 1792-1806, frames 61, 89, 169, 278, 328, 390].

iv. ?Artis, taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in Isham Newsum's household in 1795 [Personal Property Tax List 1792-1806, frame 167].

v. ?Balaam, born about 1781, a poor child living in Sussex County on 15 June 1786 when the court ordered the overseers of the poor on the southside of the Nottoway River in district 3 to bind him to William Brown [Orders 1786-91, 31]. He registered in Sussex County on 10 June 1806: black complexion, 5 feet 5-1/2 inches high, age 25, free born [Register of Free Negroes, 1800-50, no. 50].

vi. ?Jacob, a "free Negro" listed in Southampton County with his wife Charity on Sophia Powell's land in 1813 and 1814 [Personal Property Tax List 1807-21, frames 324, 424].

vii. ?Stephen, taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County in Simon Pope's household in 1794, charged with his own tax in 1802, a "Mulatto" in 1804 [Personal Property Tax List 1792-1806, frames 87, 565, 703].

 

10.    Micajah Reed, born say 1765, purchased 25 acres in Gates County on Collage Branch on 17 November 1796 and sold this land on 15 August 1807 [DB 4:127; 7:50]. He was head of a Gates County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:24], 8 in 1800 [NC:277], 10 in 1810 [NC:853], and 11 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:155]. In August 1817 he proved to the Gates County court that he was the lawful heir of Nathaniel Hall, who died in Revolutionary War service. Nathaniel may have been the father of Nathaniel Hall, a "Molatto Boy," born about 1786, bound an apprentice cooper in Gates County in May 1806 [Fouts, Minutes of Gates County, IV:1001; III:499]. One of Micajah's children may have been

i. James, born say 1787, married Sealy Robbins, 25 October 1808 Gates County bond, James Lassiter bondsman. He was head of a Gates County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:837].

 

11.    Jemima2 Reed, born say 1764, was a spinner in the "List of Free Negroes & Mulattoes" for Sussex County from 1801 to 1806, with children Sandy, Samuel, Balaam, Patty and Jimmy Reed [List of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, 1801-1812, frames 1, 9, 12, 31, LVA micrfofilm no. 221]. She was probably the mother of

i. Balaam, born about 1781, a poor child living in Sussex County on 15 June 1786 when the court ordered the overseers of the poor on the southside of the Nottoway River in district 3 to bind him to William Brown [Orders 1786-91, 31]. He registered in Sussex County on 10 June 1806: black complexion, 5 feet 5-1/2 inches high, age 25, free born [Register of Free Negroes, 1800-50, no. 50].

 

Nansemond County

Members of the Read family in Nansemond County were

i. Elisha1, Sr., born say 1760, a "Free Negro" taxable in Nansemond County in 1815 [Yantis, Supplement to the 1810 Census of Virginia, S-14].

ii. Amos, born about 1758, a seventy-five-year-old "free man of Colour by birth" who applied for a pension in Nansemond County on 13 May 1833 for his service in the Revolution [M805-678, frame 0166].

iii. Ameriah, born about 1762, about seventy-two years old on 13 January 1834 when he applied for a pension for his service in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted in 1778 and had always lived in Nansemond County [M805-678, frame 0154].

iv. Abram, born about 1764, a "free man of Colour by birth" who had always lived in Nansemond County and was about seventy-nine years old on 13 May 1833 when he applied for a pension for his service in the militia digging embankments at Portsmouth during the Revolution [M805-678, frame 0148].

v. Harrison, a "Free Negro" taxable on one head of cattle in Nansemond County in 1815.

vi. Jonathan, a "Free Negro" taxable in Nansemond County in 1815.

vii. Elisha2, Jr., a "Free Negro" taxable in Nansemond County in 1815.

viii.Jacob3, a "Free Negro" taxable in Nansemond County in 1815 [Yantis, Supplement to the 1810 Census of Virginia, S-14], perhaps the Jacob Reed (born about 1780) who was counted in the 1850 census for Hertford County, North Carolina, with Margaret Reed (born about 1785), both listed as "Black" [NC:666].

 

Endnotes:

1.    Abram Read was called "Abram of Read" in his pension application, indicating that he was the emancipated slave of a member of the Read family, despite the fact that he was called "a free man of Colour by birth" in the same sentence. The early nineteenth-century Nansemond County tax and census records listed all free persons of color this way regardless of their origins.

 

Eastern Shore of Virginia

1.    Rebecca Read, born say 1745, was taxable in the Northampton County household of Nathan Drighouse (Driggers) in the List of John Marshall in 1765 [L.P. 1765]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Isaac, born about 1760, a "Mulatto" taxable in Northampton County from 1791 to 1794 [PPTL 1782-1823, frames 126, 183]. He registered as a free Negro in Northampton County on 11 June 1794. Tamer Stevens sued him for slander in a case that was agreed to at his costs in Northampton County court on 13 June 1794 [Orders 1789-95, 354, 363]. He registered in Accomack County: Isaac alias Isaac Read, a light Black inclining to yellow...Born Free [Register of Free Negroes, no. 115].

ii. Reubin, sued in Northampton County by Peter Toyer on 9 July 1788, called a "free Negro" on 11 May 1792 when he was charged with plotting and conspiring to rebel and murder the white inhabitants of the county. The court sent him for trial at the next district court held in Accomack County [Minutes 1789-95, 157, 212]. He was security for the 3 January 1793 Northampton County marriage bond of Zerobabel Weeks and Nancy Beavans and the 23 January 1794 Northampton County marriage bond of Nathan Driggers and Elizabeth Bingham. He was taxable in Northampton County from 1786 to 1792: taxable on a slave in 1789 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 54, 103, 147].

iii. Rachel, head of an Accomack County household of 4 "other free" and 5 slaves in 1810 [VA:53].

iv. Betty, born before 1776, head of a Northampton County household of 10 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:216A].

 

REEVES FAMILY

1.    Malachi Reeves, born say 1720, received a patent for 400 acres on both sides of Tabbs Creek in Granville County on 25 March 1749 [DB C-1:1]. He was a "Black" taxable in the 1752 Granville County tax list of Jonathan White [CR 044.701.19]. On 9 May 1753 he purchased 522 acres on the north side of Fishing Creek from William Reeves for 60 pounds and sold this land to James Reeves for 60 pounds about a year later on 29 August 1754 [DB B:243, 402]. He was a white tithable with his sons William and Jonathan, John Allin, and one slave in Samuel Benton's list for Fishing Creek in 1762 [NCGSJ XIII:25]. On 21 July 1769 Isaac Cursi (Kersey) Mitchell was bound apprentice to him in Granville [CR 044.101.2-7]. His children were

i. William, born say 1744, a white tithable in 1762.

ii. Jonathan, born say 1746, a white tithable in 1762.

 

2.    James1 Reeves, born say 1725, was a "black" taxable with his son James Reeves and "negro" Mary Anderson in the 1758 Granville County list of Nathaniel Harris. He purchased 522 acres on the north side of Fishing Creek from (his brother?) Malachi Reeves on 29 August 1754. He and Malachi were witnesses to the 30 March 1758 Granville County deed from Jacob Perry to Joseph Bass [DB B:402; E:50]. His children were

i. James2, born say 1746, a black taxable in 1758. He may have been the James Revus who was head of a Wayne County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:836].

ii. ?John, head of a Greene County household of 1 "free colored" and 5 slaves in 1820 [NC:256].

 

3.    Margaret Reeves, born say 1735, was living "at George Andersons" in Granville County on 7 June 1754 when Eliza Reeves, "supposed to be the child of Margaret Reeves," was bound to William Howlet until she was eighteen years of age [Owen, Granville County Notes, vol. I]. Her child was

4        i. Elizabeth, born say 1752.

 

4.    Elizabeth Reeves, born say 1752, was living in Granville County on 16 January 1771 when her child Patience was bound apprentice to Valentine White [CR 44.101.2; Owen, Granville County Notes, vol. IV]. Her children were

i. Patience, born about 1765, a base born "Mulatto" bound to Valentine White in Granville County on 16 January 1771, no parent named on indenture [CR 44.101.2-7]. She married Augustine Anderson, 19 December 1796 Granville County bond.

ii. ?Suryeth(?), head of a Cumberland County household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:153].

 

Other Reeves family members were

i. Chloe, born March 1764, a "Mullatto" child living in Loudoun County on 13 June 1768 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Cameron Parish to bind her to Nathaniel Grigsby [Orders 1767-70, 78].

ii. Nancy Reves, a "Mulatto" ordered bound out by the churchwardens of St. Ann's Parish, Essex County, Virginia, on 18 August 1783 [Orders 1782-3, 401].

iii. Page, "F. Negro" head of a Fauquier County, Virginia household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:340].

 

REVELL FAMILY

The Revell family may have originated in Surry County, Virginia, where Edward Revell and (his son?) Edward Revell, Jr., were taxables in the same household in Thomas Holt's list for 1703 [DW 5:291].

 

1.    Edmund Revell, born say 1725, was among the freeholders who were ordered by the Edgecombe County, North Carolina court to work on the road near Plumbtree Bottom in March 1762 [Minutes 1759-64, 38]. On 1 April 1763 he received a patent for 700 acres in the part of Edgecombe County which became Nash County in 1777 [Hoffman, Granville District Land Grants, 114]. He sold 350 acres of this land to (his son?) Elijah Revell for 5 shillings on 7 October 1765; he sold 100 acres of this land to (his son?) Micajah Revell for 8 pounds on 25 September 1766; and he sold the remaining 250 acres for 50 pounds on 15 April 1767 [DB C:403; O:224]. Less than two weeks later on 27 April 1767 he received a patent for 500 acres in Dobbs County on the north side of Bear Creek [Hoffman, Land Patents, II:435]. He was taxable on one tithe in Dobbs County in 1769 [NCGSJ XV:80]. He sold land by deed proved in Dobbs County between April 1773 and April 1775 [DB 10:455]. On 29 April 1768 he patented 150 acres northeast of Drowning Creek in the part of Bladen County which later became Robeson County [Hoffman, Land Patents, vol. II, no. 6913]. He and his wife were "Mulato" taxables in Bladen County in 1772 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:82]. On 7 November 1784 he was granted two patents in Bladen: one for 150 acres on both sides of Bear Swamp and the other east of Long Swamp on [DB 1:26-7], and he was taxable in Bladen County on 300 acres and one poll in 1784. He was head of a Robeson County household of 9 "other free" in 1790 [NC:50]. He sold land in Robeson County by deed proved on 8 April 1800 [Minutes 1797-1806, 104]. His children may have been

2        i. Sabra, born say 1742.

3        ii. Elijah1, born say 1745.

4        iii. Micajah1, born say 1747.

iv. Burwell, born before 1776, head of a Robeson County household of one "other free" in 1790 [NC:49] and 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:306]. He purchased land in Robeson County by deeds proved on 6 April 1801 and 4 April 1803 [Minutes 1797-1806, 142, 239].

v. Nathaniel2, born before 1776, head of a Robeson County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:415], 6 in 1810 [NC:240], and 2 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:305]. He purchased 50 acres in Robeson County on the east side of Saddletree Swamp from Samuel Hammond on 4 May 1801. He sold five head of cattle, five sows, 20 pigs, and household goods to Rachel Jones of Robeson County on 30 January 1829 [DB M:355; V:466].

 

2.    Sabra Revell, born say 1742, was living in Edgecombe County on 26 April 1764 when her "base born child" Sal was bound to Joseph Howell [Minutes 1759-64, 11]. By 20 August 1771 she had moved to Granville County where her children were bound out by the court [CR 44.101.2-7]. Her children were

5        i. ?Peggy, born say 1760, not apprenticed in Granville.

6        ii. Nathaniel1, born say 1762.

iii. Sal, born about 1764, seven years old when she was bound out in Granville County on 21 August 1771.

iv. Mackly, born in 1766, "base born female child of Sabra Revell aged about six months," ordered bound to Joseph Howell by the 14 October 1766 Edgecombe County court [Minutes 1764-72, 48], six years old when she was bound out in Granville County on 21 August 1771.

v. Barbara, born about 1768, three years old when she was bound out in Granville County on 21 August 1771.

vi. Elijah2, born 1770, one-year-old child of "Savory Revell" bound to Thomas Harris by the Granville County court. He may have been the Elijah Revell who was head of a Sampson County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:525].

 

3.    Elijah1 Revell, born about 1745, petitioned the Edgecombe County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions on 28 March 1759 against Thomas Lane who was "holding him in bondage without right." His petition was rejected as it was entered in the wrong county [Minutes 1757-59, 35]. On 7 August 1765 he bought for 5 shillings, 350 acres of Edmond Revell's land [DB C:403]. On In May 1772 the Edgecombe County court ordered him and (his brother?) Micajah to work on the road near the Sapony Road [Minutes 1772-84, n.p]. On 3 June 1773 he bought an additional 340 acres on the north side of Stony Creek in the part of Edgecombe which later became Nash County [DB 2:101], and in 1782 he was taxable in Nash County on 970 acres, 4 horses, and 22 cattle. On 25 August 1785 he sold Micajah 100 acres of his land in Nash County for 25 pounds. He sold 250 acres of his land on the south side of Stony Creek for $250 on 11 February 1794, and bought 181 acres on the north side of the creek for $301 on 9 September 1795 [DB 4:129; 6:25, 111]. He was head of a Nash County household of 12 "other free" in 1790 [NC:71] and 8 "other free," six slaves, and one white male 26-45 years of age (his son-in-law?) in 1800 [NC:117]. His 22 November 1806 Nash County will named his wife Dolly and divided his eight slaves among his children [WB 1:173]. Dolly was head of a Nash County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [NC:639]. Their children were

i. Elias, born say 1765, purchased 75 acres on the north side of Kirby's Creek in Nash County on 5 June 1786 [DB 4:129]. While a resident of Northampton County on 30 March 1792, he sold this land to (his cousin?) Henry Revell [DB 6:130]. He was deceased by 22 November 1806 when his father wrote his Nash County will. His heirs received $10 from their grandfather. They were probably Rabourn Revel and his sister Bedah and brother Ezekiel, who sold 75 acres on the north side of Kirby's Creek jointly with Elias's brothers and sisters on 16 February 1809 [DB 3:290].

7        ii. Jonathan2, born before 1776.

iii. Paul, born say 1770.

iv. Edith Revell, born say 1772.

v. Celah Malone, born say 1775. Her husband was probably John Malone who signed a joint deed of sale of Elias' 75 acres in Nash County on 16 February 1809 [DB 3:290].

vi. Faithful Malone, probably the wife of Charles Malone who signed a joint deed of sale of Elias' 75 acres in Nash County on 16 February 1809 [DB 3:290].

vii. Barnabas, head of a Nash County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:639]. He sold one third of a 100 acre tract adjacent to his brother Matthew and Faithy Malone on 8 March 1811 [DB 5:286].

viii. Matthew, born before 1776, head of a Nash County household of one "other free" in 1810 [NC:639] and 4 free colored and one slave in 1820 [NC:425].

8        ix. Humphrey, born 1776-94.

 

4.    Micajah1 Revell, born say 1747, purchased 100 acres in Edgecombe from (his father?) Edmond Revell on 25 September 1766 [DB C:403]. On 10 February 1770 he bought a 100 acre plantation on the north side of Stony Creek for 12 pounds, and on 4 August 1774 he bought 50 acres of the land that Edmund Revell formerly held on the north side of the Tar River. On 31 December 1774 he bought a 50 acre plantation on the south side of Stony Creek [DB 2:149, 290; 3:70]. He sold 2 acres of this land on 1 August 1777 in what was then Nash County [DB 1:81]. He was head of a Nash County household of 12 "other free" in 1790 [NC:71]. On 13 July 1807 he had an account with William White's store on present-day Tarboro Street in Wilson [NCGSJ XVI:215]. He may have been the M. Revell who was head of a Cumberland County household of 6 "other free" and one slave in 1810 [NC:624]. His children may have been

i. Henry, born say 1774, head of a Nash County household of two "other free" in 1800 [NC:117]. He purchased 75 acres from Elias Revell of Northampton County on 30 March 1792 [DB 6:130].

9        ii. Elijah3, born before 1776.

iii. Larey, born say 1790, head of a Cumberland County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:564].

10      iv. James, born say 1795, died in 1842.

 

5.    Peggy Revell, born say 1760, was head of an Orange County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:618]. She may have been the mother of

i. Hezekiah, born about 1776, a "Mulatto" child bound by the 23 November 1790 Orange County court to Robert Neil. As Kiah Revill he married Susannah Freeman, 15 September 1805 Orange County bond. He was head of an Orange County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [NC:942].

ii. Chia, born about 1778, a "Mulatto" child bound by the 23 November 1790 Orange County court to Robert Neil. He may have been the Coy Revell who was head of an Orange County household of 12 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:332].

 

6.    Nathaniel1 Revell, born say 1762, was bound to Mary Fort to be a farmer by the July 1764 Edgecombe County court [Minutes 1759-64, 26]. He may have been the Nathaniel Revell who was taxable on one poll in Sampson County in 1784 [L.P. 64.1 by N.C. Genealogy XIV:2174]. He was one of the freeholders of Sampson County who was ordered to clear South River from the New Hanover County line as far as the Tarr Landing on 22 June 1784 [Minutes 1784-1800, 3]. He was head of a Sampson County household of 13 "other free" in 1790 [NC:52] and 10 in 1800 [NC:526]. Along with several other free African Americans he was counted as white in 1810, head of a Sampson County household of 4 males and 4 females [NC:486]. He purchased 100 acres of land he was living on in Sampson County between the Little Coharie and the great swamp on the south prong of the running branch on 9 April 1801 [DB 12:143]. His children may have been

i. Stephen, born say 1778, purchased 200 acres in Sampson County on 21 April 1798 on John Odam's line [DB 11:76]. He was head of a Sampson County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [NC:501], counted as white in 1810 with 4 males and 2 females [NC:486].

ii. Micajah2, born 1765-84, counted as white in Sampson County in 1810, head of a household of 2 males and 3 females [NC:476].

 

7.    Jonathan2 Revell, born before 1776, was head of a Nash County household of 4 "other free," 7 slaves, and one white woman aged 26-45 in 1800 [NC:117] and head of a Cumberland County household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:157]. He purchased land on the east side of the Raleigh Road, about two and one-half miles above Fayetteville, by a deed recorded in 1819, sold a half acre lot on the east side of the Raleigh Road about two and one-half miles above Fayetteville with a frame house and brick chimney on 21 December 1819 [DB 31:493, 521; 34:493], and sold another lot in Fayetteville by deed proved in 1823. He may have been the father of

i. Elijah4, head of a Cumberland County household of 9 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:170].

ii. Nancy, head of a Cumberland County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:170].

 

8.    Humphrey Revell, born 1776-94, married Dilly Hammonds, 28 December 1811 Edgecombe County bond with his brother Barnabas Revell bondsman. He was head of a Nash County household of 4 "free colored" and 4 slaves in 1820 [NC:425]. His 8 November 1831 Nash County will was proved in February 1832 [WB 1:379]. He left land and three slaves to his wife Delilah and divided his other slaves and land between his two sons,

i. William N., born after 1810 since he was not yet 21 when his father made his will.

ii. Elijah H., born after 1810 since he was not yet 21 when his father made his will.

 

9.    Elijah3 Revell, born before 1776, was head of Robeson County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [NC:241] and a Cumberland County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:152]. He may have been the Elijah Revell to whom Horatio Revell was ordered bound by the Robeson County court on 5 October 1801 [Minutes I:166]. Horatio was removed from his care by order of the 3 January 1803 Robeson court because he was "illy treated by his master" [Minutes I:225]. Horatio, born about 1789, was head of a Cumberland County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:177]. Elijah's wife may have been Peggy Revels, "the Barber's wife," who was mentioned in the 3 March 1824 session of the Cumberland County court [Minutes 1823-35, n.p.]. Elijah sold land by deed proved in Robeson County in February 1827 [Minutes III:144]. He may have been the Elias Revell of Cabarrus County who was ordered by the March 1838 Cumberland County court to produce William Lee Revels, "a Free boy of Colour," to the next court [Minutes 1838-40, Saturday March 1838 court]. Perhaps his children were

i. Eli B., born about 1809, died in Lincolnton, North Carolina, on 18 June 1841 at the age of thirty-two according to the 23 June 1841 issue of the Lincolnton Republican [NCGSJ II:144].

 

10.    James Revell, born say 1795, purchased 514 acres in Cumberland County on Juniper Creek by a deed recorded in 1837 [DB 42:18]. He married his slave named Janet. By his 26 December 1841 Cumberland will, proved September 1842, he entrusted his friend, Malcolm Munroe, with applying to the legislature for his wife's emancipation. He gave her all his lands and stock [WB C:21]. On 6 December 1842 "M. Revell and others" sued the administrator of the will, Daniel Baker, for distribution of the estate [Minutes, 1835-44, n.p.]. Perhaps James Revell was the father of Catherine, Willis, and Mary Jane Revell who were bound out in Cumberland County after his death [Minutes 1835-44, n.p.]. He may have been the father of

11       i. Hiram Rhoades Revell, born 1 September 1822.

ii. Catherine, born about 1830, a thirteen-year-old "free girl of color" bound to Jonathan Jessup on 5 June 1843.

iii. Willis, born about 1833, a nine-year-old "free boy of color" bound to Charles M. Beebe on 6 September 1842.

iv. Mary Jane, born about 1834, an eight-year-old bound to Charles M. Beebe on 6 September 1842.

 

11.    Hiram Rhoades Revell, born in Fayetteville on 1 September 1822, was the first African American elected to the U.S. Senate. He moved from Fayetteville to Lincoln County, North Carolina, before 20 February 1845 when he was bondsman for the marriage of Mrs. Mary Revels and William L. Mitchell. Local Lincoln County historians claimed that he was a barber and sold cakes and confections in Lincolnton in a small building on the present site of the North State Hotel lot, between the hotel and Water Street, facing the court square. He moved to Indiana where he was counted in the 1850 census in Cambridge City, Wayne County: twenty-five years old, with (his brother and sister?) John E. Revels (eight years old) and Pheba Revels (seventeen years old) living in the household of William Mitchell, a wagon maker from North Carolina [household # 181]. He moved to Illinois where he was educated and ordained a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church. He settled in Baltimore where he served as a church pastor and principal of a school. In 1861 he helped organize two volunteer African American regiments for service in the Union Army. As a member of the Mississippi state senate he voted to restore the power to vote and hold office to disenfranchised members of the former Confederacy. In January 1870 he was elected to the U.S. Senate to fill the unexpired term of Jefferson Davis. In 1875 he helped overturn the Republican (Carpetbag) government of Mississippi asserting that too many of their politicians were corrupt. The Democratic administration rewarded him by appointing him president of Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College near Lorman, Mississippi [Encyclopedia Britannica, Micropedia, VIII:537-8].

 

Endnotes:

1.     One of  the freeholders listed next to Edmund Revell was Francis Jenkins, who was called a "mustee" in Edgecombe County court in October 1765 [Minutes 1764-72, 42]. Edmund was probably related to Humphrey Revell who received a patent for 318 acres in Northampton County on 30 October 1754 [Hoffman, Granville District Land Grants, 234]. He was counted as white in the 1790 Northampton County census [NC:75], but he made a deed of gift on 19 February 1754 to (his son-in-law?) Peter Stewart who was African American [DB 2:161].

 

REYNOLDS / RUNNELS FAMILY

1.    Margaret Reynolds, born say 1710, was living in Bertie County on 16 November 1732 when the court ordered her five-year-old "bastard Mulatto child," James Reynolds, who had been bound to her father Thomas Kersey, deceased, bound instead to John Boude [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, I:79]. She was the mother of

i. James1, born about 1727.

2        ii. ?Jesse, born say 1745.

3        iii. ?Patience1, born say 1752.

 

2.    Jesse Runnels, born say 1745, was taxable on two persons in Hertford County in 1770 and on one poll in 1784 in the Hertford County list of William Outland's Company [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book, 44; L.P. 64.1]. He was head of a Hertford County household of 11 "other free" in 1790 (abstracted as Jessee Rowals but appears as Jessee Ronals in the microfilm of the original) [NC:25; National Archives film M7, p.182], 8 in 1800, 6 in 1810 [NC:92], and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:180]. Perhaps his children were those counted as "other free" in Hertford County:

i. David, head of a Hertford County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 and 9 in 1810 [NC:106].

ii. Benjamin, head of a Hertford County household of 1 "other free" in 1800 and 5 in Edgecombe County in 1810 [NC:727].

iii. James2, born before 1776, head of a Hertford County household of 13 "other free" in 1810 [NC:92] and 9 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:188]. He was one of the "Sundry persons of Colour of Hertford County" who petitioned the General Assembly in November- December 1822 to repeal the act which declared slaves to be competent witnesses against free African Americans [NCGSJ XI:252].

 

3.    Patience1 Runnels, born say 1752, was head of a Hertford County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:27], 9 in 1800, and 6 in 1810 [NC:92]. Perhaps her children were

i. Hannah, head of a Hertford County household of 6 "other free" in 1800.

ii. Patience2, head of an Edgecombe County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:720].

iii. Parhania, head of a household of 2 "free colored" in Nash County in 1820 [NC:439].

 

Another Reynolds family:

1.    Mary1 Reynolds, born say 1713, was living in King George County, Virginia, on 5 November 1731 when she was presented for having a bastard child and on 2 July 1736 when she was taken up as the runaway servant of Israel Illingsworth. On 2 May 1746 she was living in Brunswick Parish, King George County, when the court presented her for "living in fornication and Continually Cohabiting with Joseph a Mulatto Man Slave belonging to John Owens." The presentment abated on 4 July 1747 by her death [Orders 1735-51, pt.1, 485, 515, 526]. She was probably the ancestor of

2        i. Mary2, born before 1776.

3        ii. Hannah, born say 1774.

iii. George, born about 1778, head of a York County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:882]. He obtained certificate #94 when he registered as a "free Negro" in King and Queen County on 13 January 1823: a mulatto born free in the County of King and Queen aged about forty five years, five feet six and a half inches high. And he registered this certificate in York County on 15 August 1831 [Free Negroes Register 1831-50, no. 283].

iv. Dinah, head of a Henrico County household of 1 "other free" and 4 slaves in 1810 [VA:1005].

v. James, taxable on one head of cattle in Nansemond County in 1815 [Yantis, Supplement to the 1810 Census of Virginia, S-14].

 

2.    Mary2 Reynolds, born before 1776, received a certificate of freedom in Pittsylvania County on 21 September 1795. On 19 July 1796 the court ordered the overseers of the poor to bind out her children Keziah, Henry, Julia, Woodson and Juba, and on 19 December 1797 they were bound to Daniel Lovell. On 17 December 1798 she was called a "free Mulatto" when she was arrested for "having stolen an apprentice by the name of Juba Reynolds." She complained to the court that Daniel Lovell, Jr., was mistreating her child Juba. She was found not guilty, and in February 1799 the court discharged Juba from Lovell's service and bound him instead to Samuel Walker [Orders 1795-8, 118, 235, 443; 1798-1801, 60, 62, 76-7]. She was head of a Pittsylvania County household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:832]. She was the mother of

i. Keziah, a "Mulatto" taxable in Pittsylvania County with Molley Reynolds in 1813 [PPTL 1813-23, frame 17].

ii. Henry, a "Mulatto" blacksmith who was taxable in Pittsylvania County from 1809 to 1814, taxable on a slave from 1810 to 1812 [PPTL 1797-1812, frames 668, 777, 794, 812; 1813-23, frames 17, 92].

iii. Julia, born 1776-94, head of a Pittsylvania County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:832].

iv. Woodson.

v. Juba, a "Molato" taxable in Pittsylvania County in 1810 and 1814 [PPTL 1797-1812, frame 717; 1813-23, frame 93].

vi. David, illegitimate child of Mary Reynolds bound to Daniel Lovell on 19 December 1797 [Orders 1795-8, 443].

 

3.    Hannah Reynolds, born say 1774, received a certificate of freedom in Pittsylvania County on 21 September 1795 [Orders 1795-8, 118]. She was the mother of

i. Caleb, illegitimate child of Hannah Reynolds, bound out in Pittsylvania County on 20 July 1795 [Orders 1795-8, 57].

 

RICH FAMILY

1.    Christian1 Rich, born say 1665, was the servant of Anthony Lynton on 21 July 1686 when the Northumberland County court ordered that she serve her master additional time and ordered the sheriff to give her twenty lashes for having a child by a "negroe." She escaped before the sheriff could carry out the order, so the court ordered the constable for Mattapony Precinct to take her into custody. She had another child by a "negro" before 18 September 1689 and a child by a white man named John Elson before 16 May 1694 [Orders 1678-98, 348, 478, 652]. She was apparently the mother of

2        i. Mary1, born say 1686.

 

2.    Mary1 Rich, born say 1686, was a "Mulatto" woman who petitioned the Northumberland County, Virginia court on 17 November 1708 setting forth that she was illegally detained as a servant. The court assigned George Estridge as her attorney to sue for her freedom [Orders 1699-1713, pt. 2, 560]. She was probably the ancestor of

3        i. Mary2, born say 1717.

ii. Adam, a "Molatta Boy" who John Heale gave to John Rogers by his 27 November 1737 Lancaster County will. Adam was a "Molotto Boy" listed in the inventory of the Lancaster County estate of John Heale, Gent., which was returned to court on 9 June 1738 [Deeds, etc. 1736-43, 74-5, 94-9]. He was a "Mulattoe" listed in the estate of John Rogers on 16 July 1752 [DW 1750-8, 105].

iii. Daniel, a "Molatta Boy" who John Heale gave to Joseph Carter by his 27 November 1737 Lancaster County will. Daniel was a "Molotto Boy" listed in the Lancaster County inventory of John Heale, Gent., on 9 June 1738 [Deeds, Etc. 1736-43, 74-5, 94-9]. In July 1758 William Weblin's suit against him for trespass, assault and battery was dismissed by the Lancaster County court on agreement between the parties [Judgments 1757-1758]. He sued William Mitchell in Lancaster County court for 1 pound, 19 shillings which was for making ten pair of shoes, half-soling two pair of shoes and for ditching and installing fence panels. He agreed to dismiss the suit on 17 September 1778, apparently after payment. The Lancaster County grandjury's presentment against him and ten other people was dismissed on 17 February 1780 after they paid the costs [Orders 1778-83, 14, 43; Judgments, 1770-8, frames 803-5]. He died before 20 November 1792 when John Digges was granted administration on his Lancaster County estate on 25 pounds security [Orders 1792-9, 73, 78, 79].

 

3.    Mary2 Rich, born say 1717, a "free mulatto," was living in North Farnham Parish, Richmond County, Virginia, on 2 January 1735 and 30 March 1742 when she registered the birth of her children David and Wilmoth [King, Register of North Farnham Parish, 157]. In November 1745 she had a case in Richmond County court against Jonathan Lyell who was ordered to pay her 500 pounds of tobacco which he owed her [Orders 1739-46, 503, 512]. She may have been the wife of "Mulatto William" whose orphan Sarah Rich was bound out by the Lancaster County court with the consent of her unnamed mother on 8 March 1750. "William Rich a Mullato runaway Slave belonging to Wm Flood in Westmoreland County" was taken up by William Blackerly who received a certificate for this service from the Lancaster County court on 13 February 1752 [Orders 1743-52, 242, 274a]. Mary's children were

4        i. David1, born 2 January 1735.

5        ii. Wilmoth1, born 30 March 1742.

6        iii. ?Sarah, born say 1745.

 

4.    David1 Rich, born 2 January 1735, was ordered bound by the churchwardens of North Farnham Parish, Richmond County, on 3 April 1749 [King, Register of North Farnham Parish, 157; Orders 1746-52, 161]. He was head of a Northumberland County household of 1 "white" (free) person in 1782 [VA:38], and a "free negro" head of a Northumberland County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:994]. On 2 June 1783 he, Wilmoth Rich and Andrew the slave of William Palmer were tried by the Northumberland County court for hog stealing. Wilmoth and Andrew were found not guilty, but David was found guilty and received twenty-five lashes [Orders 1776-84, 291]. He was taxable in Northumberland County from 1783 to 1809: taxed on a slave over the age of sixteen in 1783, 1795, and from 1798 to 1803 [PPTL 1782-1812, frames 254, 267, 282, 299, 322, 330, 352, 381, 395, 439, 461, 479, 494, 508, 517, 539, 553, 567, 577, 604, 625, 642]. He may have been the father of

7        i. Winney, born say 1775.

 

5.    Wilmoth1 Rich, born 30 March 1742, was ordered bound by the churchwardens of North Farnham Parish, Richmond County, in May 1749 [King, Register of North Farnham Parish, 157; Orders 1746-52, 161]. On 4 June 1770 the court ordered the churchwardens of North Farnham Parish to bind his children David, Mary, Ann, and Betty Rich to Ann Palmer--the boy until the age of twenty-one and the girls until eighteen [Orders 1769-73, 117]. He was probably identical to William Rich who was a soldier in the Revolution from Lancaster County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42] and head of a Lancaster County household of 5 "Blacks" in 1783 [VA:55]. Richard Mitchell's suit against him by the plaintiff in Lancaster County -court on 17 May 1781 [Orders 1778-83, 77]. He died before 2 May 1785 when the Richmond County court ordered the churchwardens of North Farnham Parish to bind out his son George Ritch [Orders 1784-6, 253]. He was the father of

8        i. David2, born say 1763.

9        ii. Mary3, born say 1765.

iii. Ann, born say 1767.

10      iv. Elizabeth1/ Betty, born say 1769.

11      v. Criss2, born say 1772.

vi. George1, born say 1775, orphan of Wilmoth Rich, ordered bound as an apprentice on 2 May 1785 [Orders 1784-6, 253]. He was head of a Richmond County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:413]. He was a "free black" taxable in North Farnham Parish, Richmond County, from 1800 to 1817 listed with Betty Venie as "free Negroes & mulattoes over 16 years" in 1813 [PPTL 1789-1829, frames 158, 190, 201, 217, 234, 327, 357, 445].

vii. ?Wilmouth2, head of a Richmond County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:408].

 

6.    Sarah Rich, born say 1745, "Orphan of Mulatto William," was bound out by the Lancaster County court with the consent of her unnamed mother on 8 March 1750 [Orders 1743-52, 242]. She may have been the mother of

i. Robert1, born about 1766, a "free black" taxable in Richmond County from 1800 to 1817, counted with (his wife?) Sally Rich as "free Negroes & mulattoes over 16 years" in 1813 [PPTL 1789-1829, frames 158, 190, 217, 357, 445]. He registered in Lancaster County on 19 March 1828: Age 62, Color bright...born free.

ii. Hannah1, born about 1771, registered in Lancaster County on 17 August 1807: Age 36, Color dark...born free [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 4, 8].

 

7.    Winney Rich, born say 1775, was head of a Richmond County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:407]. She was listed in Richmond County with (her children?) Billy and Hannah Rich as "free Negroes & mulattoes over 16 years" in 1813. Billy may have been identical to Billy Keyser who was taxable in her household in 1810 [PPTL 1789-1829, frames 300, 357]. She was the mother of

i. ?William/ Billy, born before 1798, over sixteen years of age in 1813.

ii. Hannah2, born 15 July 1793, daughter of Winney Rich [King, Register of North Farnham Parish, 157].

 

8.    David2 Rich, born say 1763, was a "free Black" taxable in North Farnham Parish of Richmond County in 1789 and from 1796 to 1817: listed with (his wife?) Susannah Rich and (children?) Mahala and John Rich in 1813 [PPTL 1789-1829, 112, 145, 132, 158, 190, 217, 357] and head of a Richmond County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:407]. He was the father of

i. Elizabeth2, born say 1796, daughter of David Rich, married George Rich, 27 December 1814 Richmond County bond.

ii. ?Mahala, born say 1800.

iii. ?John, born say 1802.

 

9.    Mary3 Rich, born say 1763, was bound apprentice to Ann Palmer in Richmond County on 4 June 1770 [Orders 1769-73, 117]. She was the mother of Richard Rich, a "free Negro," born in North Farnham Parish on 6 October 1782 [King, Register of North Farnham Parish, 157]. She was head of a Richmond County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:407] and was taxable on Daniel Rich's tithe in Richmond County in 1810 [PPTL 1789-1829, frame 300]. She was the mother of

i. Robert2, born 22 April 1781, "son of Mary Rich." He was taxable in Essex County from 1796 to 1814: counted with a male and female "free Negro & Mulatto" in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1819, frames 279, 292, 302, 313, 249, 432, 510, 548]. He married Polly Wood, November 1813 Lancaster County bond. He was head of a Richmond County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:407].

ii. Richard, born 6 October 1782, "free Negro son of Mary Rich."

 

10.    Elizabeth1/ Betty Rich, born say 1769, was living in Northumberland County in 1787 when her daughter Fanny was born: Fanney Rich Daughter to Bettey Rich a Molatto was born March 25 1787 [Fleet, Northumberland County Record of Births, 82]. Her son Robin Rich was bound out by the Lancaster County court on 18 February 1799 [Orders 1792-9, 491]. She was probably the Betty Rich who was head of a Richmond County household of 5 "other free" and one slave in 1810 [VA:407]. Her children were

i. Fanny, born 25 March 1787.

ii. Robin3, born say 1793.

 

11.    Criss2 Rich, born say 1772, orphan of Wilmoth Rich, deceased, was ordered bound as an apprentice in Richmond County on 6 June 1785 [Orders 1784-6, 261]. She was head of a Richmond County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:407] and was listed in Richmond County with (her son) George Rich as "free Negroes & mulattoes over 16 years" in 1813 [PPTL 1789-1829, frame 357]. She was the mother of several children born in North Farnham Parish, Richmond County [King, Register of North Farnham Parish, 157]. Her children were

i. George2, born 1 August 1793, "son of Criss Rich." He married Elizabeth Rich, daughter of David Rich, 27 December 1814 Richmond County bond.

ii. Kendal, born 12 October 1795, "son of Criss Rich"

iii. Nancy, born 25 October 1798, "daughter of Criss Rich."

iv. Robert4, born 15 January 1799.

v. Daniel, born 8 May 1802.

vi. Thaddeus, born 30 August 1804.

vii. J., born 5 February 1807.

 

Endnotes:

1.    Perhaps "Mulatto William" was identical to "William a Molatto begotten by a Negro man on a white woman" who was seven years old on 16 March 1709/10 when he was bound by the Northumberland County court to Mary Price [Orders 1699-1713, pt. 2, 654].

 

RICHARDSON FAMILY

1.    Elizabeth Richardson, born about 1707, "a free Mulatto," was living in Elizabeth City County between 18 August 1731 and 22 September 1737 when the court bound her children Samuel, Matthew, Miles, and James as apprentices to Joseph Banister. She was probably related to John Richardson and his wife Mary who were sued for debt by Joseph Banister on 15 June 1743 and who sued Banister on 5 April 1748. On 15 March 1737/8 the court ruled that Elizabeth was free from her own indenture [Orders 1731-47, 10, 66, 98, 151, 169, 338; 1747-55, 28, 40, 52, 59]. She was the mother of

i. Samuel, born say 1725, "son of Eliza. Richardson a Mulato," bound to Joseph Banister on 18 August 1731. He may have been related to the Samuel Richardson who was head of a Charlotte County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:63].

ii. Matthew1, born say 1727, "son of Eliza. Richardson a Mulato," bound to Joseph Banister on 18 August 1731. On 6 December 1748 he had a complaint against Banister which was settled between them and acknowledged in Elizabeth City County court on 1 August 1749. And Samuel Walker had a case against Matthew which was dismissed on 6 December 1749 [Orders 1747-55, 64, 105, 131, 137].

iii. ?Elizabeth, born say 1730, may have been the unnamed "Mulato" child of Elizabeth bound out in Elizabeth City County on 19 September 1733. On 5 September 1759 the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out "all the children of Elizabeth Richerson a Molatto" [Minutes 1756-60, 249].

2        iv. Miles, born say 1735.

v. James, born say 1737, bound to Joseph Banister on 22 September 1737.

 

2.    Miles Richardson, born say 1735, was a "Mulato Child" bound to Joseph Banister in Elizabeth City County on 17 September 1735. On 7 April 1761 the court bound out his daughter Elizabeth Richardson to Daniel Richardson with the consent of her mother Mary Richardson, "she being unable to maintain him as appears to this Court" [Court Records 1760-9, 11]. They were the parents of

i. Elizabeth, born say 1757.

 

Amelia County

1.    Fanny1 Richardson, born say 1730, was living in Raleigh Parish, Amelia County on 29 February 1755 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Raleigh Parish to bind her "Mallatto" daughter Winney to Thomas Dobson [Orders 1751-5, 217; 1754-8, n.p.]. She was the mother of

2        i. ?Daphne, born say 1748.

ii. Winney, born say 1753.

 

2.    Daphney Richardson, born say 1748, a "Free Negro" (no last name), was living in Amelia County on 26 June 1766 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Raleigh Parish to bind her to William Pride. She was probably identical to Daphne Richardson whose "mulatto" daughter Lucy was ordered bound out to Thomas Dobson and his wife by the churchwardens of Nottoway Parish, Amelia County on 25 May 1769. Daphne Richardson was called a "free Mulatto" on 27 December 1770 when the churchwardens of Nottoway Parish were ordered to bind out her daughters Lucy and Fanny to some other person than Thomas Dobson, "it appearing that the sd. Dobson is an improper person" [Orders 1765-7, 95; 1768-9, 131]. She was the mother of

3        i. Lucy, born say 1766.

ii. Fanny2, born say 1768. She may have been the Fanny Richardson, a "Mulatto" who was committed to jail in Culpeper County for want of a certificate of freedom. She was released on 20 May 1799 when Job Strode testified that she had been his servant and that he had known her mother who was a free woman [Minutes 1798-1802, 82].

iii. ?Lewis, head of a Granville County, North Carolina household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [NC:878].

iv. ?John, born about 1783, registered in Amelia County in September 1815: a black man about 32 years of age about 5 feet 7 inches high ... born free as appears from a certificate from Pascal McGlassons with whom he served his time [Register of Free Negroes 1804-1835, no. 85].

 

3.    Lucy Richardson, born say 1766, was a "mulatto" bound to Thomas Dobson in Amelia County on 25 May 1769 and bound to someone else on 27 December 1770. She was in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 10 January 1789 when the court ordered the overseers of the poor to bind out her illegitimate children Crecy, Lucy and Kitt (no race indicated) [Orders 1787-92, 337]. She was called "Lucy Richerson, a free woman of color," in August 1812 when the Granville County, North Carolina court complained that she had four bastard children with no visible means of support [CR 044.928.25]. She was apparently the mother of

i. Lucreasy, born about 1781, a fourteen-year-old child (no race or parent indicated) bound to Jonathan Knight, Jr., by the Granville County court in May 1795 [Minutes 1792-5, 242].

ii. Lucy, born about 1782, a thirteen-year-old child bound to Jonathan Knight, Jr., by the Granville County court in May 1795 [Minutes 1792-5, 243].

iii. Christopher, born about 1784, an eleven-year-old child bound to Jonathan Knight, Jr., by the Granville County court in May 1795 [Minutes 1792-5, 243].

iv. Nancy, born 20 June 1789, a five-year-old child bound to Jonathan Knight, Jr., by the Granville County court in May 1795 [Minutes 1792-5, 243].

v. Samuel, born 30 July 1793, bound to Jonathan Knight, Jr., by the Granville County court in May 1795 [Minutes 1792-5, 243].

 

The Richardson family of Elizabeth City and Amelia counties were probably related to William, Benjamin, and John Richardson, perhaps brothers, who owned land in Halifax County, North Carolina, near the Warren County line and were counted as "other free" in Halifax County:

1        i. William, born say 1745.

2        ii. Benjamin, born say 1750.

3        iii. John, born say 1760.

 

1.    William1 Richardson, born say 1745, received a grant in Halifax County for 300 acres joining Deans former line and the county line on 1 March 1782 [DB 14:487]. This was land near Little Fishing Creek, Bear Swamp, and the Warren County line. The Wilkins and Hawkins families were his neighbors. He was head of a Halifax County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:63]. His undated Halifax County will was proved in August term 1798 [WB 3:309]. He divided his land among his children:

i. Henry, head of a Halifax County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:338].

ii. William2, head of a Halifax County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:64] and 8 in 1810 [NC:46].

iii. Elijah, head of a Halifax County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:338].

iv. Matthew2.

v. Mourning Bass.

vi. Harty/ Hardy1.

vii. Olive, married John Bass, 8 December 1798 Granville County bond, Absolem Bass bondsman.

viii. Winney.

ix. Christian.

 

2.    Benjamin1 Richardson, born say 1750, received a grant for 120 acres in Halifax County near William Richardson and the county line on 16 May 1780 [DB 17:1]. He married Mary Bass, widow of Elijah Bass, 13 February 1783 Granville County bond with Philip Pettiford as bondsman. She was also called Mary Bass on her 13 February 1777 Bute County marriage bond to Elijah Bass [M804-2038, frame 0533]. Benjamin and Mary were married on 14 February, the day after the bond was posted, according to her 11 October 1841 application for his Revolutionary War pension. He "went out of Halifax and Warren Counties" and enlisted in the militia in September 1780 [M804-2038, frame 0520]. He was counted in District 11 of Halifax County for the 1786 State Census with 6 free males and 6 free females in his household and was head of a Halifax County household of 10 "other free" in 1800 [NC:338]. His 10 July 1809 Halifax County will, proved November the same year, divided his land between three of his children Benjamin, Jesse, and Absolem [WB 3:506]. He died on 14 July 1809 according to his wife's pension application. She died 20 November 1844 according to an affidavit by Willis Qualls, the brother of the man who made her coffin. John King of Franklin County, born about 1737, and David King of Warren County, born about 1764, testified on her behalf that they also served in the Revolution and were acquainted with both her husbands. The Richardson family claims to be "Haliwa-Saponi Indians," but J.R.J. Daniel of Halifax County called them:

free persons of color & generally ... industrious & well behaved people

on 24 May 1855 when he wrote an affidavit for the pension application of Benjamin and Mary's children [M804-2038, frames 525-7, 0537]. Their children were

i. Benjamin2, born before 1776, head of a Halifax County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [NC:45] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:162].

4        ii. Jesse, born before 1776.

iii. Lucy Evans, named in her mother's pension application.

iv. Absolem, head of a Halifax County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [NC:45], 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:163], and 11 "free colored" in 1830. He was residing in Warren County when he applied for a survivor's pension in May 1855.

v. ?Moses, born before 1776, head of a Halifax County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [NC:45] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:162].

5        vi. Hardy, born say 1790.

 

3.    John Richardson, born say 1760, received a grant for 119 acres in Halifax County on both sides of Little Fishing Creek near the lands of (his brothers?) Benjamin and William Richardson on 27 November 1792 and sold this land on Falling Creek to Benjamin Bass on 22 April 1799. He sold 100 acres on the north side of Little Fishing Creek on 7 February 1795 and purchased 22 acres on Falling Creek joining lands of Benjamin Bass on 9 December 1800. Joel Evans and Joseph Lantern were witnesses to the deed [DB 17:747, 838; 18:460, 916]. He married Sarah Bass, (daughter of Benjamin Bass), 22 March 1802 Granville County bond with (her brother) Absolem Bass bondsman. He was head of a Halifax County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:338] and 5 in 1810 [NC:45]. He may have been the father of

i. John Jr., head of a Halifax County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [NC:338], 1 in 1810 [NC:46], and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:163]. He purchased 17 acres in Halifax County from Cary (Sarah) Bass on 24 November 1801. This was land which had belonged to her father Benjamin Bass [DB 18:912].

 

4.    Jesse Richardson, born before 1776, was head of a Halifax County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:45] and 4 "free colored" in 1830. When he was granted permission to carry his gun in the county on 17 May 1841, the Halifax County court also granted permission to Gideon and Asa Richardson, identifying them as his sons. Two of his children were

i. Gideon, born 1776-94, head of a Halifax County household of 8 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. Asa.

 

5.    Hardy2 Richardson, born say 1790, was head of a Halifax County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:45], 9 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:163], and 11 in 1830. On 1 March 1822 he sold 35 acres adjoining Jesse Richardson on Falling Creek in Halifax County to Lewis Boon explaining in the deed that it was half of 70 acres which he had purchased from William Willy [DB 25:590]. He was not mentioned in his father's will, but he signed a 12 March 1853 letter to the pension office with Lucy, Absolem, and Jesse Richardson, claiming to be the only surviving children and heirs of Mary Richardson. Also, J.R.J. Daniel of Halifax County wrote an affidavit for their survivor's pension application that Hardy was the son of Benjamin and Mary Richardson and that Mary lived and died in Hardy's home. He also wrote that Hardy died "a short time" before 24 May 1855 [M804-2038, frames 535, 537]. Hardy's 20 December 1854 Halifax County will, proved May 1855, lent his wife Dorcas his land which was to be divided at her death among his children. It mentioned the "Dean" tract and land on Falling Creek which was probably land owned by his father as well as land he had purchased himself [WB 5:7]. In 1860 Dorcas was a sixty-seven-year-old "Mulatto" living in household no. 1377: $360 real estate, $427 personal estate, with Martha (seventy-one years old), Edward (twenty-six years old), Frances (fifteen years old), Faulcon (fifteen years old), and Missouri (ten years old). Hardy's children mentioned in his will were

i. Elizabeth, born about 1815, received $5 by her father's will. She was living in household no.1382 with five children and $520 real estate in 1860.

ii. Alfred, born about 1815, received 100 acres he was then living on. He was living in household no. 1380, $300 real estate, with Eliza, forty-seven years old, and eight children in 1860.

iii. Mason, born about 1817, received 50 acres. He was living in household no. 1379, $150 real estate, with Mary, forty years old and Dorcas, twenty years old, in 1860.

iv. Emily, received $5 by her father's will. Her daughter Rebecca received 10 acres by her grandfather's will.

v. Edward, born about 1834, received the "Evans" tract, the Stephen Marshall tract, and the Dean tract, and was living in his mother's household in 1860.

vi. Jane, received $25 by her father's will.

vii. Abner, received 60 acres on Falling Creek adjoining his own land.

viii. Dorcas, was to receive 25 acres of the land of her brother Mason at his death.

ix. Harriet, was to receive 25 acres of the land of her brother Mason at his death.

x. Louisa, received the tract of land where she was living.

xi. Mary, received 73 acres.

xii. Frances, born about 1845. She received $50 by her father's will, and was living in her mother's household in 1860.

 

King George County, Virginia

1.    Mary Richardson (Richerson), born say 1735, was a "free Negro" woman living in Fredericksburg on 4 October 1757 when she bound herself to Ann Manning for ten years [WB B:398]. She was living in King George County on 4 March 1762 when the churchwardens of Brunswick Parish were ordered to bind out her "natural daughter" Frank to Ann Mannan [Orders 1751-65, pt.4, 973]. She was the mother of

i. Frank, born say 1761.

ii. ?Jesse, head of a Westmoreland County household of 10 "other free" in 1810.

iii. ?Nancy, head of a Lancaster County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:358].

iv. ?Clary, head of an Essex County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:202].

 

RICKMAN FAMILY

1.    John1 Rickman, born say 1719, was exempted by the Henry County court on 30 July 1779 from paying public levies in the future [Orders 1778-82, 50]. He was the father of

2        i. Peter1, born say 1740.

ii. ?William1, born say 1742, won a suit in Halifax County, Virginia court against Benjamin Echols for a debt of 40 pounds on 22 July 1769 [Pleas 1767-70, 417]. He was a defendant in two suits in Pittsylvania County for debt in March 1774. One was dismissed because he was not an inhabitant of the county [Court Records 1772-5, 336, 347].

3        iii. ?John2, born say 1750.

iv. James, born say 1768, orphan of John Rickmond, bound out by the overseers of the poor in Henry County on 27 May 1784 [Orders 1782-5, 150].

v. Fanny, born say 1770, orphan of John Rickmond, bound out by the overseers of the poor in Henry County on 27 May 1784 [Orders 1782-5, 150].

 

2.  Peter1 Rickman, born say 1740, was living in Halifax County, Virginia, on 17 May 1759 when a case against him was dismissed on agreement of the parties. On 16 May 1765 the court presented him, Shadrack Gowin, and Philip Dennum for concealing a tithable on information of John Bates, Gentleman. The tithables were probably their wives. Their cases were dismissed in August 1766, perhaps on payment of the tax. He was sued for a 2 pound debt in May 1763 and in December 1763 his male laboring tithables were ordered to work on a road with Shadrack Going and William Rickman [Pleas 1752-5, 384; 1763-4, 46, 228; 1764-7, 46, 358]. David Gowing sued him for a debt of 3 pounds in Pittsylvania County on 25 June 1773 [Court Records 1772-5, 211-2]. He was taxable in Henry County from 1782 to 1790: charged with Thomas Rickman's tithe in 1787, listed with 2 tithables from 1788 to 1790 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1830, frames 15, 232, 356]. A Henry County jury awarded him 150 pounds currency as damages in his suit against Joseph Jones on 29 May 1784. He sold, signing, all his personal property consisting of two horses, a colt, two cows and yearlings, two spinning wheels and other household goods to Henry Lyne by Henry County bill of sale on 22 February 1788 [DB 1:446]. William Moore called him a "Mulatto" when he sued him in a 1788 Henry County chancery suit over a disagreement they had regarding Peter's building the hull of a house for Moore in exchange for a horse [Henry County Chancery Suit 1788-003]. He was called Peter "Sr." when he was taxable in Patrick County from 1791 to 1799: listed with 3 tithables in 1791 and 1792, 2 in 1793 and 1795, 3 in 1797, 2 in 1799 [Personal Property Tax List 1791-1823, frames 155, 182, 211, 240, 273]. He was the father of

4        i. ?Thomas1, born say 1762.

ii. ?William3, born about 1769, one of two William's taxable in Patrick County from 1809 to 1813 (one called "SC" and the other "HC", in a list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" in 1813 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1823, frames 155], head of a White County, Tennessee household of 11 "free colored" in 1820, 7 in 1830 and listed with wife Jane in the Martin County, Indiana household of Dennis C. Robbins in 1850.

iii. ?Isaac, born say 1775, taxable in Patrick County from 1798 to 1801 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1823, frames 256, 297, 324].

iv. Peter2, Jr., born say 1774, taxable in Patrick County from 1791 to 1814, called "son of Peter" in 1800, called Peter Sr. starting in 1804, in the list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" in 1813 and 1814 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1823, frames 155, 211, 297, 353, 407, 467, 598, 616].

v. ?John3, born say 1780, married Elizabeth Rickman, 30 April 1801 Stokes County bond, James Harris bondsman.

vi. ?Abner, born say 1780, taxable in Patrick County from 1800 to 1816, called a "Mulatto" from 1812 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1823, frames 297, 524, 593, 654]. He married Delilah Clark, 1808 Patrick County bond, Peter Rickman surety and was head of a White County, Tennessee household of 8 "free colored" in 1820.

vii. ?Susannah, born about 1784, married William Findley, 1802 Patrick County bond, John Going surety. Suckey registered in Patrick County in June 1832: aged about 45 or 50 years, of dark complexion...with black eyes and somewhat a round face and 5 feet 3 inches and 3 quarters high...Free born in the County of Patrick [Wilson, Cynthia A., http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/va/patrick/courts/colreg.txt].

 

3.    John2 Rickman, born say 1750, was taxable on 100 acres in St. Martin's Parish, Hanover County, Virginia, from 1782 to 1794 and sold the land to Samuel Luck before 1795. He was taxable there on his own tithe and a horse in 1789, called a "free Mulatto" in 1793, not listed in 1794 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-91, p. 234; 1792-1803, p.38; Land Tax List 1782-1801]. He may have been the John Rickman who married Agnes Rickman, 13 November 1794 Caswell County, North Carolina bond, Patrick Mason bondsman. He was taxable in Patrick County, Virginia, from 1798 to [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1823, frames 256, 297, 324, 353, 379]. He was head of a Stokes County household of 3 "other free" and 3 white women in 1800 [NC:493]. He was the father of

i. ?William4, born say 1774, taxable in Patrick County from 1791 to 1801 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1823, frames 155, 182, 240, 273, 324]. He married Abigail Gibson, 25 October 1795 Patrick County bond, John Rickman surety. He bought land in Patrick County in 1805, 1806, and 1814 and sold it in 1820 [DB 2:535, 575; 4:6, 163; 5:531]. An inquisition on his death was returned to Patrick County court on 15 June 1820 [Orders 1810-21, n.p.]. Abigail was counted as white in the 1820 Patrick County census.

ii. ?Nathan, born before 1776, head of a White County household of 4 "free colored" in 1830.

iii. Nicholas, born say 1778, married Sarah Fendley, 28 March 1799 Stokes County, North Carolina bond, Charles Barnette and John Rickman bondsmen. He registered in Patrick County in November 1823. He was head of a Stokes County household of 2 "other free" and 2 white women in 1800 [NC:494], 2 "free colored" in Wythe County in 1820, 8 in Surry County, North Carolina, in 1830, and 8 in Grayson County, Virginia, in 1840, listed as a "Mulatto" in Shelby Township, Ripley County, Indiana in 1850.

iv. Peter3, born about 1781, married Nancy Rickman, 20 June 1800 Stokes County bond, Nicholas and John Rickman bondsmen. He was called "little" Peter Rickman when he was taxable in Patrick County 1799, called "Peter Jr." from 1804 to 1806, "little Peter" in 1807, 1809 and 1810; "Peter, Jr., Mollatto" in 1812; counted in the "list of "Free Negros & Malatters" in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List 1791-1823, 273, 406, 437, 468, 524, 542, 575, 594, 616]. He was head of a White County, Tennessee household of 3 "free colored" in 1820, 3 "free colored" in Gallia County, Ohio, in 1830, and a "Mulatto" living in Liberty Township, Highland County, Ohio, in 1850 with Thornton Goen in his household.

 

4.    Thomas1 Rickman, born say 1762, was taxable in Henry County from 1786 to 1790 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1830, frames 232, 257, 306, 319, 357]. He was paid as a witness for the plaintiff in the Henry County suit of Rickman vs. Going in April 1790 [Orders 1788-91, 108]. He was taxable in Patrick County from 1791 to 1800, called "Sr." in 1795 and 1796 [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1823, frames 155, 182, 211, 224, 256, 297]. He married Nancy Stephens, 25 October 1795 Patrick County bond, John Rickman surety. On 12 August 1824 the Patrick County court ordered that the "whole of" his children under age be bound out, and on 13 June 1828 the court ordered that he and his sons Anderson, Allen, and Daniel "nussenses" and all his lawful hands residing in the precinct be added to Horatio Penn's road gang [Orders 1823-31]. He was the father of

i. John4 , born say 1781, taxable in Patrick County from 1798, called a "mollatto" in 1812, in the list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" in 1813 and 1814. There were two Johns listed in Patrick County between 1798 and 1802, one called "Jr." [Personal Property Tax Lists, 1791-1823, frames 256, 273, 297, 379, 437, 598, 616]. He married Tabitha Harris, 1805 Patrick County bond. He obtained a license in Henry County to retail pewter and recorded it in Patrick County on 13 April 1820. He registered in Patrick County in November 1829 as son of Thomas Rickman [Orders 1810-21, n.p.]. A John Rickman was head of a Gallia County, Ohio household of 10 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. Thomas2, born about 1783, married Patsy Findley, 23 December 1806 Patrick County bond, Peter Fendley surety. He registered in Patrick County in December 1829: aged 46, five feet nine inches and 3 quarter high, a bright mulatto with black and gray beard with hazle eyes and slender stature. Free born. Patsy registered the same day: a free woman of color aged 50 years a dark mulatto and of low stature and black eyes [Pilson and Baughan, Alphabetical List of Lands Taxed in Patrick County, 7-8]. The court called him "son of old Thom" when it certified his papers [Orders 1823-31]. He may have been the Thomas Rickman who was a "F. Negro" taxable on 2 tithes and a horse in Mason County from 1812 to 1814 [PPTL 1805-46, frames 93, 104, 124].

iii. Anderson.

iv. Allen.

v. Daniel.

 

RIDLEY FAMILY

1.    Margaret Redley, born say 1692, was presented by the churchwardens of Washington Parish, Westmoreland County, Virginia, on 28 June 1710 for having a bastard child. She may have been identical to "Margrett a Servt. to Calleb Butler" who was presented by the churchwardens of Washington Parish on 28 May 1707 and 22 February 1710 for "fornication & haveing a Mulatto bastard." On 24 June 1713 she and Edward Buss "a Mulatto" were presented by the grand jury for fornication and cohabiting together [Orders 1705-21, 58, 66, 136a, 140a, 143a, 145a, 155a, 217]. She was probably the mother of

i. Moses, born say 1710, owned land in Orange County, North Carolina, adjoining George Gibson and Thomas Collins [Orange County Loose Papers, vol. V, no. 131; vol.VI, no. 579]. He was listed in Granville County in the list of Jonathan White in 1750 [CR 044.701.23] and he and his wife Mary were "Mulatto" Orange County taxables in 1755 [N.C. Archives T&C, Box 1, p.8]. He was called a poor debtor in February 1761 when William Chavis sued him in Orange County court [Haun, Orange County Court Minutes, I:459]. He was taxable on a tithe and 4 horses in Henry County, Virginia, in 1782. He was probably related to Moses Ridle, an "Indian" tithable in John Wilson's Pittsylvania County tax list for 1767.

 

Other members of the family were

i. John, head of a Rockingham County, North Carolina household of 7 "free colored" in 1830.

 

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